Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-684899dbb8-mhx7p Total loading time: 0.645 Render date: 2022-05-21T09:21:07.122Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true }

The DollfuΒ Ministry: The Demise of the Nationalrat

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 February 2009

Extract

The demise of Parliament in March 1933 was the most significant single act in the march to semifascism in Austria, which began with the formation of the Heimwehr in the early days of the First Republic and was well under way when significant changes were made in the government on September 21,1933, and a concentration camp was established at Wöllersdorf a few days later. Traditional democratic means were employed to abolish Parliament. Dollfuβ, the Heimwehr, and the Christian Social Party only did what parties in power in democracies do when under attack. They used all the means at their disposal to protect their government from being overthrown. The Social Democrats and Greater Germans, likewise, employed only democratic means in their effort to overthrow the Dollfuβ regime and to preserve a democratically elected Parliament. Dollfuβ and the leaders of all but the National Socialist Party in Austria were well aware of the great danger to Austria that stemmed from the intensification of National Socialist efforts to overthrow a democratic form of government in Austria after Hitler came to power in Germany and knew that the German National Socialists were providing financial support to the Austrian Greater German Party to support them in their efforts to take control of Austria.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Center for Austrian Studies, University of Minnesota 2001

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

1 Weinberg, Gerhard.L., The Foreign Policy of Hitler's Germany: Diplomatic Relations in Europe, 1933–36 (Chicago, 111.,1970), 87;Google ScholarGottfried-Karl, Kindermann, Hitler's Defeat in Austria, 1933–1934: Europe's First Containment of Nazi Expansionism (Boulder, Colo., 1988), 13;Google ScholarKoerner, Ralf Richard, Sie haben es damals gemacht. Die Propagandavorbereitungen zum Österreich-Anschluβ durch das Hitlerregime 1933 bis 1938 (Vienna, 1958), 19.Google Scholar

2 Rieth, to Bülow, , Vienna, Feb. 18, 1933, Documents on German Foreign Policy, 1918–1945, ser. C (1933–37): The Third Reich: First Phase, 3 vols. (Washington, D.C., 19571959), vol. 1, doc. 25, pp.5255.Google Scholar

3 Montbas, to Paul-Boncour, , Vienna, Feb. 6,1933, Ministére de publication des documents relatifs aux origines de la guerre 1939–1945,1st ser. (1932–35), vol. 2 (Paris, 1964), doc. 267, p. 570.Google Scholar

4 Preziosi, to Mussolini, , Vienna, Feb. 6, 1933, I documenti diplomatici italiani (hereafter Documenti), 7th ser. (1922–35), vol.13 (Rome, 1987), doc. 70, p. 75.Google Scholar

5 Preziosi, to Mussolini, , Vienna, Mar. 7,1933Google Scholar, Ibid., doc. 174, p. 186.

6 Jakoncig, to Dollfuβ, , Innsbruck, Sept. 1,1932, Allgemeines Verwaltungsarchiv (Vienna)(hereafter AVA), Bundeskanzleramt Präsidium, no. 7308-Pr./32; minister for trade and transportation to DollfuΒ, Vienna, Dec. 7,1932Google Scholar, Ibid., no. 9832-Pr./32, enclosed in no. 9742-Pr./32.

7 Wilhelm, Scheibein's speech in the Nationalrat on Feb. 15,1933, Stenographische Protokolle über die Sitzungen des Nationalrates (hereafter Nationalrat), 118th session of the 4th legislative period, p. 3043.Google Scholar

8 Otto Huber to chamber for workers and employees, Feb. 22, 1933, AVA, Bundeskanzleramt Präsidium, no. 2144-Pr./33; chairman of the federal chancellery to Jakoncig, Ibid.; Adolf, Schärf, Erinnerungen aus meinem Leben (Vienna, 1963), 114; minutes of the executive committee of the Social Democratic Party, Feb. 20, 1933 (housed in the Social Democratic Party headquarters office in Vienna), fol. 2402.Google Scholar

9 Gertrude, Enderle-Burcel, ed., Protokolle des Ministerrates der Ersten Republik. Kabinett Engelbert Dollfuβ (hereafter Kabinett Dollfuß), 7 vols. (Vienna, 1980-1986), vol. 2, no. 1847, dated Feb. 25,1933, p. 325;Google ScholarGeorg, Wagner, “Leopold Kunschak und die Schicksalsjahre 1933 und 1934,” Christliche Demokratie 2 (February 1984): 1934–1984. Konflikt und Versöhnung, 70.Google Scholar

10 Kabinett, Dollfuβ, vol. 2, no. 848, dated Feb. 28,1933, pp. 360–64, and esp. appendix A, 364–65.Google Scholar

11 Minutes of the meeting of the executive committee of the Social Democratic Party (housed in the Social Democratic headquarters in Vienna), fol. 2409.

12 Helmut, Schreiner, “Franz Rehrl im Salzburger Landtag,” in Franz Rehrl, Landeshauptmann von Salzburg 1922–1938, ed.Wolfgang, Huber (SN-Verlag, 1975), 86.Google Scholar

13 Kabinelt, Dollfuβ, vol. 2, no. 849, dated Mar. 3,1933, pp. 366–67.Google Scholar

14 Minutes of the meeting of Social Democratic Nationalrat and Bundesrat members at 11:10 A.M. on March 4,1933 (housed in the archives of the Association for the History of the Working Class, Vienna); no file numbers given.

15 Nationalrat, 125th session, Mar. 4,1933, p. 3352; Kabinett, Dollfuβ, vol. 2, no. 850, dated Mar. 4,1933, appendix A, 391.Google Scholar

16 Nationalrat, 125th session, Mar. 4,1933, p. 3352; Kabinett, Dollfuβ, vol. 2, no. 850, dated Mar. 4,1933, appendix B, 391.Google Scholar

17 Nationalrat, 125th session, Mar. 4,1933, pp. 3352–65.

18 Ibid.., 3365–70.

19 Ibid.., 3371; see also Wagner, “Leopold Kunschak,” 71–75.

20 Nationalmt, 125th session, Mar. 4,1933, p. 3372; Kabinett, Dollfuβ, vol. 2, no. 850, dated Mar. 4,1933, appendix C, 392.Google Scholar

21 Nationalrat, 125th session, Mar. 4,1933, p. 3389.

22 Ibid., 3392.

23 For the proceedings dealing with the third motion and the quarrel over the errors made in the voting, seeIbid., 3389–92, and Karl, Renner, Nachgelassene Werke, vol. 2: Österreich von der ersten zur zweiten Republik (Vienna, 1953), 128–29Google Scholar. The minutes of the Nationalrat session for this part of the discussion are reproduced in full in Heinz, Fischer, ed., Zum Wort gemeldet: Otto Bauer(Vienna, 1968), 379–89Google Scholar. For more recent shorter accounts of the March 4 meeting, among others, see Ernst, Koref, “Zum 4. März 1933—Vergeben, aber nicht vergessen,” in Anton Benya et al., Vierzig Jahre danach. Der 4. März 1933 im Urteil von Zeitgenossen und Historikern, in Veröffentlichungen des Dr.-Karl-Renner-Institutes (Vienna, 1973), 1011;Google Scholar and Heinz, Fischer, “Der Geschäftsordnungs- und Verfassungsbruch von 1933/34 im Lichte der weiteren Entwicklung des österreichischen Parlamentarismus,” in Der 4. März 1933. Vom Verfassungsbruch zur Diktatur. Beiträge zum zvissenschafilichen Symposion des Dr.-Karl-Renner-Institutes abgehalten am 28. February und 1. März in Wien, ed. Erich, Fröschl and Helge, Zoitl(Vienna, 1984), 9394.Google Scholar

24 Scharf, , Erinnerungen aus meinem Lebert, 116–17.Google Scholar

25 Otto, Bauer, Austrian Democracy under Fire (London, 1934), 42.Google Scholar Also in the German edition, Der Aufstand der österreichischen Arbeiter, as reprinted in Otto, Bauer, Werkausgabe, ed. Hugo, Pepper, vol. 3 (Vienna, 1976), 953–97.Google Scholar

26 Schumy, Nachlaß: “Heimwehr” (unpublished manuscript in the library of the Institut für Zeitgeschichte, Vienna), 85Google Scholar; Nationalrat, 125th session, Mar. 4, 1933, pp. 3392–93; Schärf, , Erinnerungen aus meinem Leben, 117Google Scholar; Friedrich, Funder, Als Österreich den Sturm bestand. Aus der Ersten in die Zweite Republik, 3rd ed. (Vienna, 1957), 65Google Scholar; Siegfried, Nasko's interview with Karl, Albrecht, Vienna, June 25, 1981, in Karl Renner in Dokumenten und Erinnerungen, ed. Siegfried, Nasko (Vienna, 1982), 179–80.Google Scholar

27 Among other accounts, see Schumy, Nachlaß: “Heimwehr,” 85Google Scholar; Koref, , “Zum 4. März im Urteil von Zeitgenossen und Historikern,” 11Google Scholar; and Schärf, , Erinnerungen aus meinem Leben, 117.Google Scholar

28 Peter, Huemer, Sektionschef Robert Hecht und die Zerstörung der Demokratie in Österreich (Vienna, 1975);Google ScholarWagner, , “Leopold Kunschak,” 85–86.Google Scholar

29 Leopold, Kunschak, Österreich 1918–1934 (Vienna, 1934), 176Google Scholar; Arnold, Winkler, Österreich. Geschichte Österreichs 1918–1945. Staatskatastrophen und Wiederaufbau. Zwei Vorträge (Vienna, 1946), 49Google Scholar; Anton, Staudinger, “Christlichsoziale Partei und Errichtung des ‘autoritaren Standestaates’” in Vom justizpakst zum Heldenplatz, ed. Ludwig, Jedlicka and Rudolf, Neck (Vienna, 1975), 69.Google Scholar

30 As quoted in Kunschak, , Österreich 1918–1934, 176.Google Scholar

31 Eva, Dollfuß, Mein Vater, Hitlers erstes Opfer (Vienna, 1994), 122–26Google Scholar; Schumy, Nachlaß: “Heimwehr,” 85–87Google Scholar; Alexander, Hryntschak, “Erinnerungen” (unpublished manuscript in the library of the Institut für Zeitgeschichte, Vienna), 7376Google Scholar; “Verfassungsbrüche des Regierungssystems Dollfuß” (anonymous unpublished manuscript in the library of the Institut fur Zeitgeschichte, Vienna), 3–4.Google Scholar

32 Oskar, Helmer, Fünfrig Jahre erlebte Geschichte (Vienna, 1957), 128.Google Scholar

33 As quoted in Fuhder, , Als Österreich den Sturm bestand, 65–66; it is quoted in greater length in Dollfuß, Mein Vater, 125.Google Scholar

34 Kerekes, , Abenddämmerung einer Demokratie. Mussolini, Gömbös und die Heimwehr (Vienna, 1966), 133Google Scholar; Gerald, Stourzh and Birgitta, Zaar, eds., Österreich, Deutschland und die Mächte. Internationale und österreichische Askpekte des “Anschlusses” vom März 1938 (Vienna, 1990), 321.Google Scholar

35 Minutes of the 10:10 A.M. meeting on Mar. 7, 1933, in Protokolle des Klubvorstandes der Christlichsozialen Partei 1932–1934, ed. Walter, Goldinger, in Studien und Quellen zur österreichischen Zeitgeschichte, vol. 2 (Vienna, 1980), 132Google Scholar. A good summary of the proceedings can be found in Erika, Weinzierl, “Aus den Notizen von Richard Schmitz zur österreichischen Innenpolitik im Frühjahr 1933,” in Geschichte und Gesellschaft. Festschrift für Karl R. Stadler zum 60. Geburtstag, ed. Gerhard, Botz, Hanna, Hautmann, and Helmut, Konrad (Vienna, 1974), 118120.Google Scholar

36 Minutes of the 10:30 A.M. meeting on Mar. 7,1933 in Protokolle, ed. Goldinger, 137.Google Scholar

37 Ibid., 133–34.

38 Ibid., 136.

39 Ibid., 134.

40 Ibid., 133.

41 AVA, Chr. Soz. Partei, Parlamentsklub, carton 63: Hauptausschuß, Staats Konferenz; no folio number given.

42 Kabinett Dollfuß, vol. 2, no. 851, dated Mar. 7,1933, p. 393.Google Scholar

43 Ibid., 393–94.

44 Ibid., 395–98; Anton, Rintelen, Erinnerungen an Österreichs Weg (Munich, 1941), 213Google Scholar; Franz, Winkler, Die Diktatur in Oesterreich (Zurich, 1935), 4445Google Scholar; Huemer, , Sektionschef Robert Hecht, 162.Google Scholar

45 Kabinett Dollfuß, vol. 2, no. 851, dated Mar. 7, 1933, p. 398; Dollfuß, Mein Voter, 129.Google Scholar

46 Order of the federal government dated Mar. 7,1933, concerning measures to repress disturbances of the public peace, order, and security damaging to economic life, Bundesgesetzblatt für die Republik Österreich, Jahrgang 1933, 16. Stück, dated Mar. 8,1933, no. 41, p. 296.Google Scholar

47 Kabinett Dollfuβ, vol. 2, no. 851, dated Mar. 7,1933, appendix E, 403–4.Google Scholar

48 Winter, Ernst Karl, “Die Staatskrise in Österreich,” Wiener Politische Blätter 1, no. 1 (April 16, 1933): 28.Google Scholar

49 Kurt, Schuschnigg, Dreimal Österreich, 2nd ed. (Vienna, 1937), 216Google Scholar. See also Huemer, , Sektionschef Robert Hecht, 163.Google Scholar

50 As quoted in Franz, Goldner, Dollfuss int Spiegel der US-Akten. Aus den Archiven des Secretary of State—der US. Botschaften Wien - Berlin - Rom - London - Paris - Prag (St. Polten, 1979), 27Google Scholar, and in Helmut, Wohnout, Regierungsdiktatur oder Ständeparlament? Gesetzgebung im autoritären Österreich, in Studien ZM Politik und Verwaltung, vol. 43 (Vienna, 1993), 61.Google Scholar

51 Ernst, Rüdiger Prince Starhemberg, Between Hitler and Mussolini: Memoirs (New York, 1942), 108.Google Scholar

52 Morreale, to Jacononi, , Vienna, Mar. 9, 1933, Documenti, vol. 13, doc. 190, pp. 203–4.Google Scholar

53 Schumy, Nachlaß: “Heimwehr,” 86. For the views of the Italian minister in Vienna, see Preziosi, to Mussolini, , Vienna, Mar. 9, 1933, Documenti, vol. 13, doc. 189, pp. 201–3.Google Scholar

54 The phrase bandied about by the government's supporters, that Parliament could no longer be resurrected, has been challenged by most scholars. See especially Gerhard, Botz, “Die Ausschaltung des Nationalrates und die AnfÄnge der Diktarur Dollfuß' im Urteil der Geschichtsschreibung von 1933 bis 1973,” in Vierzig Jahre danach, ed. Benya, et al. , 37–40Google Scholar; and Peter, Kostelka, “Der Verfassungsbruch aus rechtsdogmatischer Sicht,” in Der 4. März 1933, ed. Fröschl, and Zoitl, , 123–35.Google Scholar

55 Fritz, Braun, “Der politische Lebensweg des Bürgermeisters Richard Schmitz. Beiträge zur Innenpolitik der Ersten Republik Österreich und zur Geschichte der Christlichsozialen Partei” (Ph.D. diss., University of Vienna, 1968), 247; “Verfassurigsbrüche des Regierungssystems Dollfuß” (anonymous unpublished manuscript in the library of the Institut für Zeitgeschichte, Vienna), 3.Google Scholar

56 Theodor, Veiter, “Das 34er Jahr.” Bürgerkrieg in Österreich (Vienna, 1984), 121, 123.Google Scholar

57 Huemer, , Sektionschef Robert Hecht, 163–64.Google Scholar

58 Since it was taken over by the 1920 constitution the decree was still valid, but it pertained only to economic matters and the provisioning of the people and not to matters regarding press freedom and the right of assembly. See Hilde, Verena Lang, “Wilhelm Miklas,” in Vom Justizpalast zum Heldenplatz, ed. Jedlicka, and Neck, , 195.Google Scholar

59 Ibid., 192–95; Hilde, Verena Lang, “Bundespräsident Miklas und das autoritäre Regime 1933–1938” (Ph.D. diss., University of Vienna, 1972), 1617Google Scholar; Heinrich, Schneidmadl, Über Dollfuβ zu Hitler (Vienna, 1964), 25.Google Scholar

60 Dollfuß, , Mein Vater, 229.Google Scholar

61 Minutes of the meeting of the executive committee of the Social Democratic Party at 6:00 P.M. on March 8, 1933 (housed in the Social Democratic Party headquarters), fols. 24113–14.

62 Minutes of the meeting of the above committee at 11:00 A.M. on Mar. 8,1933, Ibid., fols. 2412–13.

63 Minutes of the executive committee of the Christian Social Party together with the provincial governors at 10:30 A.M. on Mar. 9, 1933, in Protokolle, ed. Goldinger, 139–41.Google Scholar

64 Ibid., 148.

65 Dollfu, , Mein Voter, 131.Google Scholar

66 Minutes of the executive committee of the Christian Social Party together with the provincial governors at 10:30 A.M. on Mar. 9, 1933, in Protokolle, ed. Goldinger, 143–46Google Scholar. See also Weinzierl, , “Aus den Notizen von Richard Schmitz,” 121–22.Google Scholar

67 Minutes of the executive committee of the Christian Social Party together with the provincial governors at 10:30 A.M. on Mar. 19, 1933, in Protokolle, ed. Goldinger, 148.Google Scholar

68 Ibid., 149–50.

69 Ibid., 151.

70 Ibid., 156–57.

71 Schneidemadl, , Über Dollfuβ zu Hitler, 28–29.Google Scholar

72 Dieter, Ross, Hitler und Dollfuβ. Die deutsche Österreich-Politik 1933–1934 (Hamburg, 1966), 1920; Kabinett Dollfuβ, vol. 2, no. 853, dated Mar. 9,1933, appendix A, 423.Google Scholar

73 Kabinett Dollfuβ, vol. 2, no. 853, dated Mar. 9,1933, 417–23.

74 Ibid., appendix A, 423.

75 For a discussion of the proposal by the executive committee of the Christian Social Party, see the minutes of the meeting of the executive committee of the Christian Social Party together with the provincial governors at 3:30 P.M. on Mar. 9, 1933, in Protokolle, ed. Goldinger, , 158–59.Google Scholar

76 Kabinett Dollfuβ, vol. 2, no. 853, dated Mar. 9, 1933, appendix B, 423; for the whole debate, see 417–23.

77 Rauch, to Dollfuβ, , Vienna, Mar. 10, 1933, AVA, Bundeskanzleramt, Präsidium, no. 2925-Pr./33, enclosed in no. 3830-Pr./32Google Scholar. See also Miklas, to Rauch, , Vienna, Mar. 11, 1938Google Scholar, Ibid.., no. 2925-Pr.33; Miklas, to Dollfuβ, , Vienna, Mar. 11, 1933Google Scholar, Ibid.; and Winkler, Die Diktatur in Österreich, 50.

78 Kabinett Dollfuβ, vol. 2, no. 855, dated Mar. 12, 1933, para. 1, pp. 431–32.

79 Documenti, 7th ser., 12:183, n. 1.

80 Kerekes, , Abenddämmerung einer Demokratie, 183; Wohnout, Regierungsdiktatur oder Ständestaat? 60.Google Scholar

81 For a summary of these denunciations, see Charles, Gulick, Austria from Habsburg to Hitler, 2vols. (Berkeley, Calif., 1948), 2:1028–33.Google Scholar

82 Winkler, , Die Diktatur in Oesterreich, 45.Google Scholar

83 See Rath, R. John, “The Deterioration of Democracy in Austria, 1927–1932,” Austrian History Yearbook 27 (1996): 214–19.Google Scholar

84 Friedrich, WeissensteinerGoogle Scholar, introduction to Wilhelm, Ellenbogen, Menschen und Prinzipien. Erinnerungen, Urteile und Reflexionen eines kritischen Sozialdemokraten, ed. Friedrich, Weissensteiner (Vienna, 1981), 12Google Scholar; Otto, Leichter, Zwischen zwei Diktaturen. Österreichs Revolutionäre Sozialisten 1934–1938 (Vienna, 1968), 50.Google Scholar

85 Bauer's, speech to the Viennese party functionaries, as reported in the Arbeiter Zeitung, Mar. 11, 1933, and reprinted in Otto Bauer, Werkausgabe, ed. Pepper, 6:575, 577–78; for the entire speech, see 567–79.Google Scholar

86 Minutes of the meeting of the executive committee of the Social Democratic Party on Mar. 13,1933 (housed in the Social Democratic Party headquarters office in Vienna), fol. 2415.

87 Minutes of the meeting of the leaders of the majority parties at 10:00 A.M. on Mar. 14, 1933, in Protokolle, ed. Goldinger, 174.

88 Bundesgesetzblatt für die Republik Österreich, Jahrgang, 1933,20. Stück, dated Mar. 14, 1933, no. 55, p. 317; minutes of the meeting of the leaders of the majority parties at 10:00 A.M. on Mar. 14, 1933, in Protokolle, ed. Goldinger, , 174–84.Google Scholar

89 Minutes of the meeting of the leaders of the majority parties at 10:00 A.M. on Mar. 14, 1933, in Protokolle, ed. Goldinger, 174–84.Google Scholar

90 Kabinetl Dollfuβ, vol. 2, no. 857, dated Mar. 14, 1933, para. 1, pp. 461–63.

91 Ibid., no. 858, dated Mar. 15,1933, appendix C, 469–70.

92 Kabinett, Dollfuβ, vol. 2, no. 858, dated Mar. 15, para. 1, p. 464.Google Scholar

93 Ibid., appendix C, 471–72; Otto, Leichter, Glanz und Ende der Ersten Republik. Wie es zum österreichischen Bürgerkrieg kam (Vienna, 1964), 177.Google Scholar Because of his dilatoriness in locking the doors of Parliament, the police president of Vienna, Franz Brandl, was removed from his post a day later. SeeKabinet, Dollfuβ, vol. 2, no. 859, dated Mar. 17,1933, para. 19, pp. 480–83.Google Scholar

94 Constitutional law of December 7,1929, making some changes in the October 1,1920, constitution, section 25, article 55, in Texte zur österreichischen Verfassungsgeschichte. Von der Pragmatischen Sanktion zur Bundesverfassung (1713–1966), ed. Heinz, Fischer and Gerhard, Silvestri(Vienna, 1970), 237.Google Scholar See also Wohnout, , Regierungsdiktatur oder Ständeparlament? 64–66.Google Scholar

95 Dollfuβs, speech at the Christian Social Party congress at Salzburg on May 5,1933, as quoted in Funder, Als Österreich den Sturm bestand, 66–67. The same idea is voiced in Dollfuβs remarks at the 10:30 A.M. meeting on Mar. 9, 1938, of the executive committee of the Christian Social Party together with the provincial governors; Goldinger, ed.,Protokolle, 140.Google Scholar

96 SeeRath, R. John, “ The Dollfuβ Ministry: The Intensification of Animosities and the Drift toward Authoritarianism, ”Austrian History Yearbook 30 (1999): 100101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

97 See also Funder, , Als Österreich den Sturm bestand, 67.Google Scholar

98 Leichter, , Glanz und Ende, 171.Google Scholar

99 Julius, Deutsch, Ein weiter Weg. Lebenserinnerungen (Vienna, 1960), 191.Google Scholar

100 Bauer, , Austrian Democracy under Fire, 43.Google Scholar

101 Morreale, to Jacomoni, , Vienna, Mar. 27,1933, Documenti, vol. 13, doc. 310, p. 337.Google Scholar

102 Morreale, to Jacomini, , Vienna, Mar. 30,1933Google Scholar,Ibid. doc. 318, p. 344.

103 Prezioni to Mussolini, Vienna, Mar. 29,1933, ibid.., doc. 318, p. 344.

2
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

The DollfuΒ Ministry: The Demise of the Nationalrat
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

The DollfuΒ Ministry: The Demise of the Nationalrat
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

The DollfuΒ Ministry: The Demise of the Nationalrat
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *