Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Morphological spelling in spite of phonological deficits: Evidence from children with dyslexia and otitis media

  • HELEN L. BREADMORE (a1) and JULIA M. CARROLL (a1)
Abstract

The present study examines whether literacy or phonological impairment affects use of morphological spelling constancy, the principle that morphemes are spelled consistently across words. Children with dyslexia or otitis media (OM) were compared to chronological-age matched children and reading-ability matched children. Monomorphemic and polymorphemic nonwords were spelled in a sentence-completion dictation task. Use of root and suffix morphemes increased with age in typical development, particularly derivational morphemes. Dyslexic children generally used morphological strategies less than their chronological-age matched peers but to a similar extent as reading-ability matched peers. OM children showed a specific weakness in using inflectional suffixes. The results suggest different causes for the spelling difficulties in each case: dyslexic children had difficulties in generalizing more complex morphological relationships, while the OM children's difficulties had a phonological/perceptual basis.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Morphological spelling in spite of phonological deficits: Evidence from children with dyslexia and otitis media
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Morphological spelling in spite of phonological deficits: Evidence from children with dyslexia and otitis media
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Morphological spelling in spite of phonological deficits: Evidence from children with dyslexia and otitis media
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Corresponding author
ADDRESS FOR CORRESPONDENCE Helen L. Breadmore, Centre for Research in Psychology, Behaviour and Achievement, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Coventry University, Priory Street, Coventry CV1 5FB, UK. E-mail: Helen.Breadmore@coventry.ac.uk
References
Hide All
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Bourassa, D. C., & Treiman, R. (2008). Morphological constancy in spelling: A comparison of children with dyslexia and typically developing children. Dyslexia, 14, 155169.
Bourassa, D. C., Treiman, R., & Kessler, B. (2006). Use of morphology in spelling by children with dyslexia and typically developing children. Memory and Cognition, 34, 703714.
Bradley, L., & Bryant, P. E. (1978). Difficulties in auditory organisation as a possible cause of reading backwardness. Nature, 271, 746747.
Breadmore, H. L., & Carroll, J. M. (2016). Eye-movements of skilled, typically developing and atypical readers reveal evidence for phonological and morphological routes to reading. Manuscript submitted for publication.
Breadmore, H. L., Olson, A. C., & Krott, A. (2012). Deaf and hearing children's plural noun spelling. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 65, 21692192.
Carlisle, J. F. (1987). The use of morphological knowledge in spelling derived forms by learning-disabled and normal students. Annals of Dyslexia, 37, 90108.
Carlisle, J. F., & Nomanbhoy, D. (1993). Phonological and morphological awareness in first graders. Applied Psycholinguistics, 14, 177195.
Carroll, J. M., & Breadmore, H. L. (2016). Not all phonological awareness deficits are created equal: Evidence from a comparison between children with otitis media and children with dyslexia. Manuscript in preparation.
Carroll, J. M., & Snowling, M. J. (2004). The speech and language skills of children at risk of reading difficulties. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 631640.
Casby, M. W. (2001). Otitis media and language development: A meta-analysis. American Journal of Speech–Language Pathology, 10, 6580.
Deacon, S. H., & Bryant, P. (2005). What young children do and do not know about the spelling of inflections and derivations. Developmental Science, 8, 583594.
Deacon, S. H., Pacton, S., & Conrad, N. (2008). A statistical learning perspective on children's learning about graphotactic and morphological regularities in spelling. Canadian Psychology—Psychologie Canadienne, 49, 118124.
Department for Education. (2013). English programmes of study: Key stages 1 and 2. National curriculum in England (DFE-00181-2013). London: Author. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/335186/PRIMARY_national_curriculum_-_English_220714.pdf
Egan, J., & Tainturier, M. (2011). Inflectional spelling deficits in developmental dyslexia. Cortex, 47, 11791196.
Ehri, L., Cardisi-Martins, C., & Carroll, J. M. (2013). Developmental variation in reading words. In Stone, C. A., Silliman, E. R., Ehren, B. J., & Wallach, G. P. (Eds.), Handbook of language and literacy: Development and disorders (2nd ed., pp. 385407). New York : Guilford Press.
Elliot, C. D., & Smith, P. (2011). British Ability Scales 3. London: GL Assessment.
Fowler, A. E. (1991). How early phonological development might set the stage for phoneme awareness. In Brady, S. & Schankweiler, D. (Eds.), Phonological processes in literacy (pp. 97118). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Hauerwas, L. B., & Walker, J. (2003). Spelling of inflected verb morphology in children with spelling deficits. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 18, 2535.
Kindig, J. S., & Richards, H. C. (2000). Otitis media: Precursor of delayed reading. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 25, 1518.
Klein, J. O. (2000). The burden of otitis media. Vaccine, 19 (Suppl. 1), S2S8.
Luotonen, M. M., Uhari, M. M., Aitola, L. M., Lukkaroinen, A. M. M., Luotonen, J. M., Uhari, M. M., et al. (1996). Recurrent otitis media during infancy and linguistic skills at the age of nine years. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 15, 854858.
Mahony, D., Singson, M., & Mann, V. (2000). Reading ability and sensitivity to morphological relations. Reading and Writing, 12, 191218.
McCormick, D. P., Baldwin, C. D., Klecan-Aker, J. S., Swank, P. R., & Johnson, D. L. (2001). Association of early bilateral middle ear effusion with language at age 5 years. Ambulatory Pediatrics, 1, 8790.
Nittrouer, S., & Burton, L. T. (2005). The role of early language experience in the development of speech perception and phonological processing abilities: Evidence from 5-year-olds with histories of otitis media with effusion and low socioeconomic status. Journal of Communication Disorders, 38, 2963.
Nunes, T., & Bryant, P. (2006). Improving literacy through teaching morphemes. London: Routledge.
Nunes, T., Bryant, P., & Bindman, M. (1997a). Learning to spell regular and irregular verbs. Reading and Writing, 9, 427449.
Nunes, T., Bryant, P., & Bindman, M. (1997b). Morphological spelling strategies: Developmental stages and processes. Developmental Psychology, 33, 637649.
Pacton, S., & Deacon, S. H. (2008). The timing and mechanisms of children's use of morphological information in spelling: A review of evidence from English and French. Cognitive Development, 23, 339359.
Pennington, B. F., Santerre-Lemmon, L., Rosenberg, J., MacDonald, B., Boada, R., Friend, A., et al. (2012). Individual prediction of dyslexia by single versus multiple deficit models. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 121, 212224.
Peterson, R. L., Pennington, B. F., Olson, R. K., & Wadsworth, S. J. (2014). Longitudinal stability of phonological and surface subtypes of developmental dyslexia. Scientific Studies of Reading, 18, 347362.
Raaijmakers, J. G. W., Schrijnemakers, J. M. C., & Grenmen, F. (1999). How to deal with “the language-as-a-fixed-effect fallacy”: Common misconceptions and alternative solutions. Journal of Memory & Language, 41, 416426.
Ramus, F., & Ahissar, M. (2012). Developmental dyslexia: The difficulties of interpreting poor performance, and the importance of normal performance. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 29, 104122.
Roberts, J. E., Burchinal, M. R., & Zeisel, S. A. (2002). Otitis media in early childhood in relation to children's school-age language and academic skills. Pediatrics, 110, 696.
Roberts, J. E., Rosenfeld, R. M., & Zeisel, S. A. (2004). Otitis media and speech and language: A meta-analysis of prospective studies. Pediatrics, 113, e238e248.
Semel, E., Wiig, E. H., & Secord, W. A. (2006). Clinical evaluation of language fundamentals (4th ed.). London: Pearson Education.
Singson, M., Mahony, D., & Mann, V. (2000). The relation between reading and morphological skills: Evidence from derivational suffixes. Reading and Writing, 12, 219252.
Snowling, M. (2000). Dyslexia. Oxford: Blackwell.
Snowling, M. J., Gallagher, A., & Frith, U. (2003). Family risk of dyslexia is continuous: Individual differences in the precursors of reading skill. Child Development, 74, 358373.
Stackhouse, J., & Wells, B. (1997). Children's speech and literacy difficulties: A psycholinguistic framework. London: Whurr.
Studdert-Kennedy, M. (1987). The phoneme as a perceptuomotor structure. In MacKay, D. G., Allport, A., Prinz, W., & Scheerer, E. (Eds.), Language perception and production: Relationships between listening, speaking, reading and writing (pp. 6785). London: Academic Press.
Teele, D. W., Klein, J. O., Rosner, B., & Greater Boston Otitis Media Study Group (1989). Epidemiology of otitis media during the first seven years of life in children in greater Boston: A prospective, cohort study. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 160, 8394.
Treiman, R., & Bourassa, D. C. (2000). Children's written and oral spelling. Applied Psycholinguistics, 21, 183204.
Treiman, R., & Cassar, M. (1996). Effects of morphology on children's spelling of final consonant clusters. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 63, 141170.
Tsesmeli, S. N., & Seymour, P. H. K. (2006). Derivational morphology and spelling in dyslexia. Reading & Writing, 19, 587625.
Vellutino, F. R., Fletcher, J. M., Snowling, M. J., & Scanlon, D. M. (2004). Specific reading disability (dyslexia): What have we learned in the past four decades? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 240.
Winskel, H. (2006). The effects of an early history of otitis media on children's language and literacy skill development. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 727744.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Applied Psycholinguistics
  • ISSN: 0142-7164
  • EISSN: 1469-1817
  • URL: /core/journals/applied-psycholinguistics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 79
Total number of PDF views: 537 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 750 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 19th July 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.