Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Nonword repetitions of children with specific language impairment: Exploration of some explanations for their inaccuracies

  • Jan Edwards (a1) and Margaret Lahey (a2)
Abstract

To examine possible explanations of the reported inaccuracies of children with specific language impairment (SLI) on nonword repetition, we compared the repetitions of 54 children with SLI and their peers in terms of number and type of error as well as latency and duration of response. We found no evidence of differences between the groups in auditory discrimination or response processes, but we did find some evidence suggesting differences in either the formation or storage of phonological representations in working memory. Because repetition accuracy was significantly correlated with expressive, but not receptive, measures of language, we hypothesized that the problem lay with the nature of phonological representations in working memory and not with the ability to hold phonological information in working memory.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Department of Speech & Hearing Science, The Ohio State University, 110 Pressey Hall, 1070 Carmack Road, Columbus, OH 43210. Email: edwards.212@osu.edu
References
Hide All
American National Standards Institute (1989). Specifications for audiometers (ANSI S3.6-1989). New York: ANSI.
Baddeley, A. D. (1986). Working memory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Beckman, M. E., de Jong, K., Jun, S., & Lee, S. (1992). The interaction of coarticulation andprosody in sound change. Language and Speech, 35, 4558.
Beckman, M. E., & Edwards, J. (1996). Lexical frequency effects on young children's imitative productions. Paper presented at the Fifth Conference on Laboratory Phonology,Evanston, IL.
Bishop, D. V. M. (1992). The underlying nature of specific language impairment. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 33, 164.
Bishop, D. V. M., North, T., & Donlan, C. (1996). Nonword repetition as a behavioral marker forinherited language impairment: Evidence from a twin study. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 37, 391403.
Brady, S., Poggie, E., & Rapala, M. M. (1989). Speech repetition abilities in children who differ inreading skill. Language and Speech, 32, 109122.
Brown, L., Sherbenor, R., & Johnson, S. (1990). Test of Nonverbal Intelligence. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
Catts, H. (1989). Speech production deficits in developmental dyslexia. Journal of Speech andHearing Disorders, 54, 422428.
Chi, M. T. H. (1978). Knowledge structures and memory development. In Siegler, R. (Ed.), Chil-dren's thinking: What develops? (pp. 7396). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Denckla, M. B., & Rudel, R. (1976). Rapid “automatized” naming of pictured objects, colors, lettersand numbers by normal children. Cortex, 10, 186202.
Dollaghan, C. (1987). Fast mapping in normal and language-impaired children. Journal of Speechand Hearing Research, 52, 218222.
Dollaghan, C., Biber, E., Campbell, T. F. (1993). Constituent syllable effects in a nonsense-wordrepetition task. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 36, 10511054.
Dollaghan, C., Biber, E., Campbell, T. F. (1995). Lexical influences on nonword repetition. Applied Psycholinguistics, 16, 211222.
Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, L. M. (1981). Peahody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Services.
Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, L. M. (1982). British Picture Vocabulary Scale. Windsor, Ontario: NFER-Nelson Publishing Company.
Edwards, J., & Lahey, M. (1993). Auditory lexical decisions in children and adults: An examinationof response factors. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research. 36, 9961003.
Edwards, J., & Lahey, M. (1996). Auditory lexical decisions of children with specific language impairment. Journal ofSpeech and Hearing Research, 39, 12631273.
Eguchi, S., & Hirsh, I. (1969). Development of speech sounds in children. Acta Oto-Laryngologica, 257 (Supplement).
Elliott, L., & Hammer, M. (1988). Longitudinal changes in auditory discrimination in normal chil-dren and children with language learning problems. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disor-ders, 53, 467474.
Elliott, L. L., Hammer, M. A., & Evan, K. E. (1987). Perception of gated, highly familiar words bychildren, teenagers, and older adults. Perception and Psychophysics, 42, 150157.
Elliott, L., Hammer, M. A., & Scholl, M. (1989). Fine grained auditory discrimination in normalchildren and children with language-learning problems. Journal of Speech and Hearing Re-search, 32, 112119.
Ellis Weismer, S., & Hesketh, L. J. (1996). Lexical learning by children with specific languageimpairment: Effects of linguistic input presented at varying speaking rates. Journal of Speechand Hearing Research, 39, 177190.
Gathercole, S. E. (1995). Is nonword repetition a test of phonological memory or long-term knowl-edge? It all depends on the nonwords. Memory & Cognition, 23, 8394.
Gathercole, S. E., & Adams, A. (1993). Phonological working memory in very young children. Developmental Psychology. 29, 770778.
Gathercole, S. E., & Adams, A. (1994). Children's phonological working memory: Contributions of long-term knowledge andrehearsal. Journal of Memory and Language, 33, 672688.
Gathereole, S. E., & Baddeley, A. D. (1989). Evaluation of the role of phonological STM in thedevelopment of vocabulary in children: A longitudinal study. Journal of Memory and Lan-guage, 28, 200213.
Gathereole, S. E., & Baddeley, A. D. (1990a). Phonological memory deficits in language disordered children: Is diere a causal connec-tion? Journal of Memory and Language, 29, 336360.
Gathereole, S. E., & Baddeley, A. D. (1990b). The role of phonological memory in vocabulary acquisition: A study of young childrenlearning new names. British Journal of Psychology, 81, 439454.
Gathereole, S. E., Willis, C., & Baddeley, A. (1991). Nonword repetition, phonological memory, andvocabulary: A reply to Snowling, Chiat, and Hulme. Applied Psycholinguistics, 12, 375379.
Gathereole, S. E., Willis, C., Emslie, H., & Baddeley, A. (1991). The influences of number ofsyllables and wordlikeness on children's repetition of nonwords. Applied Psycholinguistics, 12, 349367.
Gathereole, S. E., Willis, C., Emslie, H., & Baddeley, A. (1992). Phonological memory and vocabulary development during the early school years: A longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 28, 887898.
German, D. (1986). Test of Word Finding. Allen, TX: DLM Teaching Resources.
Hulme, C., Thomson, N., Muir, G, & Lawrence, A. (1984). Speech rate and the development ofshort-term span. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 38, 241253.
James, D., Van Steenbrugge, W., & Chiveralls, K. (1994). Underlying deficits in language-disorderedchildren with central auditory processing difficulties. Applied Psycholinguistics, 15, 311328.
Kail, R. (1991). Processing time declines exponentially during childhood and adolescence. Develop-mental Psychology, 27, 259266.
Kamhi, A., & Catts, H. (1986). Toward an understanding of developmental language and readingdisorders. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 51, 337347.
Kamhi, A., Catts, H., Mauer, D., Apel, K., & Gentry, B. (1988). Phonological and spatial processingabilities in language- and reading-impaired children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disor-ders, 53, 316327.
Kamhi, A., & Koenig, L. (1985). Metalinguistic awareness in normal and language-disordered children. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 16, 199210.
Kaufman, A. M., & Kaufman, N. L. (1990). Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.
Kent, R. D. (1992). The biology of phonological development. In Ferguson, C. A.Menn, L., & Stoel-Gammon, C. (Eds.), Phonological development: Models, research, implications (pp. 6590). Timonium, MD: York Press.
Kent, R. D., & Fomer, L. L. (1980). Speech segment durations in sentence recitations by childrenand adults. Journal of Phonetics, 8, 157168.
Kirchner, D., & Klatsky, R. (1985). Verbal rehearsal and memory in language disordered children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 28, 556564.
Kirk, S., McCarthy, J., & Kirk, W. (1968). The Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities. Urban: University of Illinois Press.
Lahey, M. (1988). Language disorders and language development. New York: Macmillan.
Lahey, M., & Bloom, L. (1994). Variability and language learning disorders. In Wallach, G. P.Butler, K. G. (Eds.), Language learning disabilities in school-age children and adolescents(pp. 354372). New York: Macrnillan.
Lahey, M., & Edwards, J. (1996). Why are children with specific language impairment slower thantheir peers in naming pictures? Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 39, 10811098.
Lee, L. (1971). Northwestern Syntax Screening Test. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.
Leonard, L., McGregor, K. K., & Allen, G. D. (1992). Grammatical morphology and speech percep-tion in children with specific language impairment. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 35, 10761085.
Luce, P. A., Feustel, T. C., & Pisoni, D. B. (1983). Capacity demands in short-term memory for synthetic and natural speech. Human Factors, 25, 1732.
Marslen-Wilson, W. (1984). Function and process in spoken word recognition. In Bouma, H. & Bouhis, D. (Eds.), Attention and performance X (pp. 125150). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Merriman, W. E., & Schuster, J. M. (1991). Young children's disambiguation of object name refer-ence. Child Development, 62, 12881301.
Michas, I. C, & Henry, L. A. (1994). The link between phonological memory and vocabularyacquisition. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 12, 147163.
Montgomery, J. W. (1995a). Examination of phonological working memory in specifically lan-guage-impaired children. Applied Psycholinguistics, 16, 355378.
Montgomery, J. W. (1995b). Sentence comprehension in children with specific language impairment: The role ofphonological working memory. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 38, 187199.
Murphy, W. D., Shea, S. L., & Aslin, R. N. (1989). Identification of vowels in “vowelless” syllablesby three-year-olds. Perception and Psychophysics, 46, 375383.
Neils, J., & Aram, D. (1986). Family history of children with developmental language disorders. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 63, 655658.
Newcomer, P., & Hammill, D.. (1988). The Test of Language Development - Primary. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
Papagno, C., Valentine, T., & Baddeley, A. (1991). Phonological short-term memory and foreign-language vocabulary learning. Journal of Memory and Language, 30, 331347.
Plante, E., Swisher, L., Kiernan, B., & Restrepo, M. A. (1993). Language matches: Illuminating orconfounding? Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 36, 772776.
Powell, R. P., & Bishop, D. V. M. (1992). Clumsiness and perceptual problems in children withspecific language impairment. Development Medicine and Child Neurology, 34, 755765.
Raine, A., Hulme, C., Chadderton, H., & Bailey, P. (1991). Verbal short term memory span inspeech disordered children: Implications for articulatory coding in short-term memory. ChildDevelopment, 30, 415423.
Schwartz, R. G. (1995). Effect of familiarity on word duration in children's speech: A preliminaryinvestigation. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 38, 7684.
Semel, E., Wiig, E. H., & Secord, W. (1987). Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals Revised. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
Sininger, Y. S., Klatzky, R. L., & Kirchner, D. M. (1989). Memory-scanning speed in language-disordered children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 32, 289297.
Snowling, M. (1981). Phonemic deficits in developmental dyslexia. Psychological Research, 43. 219234.
Snowling, M., Chiat, S., & Hulme, C. (1991). Words, nonwords, and phonological processes: Com-ments on Gathercole, Willis, Emslie, and Baddeley. Applied Psycholinguistics, 12, 369373.
Stark, J., Poppen, R., & May, M. (1987). Effects of alterations of prosodic features on the sequencing performance of aphasic children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 10, 849855.
Sternberg, S., Monsell, S., Knoll, R. L., & Wright, D. E. (1978). The latency and duration of rapidmovement sequences: Comparisons of speech and typewriting. In Stelmach, G. E. (Ed.), Information processing in motor control and learning (pp. 118150). New York: Academic.
Sussman, J. E. (1993). Perception of formant transition cues to place of articulation in children withlanguage impairments. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 36. 12861299.
Tallal, P., & Piercy, M. (1974). Developmental aphasia: Rate of auditory processing and selectiveimpairment of consonant perception. Neuropsychologia, 12, 8393.
Tallal, P., Stark, R., & Mellits, D. (1985). Identification of language-impaired children on the basisof rapid perception and production skills. Brain and Language, 25, 314322.
Taylor, H. G., Lean, D., & Schwartz, S. (1989). Pseudoword repetition ability in learning-disabledchildren. Applied Psycholinguistics, 10, 203219.
van der Lely, H. J., & Howard, D. (1993). Children with specific language impairment: Linguisticimpairment or short-term memory deficit? Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 36,11931207.
van Kleeck, A. (1994). Metalinguistic development. In Wallach, G. & Butler, K. (eds.), Language learn-ing disabilities in school-age children and adolescents (pp. 5398). New York: Macmillan.
Watkins, R., Kelly, D. J., Harbers, H. M., & Hollis, W. (1995). Measuring children's lexical diver-sity: Differentiating typical and impaired language-learners. Journal of Speech and HearingResearch, 38. 13491355.
Werker, J. F., & Stager, C. L. (1996). Developmental changes in infant speech perception andearly word learning: Is there a link? Paper presented at the Fifth Conference on LaboratoryPhonology,Evanston, IL.
Wolff, P. H., Michel, G. F., & Ovrut, M. (1990). The timing of syllable repetitions in developmentaldyslexia. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 33, 281289.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Applied Psycholinguistics
  • ISSN: 0142-7164
  • EISSN: 1469-1817
  • URL: /core/journals/applied-psycholinguistics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed