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Social Movements and Constitutionalism in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan

  • Ngoc Son BUI (a1)

Abstract

This article considers whether the academic inquiry of comparative constitutionalism in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan may be further developed by a full consideration of the relevance of social movements. Integrating social movement theories into comparative constitutional law, this article argues that a more nuanced positive account of the creation and consolidation of constitutionalism in these East Asian polities must be situated within the engagement of social movements in discursive venues for formal and informal constitutional change.

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Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law, The Chinese University of Hong Kong. My thanks to the Centre for Asian Legal Studies (CALS) and the Asian Law Institute (ASLI) at the National University of Singapore (NUS) for supporting my participation at the conferences entitled ‘The State of Comparative Law in Asia’ and ‘Teaching Comparative Law in Asia’ on 27 and 28 September 2017, which led to my engagement in this special issue.

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References

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1. Chen, Albert, ‘The Law and Politics of the Struggle for Universal Suffrage in Hong Kong 2013–15’ (2016) 3 Asian Journal of Law and Society 189; Chang, Wen-Chen, ‘Public Interest Litigation in Taiwan: Strategy For Law And Policy Changes In The Course Of Democratization’ in Yap, Po Jen and Lau, Holning (eds), Public Interest Litigation in Asia (Routledge 2011) 136; Ginsburg, Tom, ‘Law and the Liberal Transformation of the Northeast Asian Legal Complex in Korea and Taiwan’ in Halliday, Terence C, Karpik, Lucien and Feeley, Malcolm (eds), Fighting for Political Freedom: Comparative Studies Of Legal Complex And Political Change (Hart 2007) 43.

2. Comparative constitutionalism is understood here in the scholastic sense to refer to the comparative study of constitutionalism: see Khilnani, Sunil, Raghavan, Vikram, and Thiruvengadam, Arun K (eds), Comparative Constitutionalism in South Asia (OUP 2013). Comparative constitutionalism is broadly understood to include studies of political, social, and legal forms and foundations of constitutionalism, and is thus not limited to ‘judicially enforced constitutionalism’: see Roux, Theunis, ‘Comparative Constitutional Studies: Two Fields or One?’ (2017) 13 Annual Review of Law and Social Science 125130.

3. Hirschl, Ran, Comparative Matters: The Renaissance of Comparative Constitutional Law (OUP 2014) 244245.

4. Yeh, Jiunn-Rong and Cheng, Wen-Chen, ‘The Emergence of East Asian Constitutionalism: Features in Comparison’ (2011) 59 American Journal of Comparative Law 805.

5. Chen, Albert H, ‘Constitutions, Constitutional Practice and Constitutionalism in East Asia’ in Antons, Christoph (ed), Routledge Handbook of Asian Law (Routledge 2017) 80.

6. See generally, Broadbent, Jeffrey and Brockman, Vicky (eds), East Asian Social Movements: Power, Protest, And Change in A Dynamic Region (Springer 2011).

7. Wei-ming, Tu (ed), Confucian Traditions in East Asian Modernity: Moral Education And Economic Culture In Japan And The Four Mini-Dragons (Harvard University Press 1996).

8. Ginsburg, Tom, ‘Confucian Constitutionalism? Globalization and Judicial Review in Korea and Taiwan’ (2002) 27 Law and Social Inquiry 763.

9. Hirschl (n 3) ch 4; Choudhry, Sujit, ‘Bridging Comparative Politics and Comparative Constitutional Law: Constitutional Design in Divided Societies’ in Choudhry, Sujit (ed), Constitutional Design for Divided Societies: Integration Or Accommodation? (OUP 2008) 314; Gardbaum, Stephen, ‘How Do and Should We Compare Constitutional Law?’ in Heckendorn, Lukas, Jube, Samuel and Besson, Samantha (eds), Comparing Comparative Law (Swiss Institute of Comparative Law 2016). But see Roux (n 2); von Bogdandy, Armin, ‘Comparative Constitutional Law as a Social Science? A Hegelian Reaction to Ran Hirschl's Comparative Matters’ (2016) 55 Der Staat [The State] 103.

10. Epp, Charles R, The Rights Revolution: Lawyers, Activists, And Supreme Courts In Comparative Perspective (University of Chicago Press 1998).

11. NeJaime, Douglas, ‘Constitutional Change, Courts, and Social Movements’ (2013) 111 Michigan Law Review 885.

12. Balkin, Jack, Constitutional Redemption: Political Faith in an Unjust World (Harvard University Press 2011); Eskridge, William N Jr., ‘Channeling: Identity-Based Social Movements and Public Law’ (2001) 150 University of Pennsylvania Law Review 419; Siegel, Reva B, ‘Constitutional Culture, Social Movement Conflict and Constitutional Change: The Case of the De Facto ERA’ (2006) 194 California Law Review 1323; Tushnet, Mark, ‘Social Movements and the Constitution’ in Tushnet, Mark, Levinson, Sanford, and Graber, Mark (eds), The Oxford Handbook of The U.S. Constitution (OUP 2015).

13. Eskridge, William N Jr, ‘Some Effects of Identity-Based Social Movements on Constitutional Law in the Twentieth Century’ (2002) 100 Michigan Law Review 2062, 2064.

14. ibid 2064.

15. ibid 2066–67.

16. Siegel, Reva B, ‘Text in Contest: Gender and the Constitution from a Social Movement Perspective’ (2001) 150 University of Pennsylvania Law Review 297, 299.

17. Balkin (n 12).

18. NeJaime (n 11) 881 (citation omitted).

19. Whittington, Keith E, Political Foundations of Judicial Supremacy (Princeton University Press 2008) 26.

20. Levinson, Daryl, ‘Parchment and Politics: The Positive Puzzle of Constitutional Commitment’ (2011) 124 Harvard Law Review 657, 662.

21. Several American constitutional law scholars are skeptical about the judicial role in social change and turn their attention to political actors. NeJaime (n 11) 885. Robin West argues that ‘[o]nly by reconceptualizing the Constitution as a source of inspiration and guidance for legislation, rather than a superstructural constraint on adjudication, can we make good on its richly progressive promise.’ See West, Robin, ‘Progressive and Conservative Constitutionalism’ (1990) 88 Michigan Law Review 641, 651.

22. For recent scholarship, see Chen, Albert and Harding, Andrew (eds), Constitutional Courts in Asia (CUP 2018); Law, David, ‘Judicial Comparativism and Judicial Diplomacy’ (2015) 163 University of Pennsylvania Law Review 927.

23. Matsui, Shigenori, ‘Why Is the Japanese Supreme Court So Conservative?’ (2011) 88 Washington University Law Review 1375.

24. For recent scholarship on judicial or legal constitutionalism, see Sajó, András and Uitz, Renáta, The Constitution of Freedom: An Introduction to Legal Constitutionalism (OUP 2017).

25. Ginsburg, Tom, ‘Constitutional Courts in East Asia: Understanding Variation’ in Harding, Andrew and Leyland, Peter (eds), Constitutional Courts: A Comparative Study (Wildy, Simmonds and Hill 2009) 291.

26. Classical works in comparative constitutionalism adopting this approach can be traced back to McIlwain, Charles Howard, Constitutionalism: Ancient and Modern (Cornell University Press 1947); Friedrich, Carl J, Constitutional Government and Democracy: Theory and Practice in Europe and America (Ginn 1946).

27. Chen, Albert H, ‘Pathways of Western Liberal Constitutional Development in Asia: A Comparative Study of Five Major Nations’ (2010) 8 International Journal of Constitutional Law 883.

28. Chen (n 5) 80.

29. Scheppele, Kim Lane, ‘Constitutional Ethnography: An Introduction’ (2004) 38 Law & Society Review 389, 390.

30. Chang, Wen-Chen, ‘East Asian Foundations for Constitutionalism: Three Models Reconstructed’ (2008) 3 National University of Taiwan Law Review 111, 112.

31. Yeh and Cheng (n 4) 816.

32. ibid 817.

33. Galligan, Denis J and Versteeg, Mila (eds), Social and Political Foundations of Constitutions (CUP 2015).

34. See generally Dyzenhaus, David and Thorburn, Malcolm (eds), Philosophical Foundations of Constitutional Law (OUP 2016); Alexander, Larry (ed), Constitutionalism: Philosophical Foundations (CUP 1998); Rosenbaum, Alan S (ed), Constitutionalism: The Philosophical Dimension (Greenwood Press 1988).

35. Hahm, Chaihark and Kim, Sung Ho, Making We the People: Democratic Constitutional Founding in Postwar Japan and South Korea (CUP 2015).

36. Qing, Jiang, A Confucian Constitutional Order: How China's Ancient Past Can Shape Its Political Future (Princeton University Press 2013).

37. Kim, Sungmoon, Public Reason Confucianism: Democratic Perfectionism and Constitutionalism in East Asia (CUP 2016) 107137.

38. NeJaime has suggested a similar approach, but for understanding the relation of social movements to constitutional change in the United States: NeJaime (n 11) 111.

39. Pedriana, Nicholas, ‘From Protective to Equal Treatment: Legal Framing Processes and Transformation of the Women's Movement in the 1960s’ (2006) 111 American Journal of Sociology 1718, 1753.

40. ibid.

41. Mario Diani, ‘The Concept of Social Movement’ (1992) 40 The Sociological Review 1, 13.

42. Tilly, Charles, Social Movements, 1768–2004 (Paradigm Publishers 2004) 34.

43. See generally McAdam, Doug and others, ‘Introduction: Opportunities, Mobilizing Structures, And Framing Processes – Toward A Synthetic, Comparative Perspective On Social Movements’ in McAdam, Doug and others (eds), Comparative Perspectives On Social Movements: Political Opportunities, Mobilizing Structures, And Cultural Framings (CUP 1996) 1.

44. Meyer, David S, ‘Protest and Political Opportunities’ (2004) 30 Annual Review of Sociology 126.

45. Snow, David A and others, ‘Frame Alignment Processes, Micromobilization, and Movement Participation’ (1986) 51 American Sociological Review 464, 464.

46. Jenkins, J Craig, ‘Resource Mobilization Theory and the Study of Social Movements’ (1983) 9 Annual Review of Sociology 528.

47. For a detailed explanation of these three concepts, see Son, Bui Ngoc, ‘Constitutional Mobilization’ (2018) 17 Washington University Global Studies Law Review 134137.

48. Chiavacci, David and Obinger, Julia, ‘Towards a New Protest Cycle in Contemporary Japan? Resurgence of Social Movements and Confrontational Political Activism in Historical Perspective’ in Chiavacci, David and Obinger, Julia (eds), Social Movements and Political Activism in Contemporary Japan: Re-emerging from Invisibility (Routledge 2018) 1.

49. ibid 2.

50. ibid 3–8.

51. ibid 14.

52. ibid.

53. Constitution of Japan 1947, art 9.

54. For the government's constitutional interpretation and the debates surrounding this, see Yamamoto, Hajime, ‘Interpretation of the Pacifist Article of the Constitution by the Bureau of Cabinet Legislation: A New Source of Constitutional Law?’ (2017) 26 Washington International Law Journal 99; Hasebe, Yasuo, ‘The End of Constitutional Pacifism?’ (2017) 26 Washington International Law Journal 125; Martin, Craig, ‘The Legitimacy of Informal Constitutional Amendment and the ‘Reinterpretation’ of Japan's War Powers’ (2017) 40 Fordham International Law Journal 427; Yanase, Noboru, ‘Debates Over Constitutionalism in Recent Japanese Constitutional Scholarship’ (2016) 19 Social Science Japan Journal 193.

55. Hook, Glenn D and McCormack, Gavan, Japan's Contested Constitution: Documents and Analysis (Routledge 2001) 9, 1317. See also Haley, John O, ‘Article 9 in the Post-Sunakawa World: Continuity and Deterrence within a Transforming Global Context’ (2017) 26 Washington International Law Journal 1.

56. Shibuichi, Daiki, ‘The Article 9 Association, Leftist Elites, and the Movement to Save Article 9 of Japan's Postwar Constitution’ (2017) 34 East Asia 147. See also Ogawa, Akihiro, ‘Peace, a Contested Identity: Japan's Constitutional Revision and Grassroots Peace Movement’ (2011) 36 Peace and Change 373; Creighton, Millie, ‘Civil society Volunteers Supporting Japan's Constitution, Article 9 and Associated Peace, Diversity, And Post-3.11 Environmental Issues’ (2015) 26 International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations 121.

57. Shibuichi (n 56) 156.

58. Shibuichi (n 56) 150–153, 156.

59. ibid 153–158. For a comprehensive treatment of the Article 9 Association, see Yoko Iida, The Emergence of the Article 9 Association and Reorganization of Social Movements in Contemporary Japan: A Story of Network Practice for Social Change (PhD Dissertation, University of Hawai'i at Manoa 2017).

60. Shibuichi (n 56) 156–158.

61. Soble, Jonathan, ‘Japan Moves to Allow Military Combat for First Time in 70 YearsThe New York Times (New York City, 16 July 2015) <www.nytimes.com/2015/07/17/world/asia/japans-lower-house-passes-bills-giving-military-freer-hand-to-fight.html> accessed 27 April 2019.

62. Kin, Kwan Weng, ‘Constitutional fight looms over Abe's security BillsThe Straits Times (Singapore, 17 July 2015) <www.straitstimes.com/asia/east-asia/constitutional-fight-looms-over-abes-security-bills> accessed 27 April 2019.

63. Association of Scholars Opposed to the Security-related Laws, ‘Appeal by the Association of Scholars Opposed to the Security-related Bills’ (15 June 2015) <http://anti-security-related-bill.jp/index_en.html> accessed 27 April 2019.

64. ‘Over 9,000 Japanese scholars oppose Abe's security legislation,’ (Newsgd, 11 July 2015) <www.newsgd.com/news/2015-07/11/content_128192470.htm> accessed 27 April 2019.

65. ibid.

66. ‘Thousands protest before key vote on Japan security bills’ (New Delhi Television, 16 September 2015) <www.ndtv.com/world-news/thousands-protest-before-key-vote-on-japan-security-bills-1218392> accessed 15 February 2019.

67. ibid.

68. William Andrews, ‘Japanese protest movements signal new political energy’ (Counterfire, 9 November 2015) <www.counterfire.org/news/18064-japanese-protest-movements-signal-new-political-energy> accessed 27 April 2019.

69. ‘Protest rallies against security laws planned across Japan’ The Mainichi (Tokyo, 29 March 2016) <http://mainichi.jp/english/articles/20160329/p2a/00m/0na/013000c> accessed 27 April 2019.

70. ibid.

71. ibid.

72. Odaka Chiba and Takuro Negishi, ‘700 sue Japan over security laws, additional suits planned’ (The Asahi Shimbun, 27 April 2016) <www.msn.com/en-ph/news/world/700-sue-japan-over-security-laws-additional-suits-planned/ar-BBsjRX4?srcref=rss#page=2> accessed 27 April 2019.

73. ibid.

74. Motoko Rich, ‘Shinzo Abe Announces Plan to Revise Japan's Pacifist Constitution’ The New York Times (New York City, 3 May 2017) <www.nytimes.com/2017/05/03/world/asia/japan-constitution-shinzo-abe-military.html> accessed 27 April 2019.

75. Chang, Paul Y, Protest Dialectics: State Repression and South Korea's Democracy Movement (Stanford University Press 2015); Kim, Sun-Chul, Democratization and Social Movements in South Korea: Defiant Institutionalization (Routledge 2016); Shin, Gi-Wook and Chang, Paul Y (eds), South Korean Social Movements: From Democracy To Civil Society (Routledge 2011).

76. Paul Y Chang and Gi-wook Shin, ‘Democratization and Evolution of Social Movement in Korea: Institutionalization and Diffusion’ in Shin and Chang (eds) (n 75) 3.

77. ibid 4.

78. ibid.

79. ibid 3.

80. ibid 11.

81. See Sunhyuk Kim, Democratization and Social Movements in South Korea: A Civil Society Perspective, in Broadbent and Brockman (eds) (n 6) 144–152

82. ibid 4–5.

83. ibid 5.

84. Chulhee Chung, ‘Mesomobilization and the June Uprising: Strategic and Cultural Integration in Pro-democracy movements in South Korea’ in Broadbent and Brockman (eds) (n 6) 157.

85. ibid 169.

86. ibid 173.

87. Yoon, Dae-Kyu, ‘New Developments in Korean Constitutionalism: Changes and Prospects’ (1995) 4 Pacific Rim Law and Policy Journal 395, 403.

88. Chang and Shin (n 76) 3.

89. Constitutional Court of Korea, ‘History of Constitutional Adjudication’ <http://english.ccourt.go.kr/cckhome/eng/introduction/history/historyOfConsAdju.do> accessed 27 April 2019.

90. Shin, Ki-young, ‘The Politics of the Family Law Reform Movement in Contemporary Korea: A Contentious Space for Gender and the Nation’ (2006) 11 Journal of Korean Studies 93, 122.

91. ibid 113. The provision in question is art 778 of the Civil Code of the Republic of Korea, which stipulates: ‘A person who succeeds to the family lineage, or has set up branch family, or who has established a new family or has restored a family for any other reason, shall become the head of family.’ 민법/民法 [Civil Code] (promulgated by the National Assembly, 22 February 1958) Law No 471.

92. See Gaphee, Ko, ‘Introduction: a moment and movement of sex work in South Korea and Asia’ (2006) 7 Inter-Asia Cultural Studies 319.

93. 성폭력방지 및 피해자보호 등에 관한 법률 [Act on the Prevention of Sexual Traffic and Protection, etc. of Victims Thereof] (promulgated by the National Assembly, 22 March 2004) Act No 7212.

94. Kim, Seung-kyung, The Korean Women's Movement and the State: Bargaining for Change (Routledge 2014) 37.

95. ibid 61.

96. ibid 62.

97. ibid 57.

98. Global Network of Sex Work Projects (NSWP), ‘Constitutional Court in South Korea Uphold Anti-Sex Work Laws’ (NSWP, 1 April 2016) <www.nswp.org/news/constitutional-court-south-korea-uphold-anti-sex-work-laws> accessed 27 April 2019.

99. ibid.

100. South Korea upholds tough anti-prostitution lawsThe Japan Times (Tokyo, 31 March 2016) <www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2016/03/31/asia-pacific/crime-legal-asia-pacific/south-korea-upholds-tough-anti-prostitution-laws/#.WxOpLK2B1mA> accessed 27 April 2019.

101. Jee Heun Kahng, ‘South Korea prostitutes decry court ruling, demand right to work’ (Reuters, 31 March 2016) <https://in.reuters.com/article/southkorea-prostitution-idINKCN0WX0XD> accessed 27 April 2019.

102. Kim (n 94) 38.

103. Tai, Crystal, ‘South Korea's umbrella movement? How protests against Park Geun-hye exposed cracks in a “slave” democracySouth China Morning Post (Hong Kong, 17 November 2016) <www.scmp.com/week-asia/politics/article/2046970/how-mass-protests-south-korea-exposed-cracks-its-slave-democracy> accessed 27 April 2019.

104. ibid.

105. Seonhwa Kim, ‘Reforming South Korea's “Imperial Presidency”’ (Institute for Security and Development Policy, Policy Brief No 205, 10 October 2017) 2 <http://isdp.eu/publication/reforming-south-koreas-imperial-presidency/> accessed 27 April 2019.

106. Fifield, Anna, ‘South Korean president removed from office over corruption scandalThe Washington Post (Washington, D.C., 10 March 2017) <www.washingtonpost.com/world/asia_pacific/south-korean-president-impeached-from-office-over-corruption-scandal/2017/03/09/23666a46-0488-11e7-a391-651727e77fc0_story.html?noredirect=on&utm_term=.5e516c11be67> accessed 27 April 2019.

107. ‘Rival protests in Seoul over Park Geun-hye impeachment’ (Al Jazeera, 26 February 2017) <www.aljazeera.com/news/2017/02/rival-protests-seoul-park-geun-hye-impeachment-170225135031979.html> accessed 27 April 2019.

108. Sang-Hun, Choe, ‘South Korea Removes President Park Geun-hyeNew York Times (New York City, 9 March 2017) <www.nytimes.com/2017/03/09/world/asia/park-geun-hye-impeached-south-korea.html> accessed 27 April 2019.

109. Kim (n 105) 1.

110. Dae-Han Song, ‘After the Candlelight Revolution: South Korea's Constitutional Reform,’ (The Dawn News, 30 October 2017) <www.thedawn-news.org/2017/11/09/after-the-candlelight-revolution-south-koreas-constitutional-reform/> accessed 27 April 2019.

111. ibid.

112. See generally, the Special Issue: ‘Social Movement in Contemporary Taiwan’ (2010) 39 Journal of Current Chinese Affairs.

113. Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao, ‘Social Movements in Taiwan: A Typological Analysis, in East Asian Social Movements’ in Broadbent and Brockman (eds) (n 6) 237.

114. ibid.

115. ibid 237–238.

116. ibid 238.

117. ibid.

118. ibid 237.

119. ibid 238.

120. Chen, Hsin-Hsing, ‘My Wild Lily: a self-criticism from a participant in the March 1990 student movement’ (2005) 6 Inter-Asia Cultural Studies 591, 601.

121. Han Zhu, Social movements and the law in contemporary China: a comparative perspective (PhD Thesis, University of Hong Kong 2016) 94.

122. Chang (n 1) 142–46.

123. Rauhala, Emily, ‘In historic decision, Taiwanese court rules in favor of same-sex marriageThe Washington Post (Washington, DC, 24 May 2017) <www.washingtonpost.com/world/in-milestone-decision-taiwan-court-rules-in-favor-of-same-sex-marriage/2017/05/24/bf7aa370-405b-11e7-9851-b95c40075207_story.html?noredirect=on&utm_term=.7f29a1b3eacc> accessed 27 April 2019.

124. Kuo, Ming-Sung and Chen, Hui-Wen, ‘The Brown Moment in Taiwan: Making Sense of the Law and Politics of the Taiwanese Same-Sex Marriage Case in a Comparative Light’ (2017) 31 Columbia Journal of Asian Law 72, 7879.

125. ibid 147.

126. Ho, Ming-Sho, ‘Occupy Congress in Taiwan: Political Opportunity, Threat, and the Sunflower Movement’ (2015) 15 Journal of East Asian Studies 69, 6970.

127. ibid 69.

128. Dennis Engbarth, ‘Taiwanese Activists Push for Citizen-Based Constitution,’ (Inter Press Service, 5 February 2015) <www.ipsnews.net/2015/02/taiwanese-activists-push-for-citizen-based-constitution/> accessed 27 April 2019.

129. ibid.

130. ibid.

131. ibid.

132. Hawang, Shiow-duan, ‘The Influence of the Sunflower Movement on the Civic Movement in Taiwan’ (2016) 4 Studia z Polityki Publicznej [Public Policy Studies]103,125.

133. Albert, Richard, ‘American Exceptionalism in Constitutional Amendment’ (2016) 2 Arkansas Law Review 217, 220.

134. NeJaime (n 11) 894.

135. Teitel, Ruti G, ‘Transitional Jurisprudence: The Role of Law in Political Transformation’ (1997) 106 Yale Law Journal 2009, 2069 (arguing that ‘constitutional amendment comes first’ in post-communist constitutional change in Europe). See also Yeh, Jiunn-Rong and Chang, Wen-Chen, ‘The Changing Landscape of Modern Constitutionalism: Transitional Perspective’ (2009) 4 National Taiwan University Law Review 145, 150153.

136. Huq, Aziz Z and Ginsburg, Tom, ‘How to Lose a Constitutional Democracy’ (2018) 65 UCLA Law Review 78, 124 (the ‘use of constitutional amendments for anti-democratic ends’).

137. Law, David, ‘Why Has Judicial Review Failed in Japan?’ (2011) 88 Washington University Law Review 1425.

138. On the struggle for constitutionalism in other parts of Asia, see Bünte, Marco and Dressel, Björn (eds), Politics and Constitutions in Southeast Asia (Routledge 2016); Tushnet, Mark and Khosla, Madhav (eds), Unstable Constitutionalism: Law and Politics in South Asia (CUP 2015).

139. For social movements and the democratization process in different Asian states, see Cho, Hee-Yeon, Aeria, Andrew and Hur, Songwoo (eds), From unity to multiplicities: social movement transformation and democratization in Asia (Strategic Information and Research Development Centre 2012).

140. ‘What is the ‘Citizens’ Initiative for Constitutional Change’?’ (Citizens Sri Lanka) <http://citizenslanka.org/constitution-making/citizens-initiative-for-constitutional-change/> accessed 15 February 2019.

141. See Young, Ernest A, ‘Constitutionalism Outside the Courts’ in Graber, Mark and others (eds) Oxford Handbook on the U.S. Constitution (OUP 2015) 843862; Post, Robert and Siegel, Reva, ‘Popular Constitutionalism, Departmentalism, and Judicial Supremacy’ (2004) 92 California Law Review 1027, 1027–43; Balkin, Jack M and Siegel, Reva B (eds) The Constitution in 2020 (OUP 2009) (a collection of essays on progressive constitutionalism).

142. Yeh, Jiunn-rong, ‘Marching Towards Civic Constitutionalism with Sunflowers’ (2015) 45 Hong Kong Law Journal 315, 315330. For a related account drawing on a different empirical base, see Beaumont, Elizabeth, The Civic Constitution: Civic Visions and Struggles in the Path Toward Constitutional Democracy (OUP 2014).

* Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law, The Chinese University of Hong Kong. My thanks to the Centre for Asian Legal Studies (CALS) and the Asian Law Institute (ASLI) at the National University of Singapore (NUS) for supporting my participation at the conferences entitled ‘The State of Comparative Law in Asia’ and ‘Teaching Comparative Law in Asia’ on 27 and 28 September 2017, which led to my engagement in this special issue.

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