Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 9
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Fang, Shin-Yi Zinszer, Benjamin D. Malt, Barbara C. and Li, Ping 2016. Bilingual Object Naming: A Connectionist Model. Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 7,

    Zhu, Xuebing Zhang, Qingfang and Damian, Markus F. 2016. Additivity of semantic and phonological effects: Evidence from speech production in Mandarin. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, p. 1.

    Wong, Andus Wing-Kuen and Chen, Hsuan-Chih 2015. Processing segmental and prosodic information in spoken word planning: Further evidence from Cantonese Chinese. Japanese Psychological Research, Vol. 57, Issue. 1, p. 69.

    Zhu, Xuebing Damian, Markus F. and Zhang, Qingfang 2015. Seriality of semantic and phonological processes during overt speech in Mandarin as revealed by event-related brain potentials. Brain and Language, Vol. 144, p. 16.

    Mack, Jennifer E. Cho-Reyes, Soojin Kloet, James D. Weintraub, Sandra Mesulam, M-Marsel and Thompson, Cynthia K. 2013. Phonological facilitation of object naming in agrammatic and logopenic primary progressive aphasia (PPA). Cognitive Neuropsychology, Vol. 30, Issue. 3, p. 172.

    McDonough, Kim and Trofimovich, Pavel 2012. Research Methods in Second Language Acquisition.

    Su, I-Fan Yeung, Sin-Ting Weekes, Brendan S. and Law, Sam-Po 2012. 2012 8th International Symposium on Chinese Spoken Language Processing. p. 440.

    Zhao, Haoran La Heij, Wido and Schiller, Niels O. 2012. Orthographic and phonological facilitation in speech production: New evidence from picture naming in Chinese. Acta Psychologica, Vol. 139, Issue. 2, p. 272.

    Kolan, Limor Leikin, Mark and Zwitserlood, Pienie 2011. Morphological processing and lexical access in speech production in Hebrew: Evidence from picture–word interference. Journal of Memory and Language, Vol. 65, Issue. 3, p. 286.


Orthographic and phonological effects in the picture–word interference paradigm: Evidence from a logographic language

  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 October 2009

One important finding with the picture–word interference paradigm is that picture-naming performance is facilitated by the presentation of a distractor (e.g., CAP) formally related to the picture name (e.g., “cat”). In two picture-naming experiments we investigated the nature of such form facilitation effect with Mandarin Chinese, separating the effects of phonology and orthography. Significant facilitation effects were observed both when distractors were only orthographically or only phonologically related to the targets. The orthographic effect was overall stronger than the phonological effect. These findings suggest that the classic form facilitation effect in picture–word interference is a mixed effect with multiple loci: it cannot be attributed merely to the nonlexical activation of the target phonological segments from the visual input of the distractor. It seems instead that orthographically only related distractors facilitate the lexical selection process of picture naming, and phonologically only related distractors facilitate the retrieval of target phonological segments.

Corresponding author
ADDRESS FOR CORRESPONDENCE Yanchao Bi, State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, People's Republic of China. E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

Y. Bi , Z. Han , B. S. Weekes , & H. Shu (2007). The interaction between the semantic and the nonsemantic routes of reading: Evidence from Chinese. Neuropsychologia, 45, 26602673.

A. Caramazza , & M. Miozzo (1997). The relation between syntactic and phonological knowledge in lexical access: Evidence from the “tip-of-the-tongue” phenomenon. Cognition, 64, 309343.

A. Caramazza (1997). How many levels of processing are there in lexical access? Cognitive Neuropsychology, 14, 177208.

H.-C. Chen , S. L. Cheung , & G. B. Flores d'Arcais (1995). Orthographic and phonological activation in recognizing Chinese characters. Psychological Research, 58, 144153.

M. Coltheart , K. Rastle , C. Perry , R. Langdon , & J. Ziegler (2001). DRC: A dual route cascaded model of visual word recognition and reading aloud. Psychological Review, 108, 204256.

A. Costa , & A. Caramazza (2002). The production of noun phrases in English and Spanish: Implications for the scope of phonological encoding in speech production. Journal of Memory and Language, 46, 178198

A. Costa , B. Mahon , V. Savova , & A. Caramazza (2003). Level of categorization effect: A novel effect in the picture–word interference paradigm. Language and Cognitive Processes, 18, 205233.

G. S. Dell (1986). A spreading activation theory of retrieval in sentence production. Psychological Review, 93, 283321.

M. Finkbeiner , & A. Caramazza (2006). Now you see it, now you don't: On turning semantic interference into facilitation in a Stroop-like task. Cortex, 42, 790796.

K. I. Forster , & J. C. Forster (2003). DMDX: A Windows display program with millisecond accuracy. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 35, 116124.

W. R. Glaser , & M. O. Glaser (1989). Context effects on Stroop-like word and picture processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 118, 1342.

A. E. Hillis , & A. Caramazza (1995). Converging evidence for trhe interation of semantic and sublexical phonological information in accessing lexical prepresentations for spoken output. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 12, 187227.

C.-W. Hue (1992). Recognition processes in character naming. In H.-C. Chen & O. J. L. Tzeng (Eds.), Language processing in Chinese (pp. 93107). Amsterdam: North-Holland.

S. P. Law , & R. Wong (2005). A model-driven treatment of a Cantonese-speaking dyslexic patient with impairment to the semantic and nonsemantic pathways. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 22, 95110.

C. Y. Lee , J. L. Tsai , W. J. Kuo , T. C. Yeh , Y. T. Wu , L. T. Ho , et al. (2004). Neuronal correlates of consistency and frequency effects on Chinese character naming: An event-related fMRI study. NeuroImage, 23, 12351245.

W. J. M. Levelt , A. Roelofs , & A. S. Meyer (1999). A theory of lexical access in speech production. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 22, 175.

G. Lukatela , & M. T. Turvey (1994a). Visual lexical access is initially phonological: I. Evidence from associative priming by words, homophones, and pseudohomophones. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 123, 107128.

G. Lukatela , & M. T. Turvey (1994b). Visual lexical access is initially phonological: I. Evidence from phonological priming by homophones and pseudohomophones. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 123, 331353.

S. J. Lupker (1982). The role of phonetic and orthographic similarity in picture–word interference. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 36, 349367.

W. D. Marslen-Wilson (1987). Functional parallellism in spoken word recognition. Cognition, 25, 71102.

D. W. Massaro , & M. M. Cohen (1991). Integration versus interactive activation: The joint influence of stimulus and context in perception. Cognitive Psychology, 23, 558614.

J. L. McClelland , & D. E. Rumelhart (1981). An interactive activation model of context effects in letter perception: Part 1. An account of basic findings. Psychological Review, 88, 375407.

M. Miozzo , & A. Caramazza (2003). When more is less: A counterintuitive effect of distractor frequency in the picture–word interference paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 132, 228252.

J. Morton (1969). Interaction of information in word recognition. Psychological Review, 76, 165178.

D. Peng , H. Yang , & Y. Chen (1994). Consistency and phonetic independency effects in naming task of Chinese phonograms. In Q. C. Jing , H. C. Zhang , & D. L. Peng (Eds.), Information processing of Chinese language. Beijing: Beijing Normal University Publishing.

C. J. Posnansky , & K. Rayner (1978). Visual vs. phonemic contributions to the importance of the initial letter in word identification. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 11, 188190.

B. Rapp , & M. Goldrick (2000). Discreteness and interactivity in spoken word production. Psychological Review, 107, 460499.

M. S. Seidenberg (1985). The time course of phonological code activation in two writing systems. Cognition, 19, 130.

A. Roelofs (1992). A spreading-activation theory of lemma retrieval in speaking. Cognition, 42, 107142.

A. Roelofs (1997). The WEAVER model of word-form encoding in speech production. Cognition, 64, 249284.

H. Schriefers , A. S. Meyer , & J. M. Levelt (1990). Exploring the time course of lexical access in language production: Picture–word interference studies. Journal of Memory and Language, 29, 86102.

D. Shen , & K. I. Forster (1999). Masked phonological priming in reading Chinese words depends on the task. Language and Cognitive Processes, 14, 429459.

P. A. Starreveld (2000). On the interpretation of onsets of auditory context effects in word production. Journal of Memory and Language, 42, 497525.

J. R. Stroop (1935). Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18, 643662.

W. S.-Y. Wang (1973). The Chinese language. Scientific American, 228, 5060.

B. S. Weekes , & H. Chen (1999). Surface dyslexia in Chinese. Neurocase, 5, 101112.

K. F. E. Wong , & H.-C. Chen (1999). Orthographic and phonological processing in reading Chinese text: Evidence from eye fixations. Language and Cognitive Processes, 14, 461480.

W. Yin , & B. Butterworth (1992). Deep and surface dyslexia in Chinese. In H. C. Chen & O. J. L. Tzeng (Eds.), Language processing in Chinese (pp. 349366). Amsterdam: North-Holland.

X. Zhou , & W. Marslen-Wilson (1999a). Phonology, orthography, and semantic activation in reading Chinese. Journal of Memory and Language, 41, 579606.

X. Zhou , W. Marslen-Wilson , M. Taft , & H. Shu (1999). Morphology, orthography, and phonology in reading Chinese compound words. Language and Cognitive Processes, 14, 525565.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Applied Psycholinguistics
  • ISSN: 0142-7164
  • EISSN: 1469-1817
  • URL: /core/journals/applied-psycholinguistics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *