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I.—Recent Researches in Barrows in Yorkshire, Wiltshire, Berkshire, etc.


Subsequent to the publication of British Barrows in 1877, which recorded the opening of two hundred and thirty-four sepulchral mounds, situated in six counties, all, with the exception of Gloucestershire, in the north of England, I have examined sixty-one in addition. I propose in the following account to give the precise details of the exploration of these barrows, in order that the facts then observed may be put on record, and made available for the use of those interested in this important branch of our native archæology.

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page 4 note a It must be understood that in this case as in all others to be described the body had been laid on the side in a contracted position, the knees being drawn up towards the face. Also when the body is spoken of as with the head pointing to some point of the compass, the direction is taken along the line of the back, so that if the head is said to point, or to be, to the west, the face is looking toward the north or south according to the side on which the body is laid.

page 11 note a The remains of portions of a pig were found in two barrows about half a mile from the present one. See British Barrows, pp. 274, 275, 278.

page 25 note a The question is discussed in British Barrows, p. 25, where a table of relative positions and compass direction will be found.

page 26 note a Upon a vase found in a tomb near Idrias in Caria are some patterns which bear a strong resemblance to some of those on the chalk objects. Chipiez Perrot et, Histoire de l'Art dans l'Antiquité, vol. v. p. 328, figs. 232, 233.

page 26 note b Engraved in Wilson's Prehistoric Annals of Scotland, vol. i. pl. iii. fig. 24.

page 27 note a Some rude human figures have been found engraved on stone and associated with burial in a dolmen at Collorgues, near Uzès (Gard), and in sepulchral caves in La Marne and at La Bellehaye à Boury (Oise). The face there represented is not unlike that on the chalk objects. The burials appear to belong to the polished stone period. Matériaux pour l'Histoire de l'Homme, vol. xxii., 3e Série, vol. v. p. 9, where they are engraved. Upon a club-shaped instrument of limestone found in a neolithic place of burial at Folha das Barradas, near Cintra, Portugal, is a figure somewhat like that in question, together with one of a crescent. Ribeiro C., Mémoire présenté à l'Académie des Sciences de Lisbonne sur quelques monuments préhistoriques, p. 85, figs. 87, 88. Lisbon, 1880. A figure much like that on the chalk objects occurs as part of the decoration on Saxon brooches found at Fairford and other places.

page 30 note a This was the rule in regard to the interment of cremated bodies in these barrows, and, unless the contrary is specified, it must be considered as holding good in all the cases here recorded.

page 44 note a Similar holes are not infrequent in barrows, and usually contain nothing beyond the filling in with the material of which the barrow itself is composed.

page 45 note a Stones with similar pit markings have occurred in barrows in many different localities. In one upon Wass Moor, North Riding, I found above twenty. See British Barrows, p. 342.

page 47 note a In this as in all other cases, if not specified to the contrary, bones of animals must be understood to be in a broken condition, done designedly in order to extract the marrow.

page 50 note a Similar vessels are engraved in Hoare's Ancient Wilts, and in Thurnam's Ancient British Barrows (Archæologia, vol. xliii. p. 363, figs. 44, 45; p. 364, fig. 46).

page 52 note a Similar implements are engraved in British Barrows, fig. 39, 40.

page 52 note b Similar beads are engraved, Hoare , Ancient Wilts, pls. iii. xii.Thurnam , Archæologia. vol. xliii figs. 186, 187, 188.

page 53 note a I have observed the same feature in pottery from Laibach, Uarniola, and Jablowski, district of Swiec, Poland, exhibited in the Salle d'Anthropologie at the Paris Exhibition, 1878; from Alambra, Cyprus, (Cesnola, p. 94); on vessels and spindle-whorls from Hissarlik, and on spindle-whorls from ancient graves near Bogota, United States of Colombia.

page 55 note a Dr. Thurnam engraves two pins in his paper in Archaeologia, vol. xliii. p. 433, figs. 126, 127, which, though somewhat resembling this, are of very inferior make.

page 56 note a Similar articles are engraved in Hoare , Ancient Wilts, pl. ix.; andThurnam , Archaeologia, vol. xliii. p. 440, fig. 139.

page 66 note a Archaeologia Aeliana (8vo. series), vol. iii. p. 36. Cat. of Alnwick Museum, p. 12, pl. 14A, fig. 1.

page 67 note a There are many indications of the encroachment of the sea along this part of the coast, among others are the remains, below high-water mark, of the shafts of ancient coal workings.

page 70 note a Kemble , Codex Diplomaticus, No. 61.

page 71 note a Vol. XXXTI. Plate xxv., 2.

page 72 note a Ancient Wilts. Vol. I. PI. xxiv.

page 72 note b For the details of this account I am indebted to the Archæological Handbook of the County of Gloucester, by Gr. B. Witts, C. E., who has kindly supplemented by letter the information therein contained.

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