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VII.—A Saxon Village near Sutton Courtenay, Berkshire

  • E.T. Leeds

It is not too much to say that our knowledge of the dwellings of the Anglo-Saxons, at any rate of the earlier period, has hitherto been practically a blank. Practically so, because discoveries evidently similar to those to be described and found only a few miles away at Yelford and Standlake, Oxfordshire, were recorded by Stephen Stone as far back as 1857, while more recently and close by at Milton, Berks., sherds have been collected by Professor Stenton of Reading University, which must undoubtedly have been deposited under similar conditions.

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page 149 note 1 At the time of going to press two houses in a new line northwards have already been excavated.

page 153 note 1 This hole was complete when found, but unfortunately was damaged in cleaning the pick, the antler being very weak at this point. Enough remains, however, to vouch for its presence.

page 161 note 1 We have since obtained clear evidence that the filling was as often as not the accumulated debris of long-continued occupation.

page 165 note 1 It was disturbed before it could be completely excavated.

page 165 note 2 Of the size of an Irish terrier. For this identification and of other bones found on the site I am indebted to Dr. A. Smith Woodward, F.R.S., and Dr. C. W. Andrews, F.R.S., of the British Museum (Natural History).

page 165 note 3 Another, rather more perfect (pi. xxvn, fig. 2, B), was found by the workmen in the cutting on the Sutton Courtenay road.

page 169 note 1 I am greatly indebted to Mr. L. H. Dudley Buxton, M.A., F.S.A., of the Department of Human Anatomy in the University of Oxford, for examining and reporting upon the skeleton, which was removed from its position for transference to that Department by him and by Miss Beatrice Blackwood, M.A., of the same Department, who also rendered valuable aid in the work of uncovering the skeleton in the first instance.

page 174 note 1 The Roman numeral VIII in white on this and pl. XXVII, fig. 2, E, represents an initial numeration of the house subsequently altered.

page 175 note 1 Leeds, E. T., The Archaeology of the Anglo-Saxon Settlements, fig. 17.

page 175 note 2 Plettke, A., Ursprung und Ausbreitung der Angeln und Sachsen (Die Urnenfriedhöfe hi Niedersachsen, Bd. Ill, Heft I), pl. 9, fig. 3.

page 175 note 3 Månadsblad (1894), p. 35.

page 176 note 1 Op. cit., pp. 81 and 91. It becomes a question whether after all the first inroad into the upper Thames valley was not effected by an advance from the Ouse across the watershed, and whether the battle of Bedcanford did not in reality take place some hundred years earlier than the date given by the chroniclers, who, confusing it with some other battle, wrongly connected it with Cuthwulf's activities towards the close of the sixth century.

page 179 note 1 A tile similarly ornamented is illustrated by Smith, C. Roach in his Catalogue of the Museum of London Antiquities, p. 56.

page 180 note 1 Through the kind offices of Dr. Cyril Fox, F.S.A., Local Secretary for Cambridgeshire, I have been enabled to inspect a large quantity of sherds from sites near Cambridge, now in the Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology there. Many of these sherds are unmistakably of Late Celtic fabrics, but others, in the light of the experience gained at Sutton Courtenay, I should hesitate long before pronouncing to be Late Celtic rather than Anglo-Saxon.

page 181 note 1 One of these is 5½ in. in diameter, is much flatter than the normal type, and has a hole only is 1½ in. wide.

page 182 note 1 An iron comb from Norway to which is assigned the same use is figured by Gustafson, G., Norges Oldtid, fig. 472.

page 184 note 1 Gustafson, G., Norges Oldtid, p. 107, fig. 478, from Østraat, Ørlandet, S. Trondhjem.

page 185 note 1 Stephani, K. G., Der ältesie deutsche Wohnbau, i, 260 and 389–90.

page 185 note 2 Stevenson, J. A., Historia Monasterii de Abingdon (Rolls Series), i, 214. Kemble, Compare, Codex Diplontaticus, iii, 35: ‘ðfer tSaem forda ollunc straete ðaet onbutan ðoa cotu’.

page 185 note 3 Praehistorische Zeitschrift, i, 230 ff.

page 186 note 1 Op. cit., p. 218, fig. 3

page 186 note 2 Ibid., p. 235, note 1.

page 186 note 3 Addy, S. O., The Evolution of the English House, 38.

page 187 note 1 Proc. Somerset Arch. Soc, lv, 175. I am indebted to Mr. O. G. S. Crawford, F.S.A., for drawing my attention to this account.

page 187note 2 Two houses subsequently excavated have a doorway in the south-west corner, thus supporting the conjectured doorway in house III.

page 188 note 1 Reallexikon dergermanischen Altertumskunde (Hausgrube), by Hjalmar Falk.

page 188 note 2 Ibid.

page 188 note 3 The English Village, p. 105.

page 189 note 1 Three houses along a line north from and parallel to the main line have been discovered.

page 192 note 1 At the date of the reading of the paper the exploration of house X had not been completed. It was, however, thought advisable to incorporate in the paper the important evidence obtained from that house. This will account for the apparent discrepancy of some of the remarks made in course of the discussion.

page 192 note 2 Proceedings, xii, 358; Jonrn. R. Anthrop. lust., xxix, 124.

page 192 note 3 Smith, Roach collection, Cat. nos. 583, 584.

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