Skip to main content Accessibility help

Categorising salmon migration behaviour using characteristics of split-beam acoustic data

  • George Cronkite (a1), Tim Mulligan (a2), John Holmes (a1) and Hermann Enzenhofer (a3)

Milling behaviour is problematic when using hydroacoustics to estimate the number of migrating fish in rivers. Milling behaviour was observed for adult sockeye salmon migrating upstream in the Wannock River, to their spawning grounds in the tributaries of Owikeno Lake in the central coast area of British Columbia, Canada. We classified the acoustic salmon tracks to separate the milling fish from the actively migrating fish in an attempt to obtain an estimate of sockeye salmon flux as they migrate to their spawning grounds. We used discriminant function analysis and found that three variables measured on each track were sufficient for the classification of the acoustic tracks into milling and non-milling categories with an approximate classification accuracy of 98%. The method we present can also be used to separate tracks of targets of interest from noise or debris tracks that occur in the acoustic data, if discrete track characteristics are ascertained.

Corresponding author
Hide All
[1] Abramowitz M., Stegun I.A. (Eds.), 1972, Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables. 9th printing, New York, Dover.
[2] Blackman S.S., 1986, Multiple-target tracking with radar applications. Artech House Inc., Norwood, MA, 449 p.
[3] Burwen D.L., Bosch D., 1996, Estimates of Chinook salmon abundance in the Kenai River using split-beam sonar, 1995, Alaska Dept. Fish and Game, Fishery Data Ser. Anchorage AK, No. 96-9.
[4] Burwen D.L., Bosch D.E., Fleischman S.J., 1995, Evaluation of hydroacoustic assessment techniques for Chinook salmon on the Kenai River using split-beam sonar. Alaska Dept. Fish and Game, Fishery Data Ser. Anchorage AK, No. 95-45.
[5] Cronkite, G.M.W., Enzenhofer, H.J., 2002, Observations of controlled moving targets with split-beam sonar and implications for detection of migrating adult salmon in rivers. Aquat. Living Resour. 15, 1-11.
[6] Cronkite, G., VanWill, P., Noon, D, Bachen, S., 2003, Wannock River Hydroacoustic Study. Can. Manuscr. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2632, 20.
[7] Carlson T.J., Jackson D.R., 1980, Empirical evaluation of the feasibility of split-beam methods for direct in situ target strength measurement of single fish. Rep. Appl. Phys. Lab. Univ. Wash. APL-UW 8006.
[8] Ehrenberg, J.E., Torkelson, T.C., 1996, The application of dual-beam and split-beam target tracking in fisheries acoustics. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 53, 329-334.
[9] Enzenhofer, H.J., Olsen, N., Mulligan, T.J., 1998, Fixed-location riverine hydroacoustics as a method of enumerating migrating adult Pacific salmon: comparison of split-beam acoustics vs. visual counting. Aquat. Living Resour. 11, 61-74.
[10] Enzenhofer, H.J., Cronkite, G., 2000, Fixed location hydroacoustic estimation of fish migration in the riverine environment: An operational manual. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2313, 46.
[11] Hydroacoustic Technology Inc., 2000, Model 241/243/244 split-beam digital echo sounder system operator's manual, version 1.8. Hydroacoustic Technology Inc., Seattle, WA.
[12] Jasco Research Ltd. 1995, Underwater attitude measurement sensor package operator's manual, TCM2 electronic compass user's manual, Jasco Research Ltd., Brentwood Bay Canada, website
[13] Johnston S.V., Ransom B.H., 1994, Feasibility of using hydroacoustics to enumerate adult Atlantic salmon escapement in the River Spey, Scotland. Rep. Hydroacoustic Technology, Inc., Seattle, Wash. Spey District Fishery Board, Scotland.
[14] Johnston S.V., Ransom B.H., Kumagai K.K., 1993, Hydroacoustic evaluation of adult Chinook and chum salmon migrations in the Yukon river during 1992. Rep. Hydroacoustic Technology, Inc., Seattle, Wash. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Fairbanks, Alaska.
[15] Legendre L., Legendre P., 1983, Numerical Ecology. Elsevier Scientific Publishing, Amsterdam.
[16] MacLennan D.N., Simmonds E.J., 1992, Fisheries Acoustics. Chapman and Hall, New York.
[17] Mulligan, T.J., Kieser, R., 1996, A split-beam echo counting model for riverine use. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 53, 403-406.
[18] Osborne B.M., Daum D.W., 1997, Enumeration of Chandalar River fall chum salmon using split-beam sonar, Alaska Fish. Tech. Rep. 42.
[19] Pacific Eumetrics, 2002, Users Manuals for ABTrack and Polaris Software Packages.
[20] Racca R., 1999, Operational Notes for UWINSTRU systems with NMEA0183 interface. JASCO Research Ltd., Victoria, BC.
[21] Romakkaniemi, A., Marjomaki, T., Jurvelius, J., 1996, Hydroacoustic estimation of salmon (Salmo salar) spawning run in the Tornio River, project results 1995-1996, Rep. Finnish Fame and Fisheries Research Institute 89, 17.
[22] S-PLUS 2000, 1999, Programmer's Guide. Data Analysis Products Division. MathSoft Inc., Seattle WA, 868.
[23] Traynor J.J., 1986, Some preliminary results using a new split-beam/dual-beam target strength measurement system. ICES, CM1986/B: Fish capture Committee.
[24] Traynor, J.J., Ehrenberg, J.E., 1990, Fish and standard sphere measurements obtained with a split-beam/dual-beam system. Int. Symp. Fish. Acoustic, June 22-26, 1990 Seattle, WA, USA. Rapp. P.-v. Réun. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer 189, 325-335.
[25] Xie, Y., Mulligan, T.J., Cronkite, G.M.W., Gray, A.P., 2002, Assessment of potential bias in hydroacoustic estimation of Fraser River sockeye and pink salmon at Mission, B.C. Pacific Salmon Comm. Tech. Rep. 11, 42.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Aquatic Living Resources
  • ISSN: 0990-7440
  • EISSN: 1765-2952
  • URL: /core/journals/aquatic-living-resources
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed