With the foundation of the Royal Academy in London in 1768 British artists went some way towards providing themselves with the sort of institutional basis for education and management in their professions which many of their European peers had long since enjoyed. From the outset, however, architects were poorly represented among the Royal Academicians, and it soon became apparent that the specific requirements which architects had of a professional institution were fundamentally different from those of painters and sculptors. This realization lay behind the sequential appearance between 1791 and 1834 of at least eleven separate architectural organizations in London, beginning with the Architects’ Club and culminating in the foundation of the Institute of British Architects (officially the Royal Institute of British Architects since 1866). A striking feature of several of these organizations was the reference they made to the foreign fine arts academies with which some of the architects involved had been connected during their educational travels abroad. Thus, for example, nobody was eligible for election to the Architects’ Club in the 1790s ‘unless he be an Academician or Associate of the Royal Academy in London, or has received the Academy’s gold medal for Composition in Architecture, or be a member of the Academies of Rome, Parma, Bologna, Florence, or Paris’. The fact that four of the five foreign academies listed here were Italian reflects the pre-eminence of Italy as the principal location for British architectural study abroad in the later eighteenth century. During the period of the Napoleonic Wars, when this pattern of travel was seriously interrupted, moves towards a British architectural institution nevertheless continued to be influenced by those with experience of Italian academies. Among the individuals endeavouring to found a Royal Academy of Architecture in 1810, for example, were Joseph Michael Gandy and Charles Heathcote Tatham, who had been variously involved with the academies of Rome and Bologna during the mid-1790s. After 1815 British architects reached Italy in greater numbers than at any stage in the later eighteenth century, and among the eighteen members of the Architects’ and Antiquaries’ Club in 1820 were eleven architects, no fewer than eight of whom had visited Italy within the previous four years (Edward Cresy, John Goldicutt, Joseph Gwilt, Thomas Jeans, William Purser, John Sanders, George Ledwell Taylor and John Foster). The founders of the Club stated that in their travels abroad they ‘had observed that Academies for Architecture and its connected Sciences were established in several cities, and were calculated to produce very beneficial effects. They could not resist the mortifying contrast which was presented in comparing the state of Architecture in those cities, and their native kingdom’. Among the members Goldicutt, who had won the Royal Academy’s silver medal in 1814, had been elected an honorary member of the Accademia di San Luca whilst at Rome in 1818.