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The Molding of Engelbert Dollfuß as an Agrarian Reformer

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 February 2009

R. John Rath
Affiliation:
Professor Emeritus of History, Rice University and the University of Minnesota

Extract

Engelbert Dollfuss has not been enshrined in history as a popular political figure. The National Socialists vilified him as a Satanic evildoer who embodied everything they hated. Dollfuß's widow and two children found it imperative to flee to Switzerland immediately after the Anschluss and eventually went to Canada, where Mrs. Dollfuß and their daughter remained until 1956. Their son still lives there.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Center for Austrian Studies, University of Minnesota 1997

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References

1 Nicoladoni-Dollfuß, Eva, “Wo bin ich zu Hause? Wo ist meine Heimat?Die Presse, 04 21–22, 1979Google Scholar. Few reliable source materials are available for a study of Dollfuß's life. Aside from a small number of tracts dealing with agricultural problems, the chancellor wrote very little. Much of what has been written about him in various biographies or other accounts dealing with his early life must be used with care. The biographies written shortly after his death (Maurer, Hans, Kanzler Dollfuß, 2nd ed. [Graz, 1934]Google Scholar; Messner, Johannes, Dollfuss [Innsbruck, 1935]Google Scholar; Bleibtreu, A. R., Der Heldenkanzler. Ein Lied von der Scholle [Vienna, 1934]Google Scholar; von Hildebrand, Dietrich, Engelbert Dollfuß. Ein katholischer Staatsmann [Salzburg, 1934]Google Scholar; and Gregory, J. D., Dollfuss and His Times [London, 1935]Google Scholar) are hagiographies seeking to enshrine him as the prophet of the new age. Equally laudatory is Rambaud, Louis's Le Grand petit Chancelier Dollfuss 1892–1934 (Lyon, 1948)Google Scholar. More reliable is a work influenced to a considerable extent by interviews with many people who knew Dollfuß personally in which some of the unproven stories in the above works are repeated, Brook-Shepherd, Gordon's Dollfuss (London, 1961)Google Scholar; except for the omission of all photographs appearing in that volume, another edition was published as Prelude to Infamy: The Story of Chancellor Dollfuss of Austria (New York, 1961)Google Scholar. More reliable still is the study of Dollfuß's life before he became chancellor by Miller, James William, “Engelbert Dollfuss and Austrian Agriculture: An Authoritarian Democrat and His Policies” (Ph.D. diss., University of Minnesota, 1985)Google Scholar, a German translation of which was published as Engelbert Dollfuss als Agrarfachmann. Eine Analyse bäuerlicher Führungsbegriffe und österreichischer Agrarpolitik 1918–1934 (Vienna, 1989)Google Scholar. By far the most reliable study of Dollfuß's early life is Jagschitz, Gerhard, “Die Jugend des Bundeskanzlers Dr. Engelbert Dollfuss. Ein Beitrag zur geistig-politischen Situation der sogenannten ‘Kriegsgeneration’ des 1. Weltkriegs” (D.Phil, diss., University of Vienna, 1967).Google Scholar

2 The information is based on my own observations during my visit on Apr. 20, 1979, and on Gregory, , Dollfuss and His Times, 3438Google Scholar; Miller, , -Engelbert Dollfuss als Agrarfachmann, 2021Google Scholar; Weber, Edmund, ed., Dollfuß an Oesterreich. Eines Mannes Wort und Ziel, authorized edition with fourteen photos (Vienna, 1935), 3Google Scholar; and Hantsch, Hugo, ed., “Engelbert Dollfuss (1892–1934)” in Gestalter der Geschicke Österreichs (Innsbruck, 1962), 611–12.Google Scholar

3 My account of Dollfuß's birth and early life has been based largely on Jagschitz, , “Die Jugend des Bundeskanzlers,” 719Google Scholar; and Dollfuß, Eva, Mein Vater. Hitlers erstes Opfer (Vienna, 1994), 316Google Scholar. The date of 1607 appears in an excerpt from a speech by Dollfuß at Neusiedl am See on May 21, 1934, as reprinted in Tautscher, Anton, compiler, So sprach der Kanzler. Dollfuß' Vermächtnis (Vienna, 1933), 141.Google Scholar

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5 On Hollabrunn, see Jagschitz, , “Die Jugend des Bundeskanzlers,” 2123Google Scholar; Dollfuß, , Mein Vater, 1415Google Scholar; and Brook-Shepherd, , Dollfuss, 1011Google Scholar. For Dollfuß's grades in the elementary school at Kirnberg, see Schul-Chronik Kirnberg an der Mank, passim. A spot check of overall grades, however, shows that “1” or “2” does not denote the degree of perfection that it might in a school with really tough grading standards. Quite a few “1s” and “2s” appear in the Chronik. I also noted some “4s” and “5s” and a fairly good sprinkling of “3s.” All in all, Dollfuß was a good student but by no means the only one with such grades. It is difficult to agree with Bleibtreu when he writes: “The child has finished elementary school and radiantly brings home the lovely testimonial: ‘He was the best in the whole class—and also the best behaved,’ the teacher said” (Bleibtreu, , Der Heldenkanzler, 17Google Scholar). Some of this information also derives from notes on an interview with Mayor Karl Hess of Texing, who was also principal of the Texing elementary school, and MrSalzer, Anton at Texing, both on 04 20, 1979.Google Scholar

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19 See especially ibid., 88–112. Jagschitz's account of Dollfuß's role in the war—based on many primary sources in the archives, private letters, and conversations with Dollfuß's friends—is the only one worthy of serious consideration. The most detailed and best of the accounts published shortly after Dollfuß's death is Gregory, , Dollfuss and His Times, 5787Google Scholar. See also Dollfuß, , Mein Vater, 2841Google Scholar. For a good account of the fighting on the Italian front during the last year of the war, see Hanks, Ronald W., Il tramento di un'istituzione. L'armata austro-ungarica in Italia (1918) (Milan, 1994).Google Scholar

20 Jagschitz, , “Die Jugend des Bundeskanzlers,” 118Google Scholar. See also Wandruszka, Adam, “Die Erbschaft von Krieg und Nachkrieg,” in Österreich 1927 bis 1938, Protokoll des Symposiums in Wien 23 bis 28 Oktober 1972 (Vienna, 1973), 23.Google Scholar

21 Mauser, Rosa, “Die Genesis des politischsozialen Ideengutes des Bundeskanzlers Dr. Engelbert Dollfuss” (D.Phil, diss., University of Vienna, 1959), 3.Google Scholar

22 On Dollfuß's virtues, see Jagschitz, , “Die Jugend des Bundeskanzlers,” 112–21Google Scholar. On his admiration of Francis Joseph, see Winter, Ernst Karl, Christentum und Zivilisation (Vienna, 1936), 372–75Google Scholar. On his loyalty to the young republic, see Nicoladoni-Dollfuß, , “Engelbert Dollfuß— Agrarpolitiker und Staatsmann,” 6.Google Scholar

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24 Jagschitz, , “Die Jugend des Bundeskanzlers,” 185–87Google Scholar. “It has often been pointed out that Othmar Spann's ideas were important for my father, and this was certainly so”; Dollfuß, , Mein Vater, 47.Google Scholar

25 Haag, John, “Othmar Spann and the Quest for a ‘True State,’Austrian History Yearbook 12–13, pt. 1 (19761977): 236, 238–39 (quote)Google Scholar. For a solid, detailed study of Spann's life and ideas, see especially Haag, 's “Othmar Spann and the Politics of ‘Totality’: Corporatism in Theory and Practice” (Ph.D. diss., Rice University, 1969).Google Scholar

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28 Simon, , Österreich 1918–1938, 116.Google Scholar

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30 Miller, , “Engelbert Dollfuss and Austrian Agriculture,” 33.Google Scholar

31 Haag, , “Othmar Spann and the Quest for a ‘True State,’” 237Google Scholar. See also Diamant, , Austrian Catholics, 236Google Scholar; and Miller, , Engelbert Dollfuss als Agrarfachmann, 2930.Google Scholar

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33 Diamant, , Austrian Catholics, 233.Google Scholar

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35 Haag, , “Othmar Spann and the Quest for a ‘True State,’” 236.Google Scholar

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38 “Whoever, in the spirit of the new constitution, helps to make corporative life full of vitality in Austria is thereby fulfilling Dr. Seipel's legacy, … and is thereby also resuming the spiritual heritage that six centuries of the flowering period of German history is handing down” (Dollfuß's speech in Vienna on May 1, 1934, as reprinted in Tautscher, , compiler, So sprach der Kanzler, 57Google Scholar). Note also Dollfuß's assertion in a speech in Geneva, on 09 27, 1933Google Scholar: “The encyclical ‘Quadragesimo anno’ is the Magna Carta of the Austrian constitution” (ibid., 15). Rosa Mauser maintains that no connection between Dollfuß's and Spann's ideas can be proved; see Mauser, , “Die Genesis des politischsozialen Ideengutes,” 125.Google Scholar

39 Suvich, to Preziosi, Gabriele, Rome, 04 16, 1934Google Scholar, I documenti diplomatici italiani, 7th ser., vol. 15 (Rome, 1990), doc. no. 104, p. 125Google Scholar. On Spann's resentment, see Miller, , Engelbert Dollfuss als Agrarfachmann, 32.Google Scholar

40 See especially Krause, , “CV und Politik in Österreich 1918–1938,” 105–9Google Scholar. On Winter, see Marko, Joseph, “Ernst Karl Winter. Wissenschaft und Politik als Beruf(ung) 1918–1938,” in Geistiges Leben Österreich der Ersten Republik, 201–2Google Scholar (see n. 15); and Winter, , Christentum und Zivilisation, 377Google Scholar. On C.V. interest in the social question, see Gregory, , Dollfuss and His Times, 91.Google Scholar

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42 Ibid., 175–81; Rambaud, , Le Grand petit Chancelier Dollfuss, 4849Google Scholar; Miller, , Engelbert Dollfuss als Agrarfachmann, 25Google Scholar. On Dollfuß's lifelong C.V. ties, see Nicoladoni-Dollfuß, , “Engelbert Dollfuß— Agrarpolitiker und Staatsmann,” 8.Google Scholar

43 Krause, , “CV und Politik in Österreich 1918–1938,” 111, 115Google Scholar. Also see especially Fopp, , CV in Österreich, 161–64.Google Scholar

44 Paragraph 34, as quoted in Miller, , “Engelbert Dollfuss and Austrian Agriculture,” 26Google Scholar. See also Jagschitz, , “Die Jugend des Bundeskanzlers,” 72Google Scholar; Miller, , Engelbert Dollfuss als Agrarfachmann, 2526Google Scholar; and Diamant, , Austrian Catholics, 1423.Google Scholar

45 Diamant, , Austrian Catholics, 2325.Google Scholar

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47 Czermak, Emmerich, “Memoiren,” in a folder entitled “Politische Köpfe” in the Zermak Nachlaß housed in the Institut für Zeitgeschichte in ViennaGoogle Scholar; Dollfuß, , Mein Vater, 44Google Scholar; Winter, , Christentum und Zivilisation, 377Google Scholar; Jagschitz, , “Die Jugend des Bundeskanzlers,” 140–44Google Scholar; Mauser, , “Die Genesis des politischsozialen Ideengutes,” 5.Google Scholar

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50 As related in Maurer, , Kanzler Dollfuß, 2425Google Scholar. Similar accounts can also be found in Rambaud, , Le Grand petit Chancelier Dollfuss, 4950Google Scholar; Brook-Shepherd, , Dollfuss, 34Google Scholar; and Gregory, , Dollfuss and His Times, 100101Google Scholar. See also Dollfuß, , Mein Vater, 4647.Google Scholar

51 Jagschitz, , “Die Jugend des Bundeskanzlers,” 193, 199200Google Scholar; Miller, , Engelbert Dollfuss als Agrarfachmann, 33Google Scholar. On early ties with peasant leaders, see Czermak, , “Memoiren” (no page numbers).Google Scholar

52 For a good account of Sonnenschein's life and works, see Thrasolt, Ernst, Dr. Carl Sonnenschein. Der Mensch und sein Werk (Munich, 1930), especially 147–55, 215221Google Scholar. See also Jagschitz, , “Die Jugend des Bundeskanzlers,” 7578.Google Scholar

53 Part of this treatise was published in the Agrarische Rundschau in 1934. Dollfuß, Engelbert, “Begriff der Genossenschaft. Bemerkungen über Einheit und Freiheit im Gemeinschaftsleben,” Agrarische Rundschau 2, no. 1 (Summer 1934): 117 (quote at 1).Google Scholar

54 Ibid., 1; as translated by Miller, in his “Engelbert Dollfuss and Austrian Agriculture,” 41.Google Scholar

55 Dollfuß, , “Begriff der Genossenschaft,” 12.Google Scholar

56 Ibid., 2–3.

57 Ibid., 5.

58 Ibid., 6.

59 Ibid., 8. Here and in preceding sentence Dollfuß is quoting Otto von Gierke.

60 Ibid., 13–14.

61 Miller, , “Engelbert Dollfuss and Austrian Agriculture,” 14Google Scholar; translated into German in Miller, , Engelbert Dollfuss als Agrarfachmann, 36.Google Scholar

62 Jagschitz, , “Die Jugend des Bundeskanzlers,” 207–8, 212–13Google Scholar; Dollfuß, , Mein Vater, 4954Google Scholar; Maurer, , Kanzler Dollfuß, 26Google Scholar; Brook-Shepherd, , Dollfuss, 35.Google Scholar

63 Their oldest child, a girl, died at an early age.

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68 Miller, , Engelbert Dollfuss als Agrarfachmann, 15Google Scholar. “Thanks to its organizational development up to now, the peasant class is the first to have a good form of organization today on a basis that has always been corporative and that can be taken into the new era”; Dollfuß, 's speech in Vienna on 02 2, 1934Google Scholar, as excerpted in Tautscher, , compiler, So sprach der Kanzler, 25.Google Scholar

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106 Dollfuß, 's speech at the International Hospital Cashiers' Congress on 09 11, 1928Google Scholar, as printed in Dollfuß an Oesterreich, ed. Weber, 183 (see n. 2).Google Scholar

107 Brook-Shepherd, , Dollfuss, 39.Google Scholar

108 For Dollfuß's awareness of the difficulties raised by these factors, see especially Dollfuß, Engelbert, “Sozialversicherung in der Land- und Forstwirtschaft,” Die Landwirtschaft, Jahrgang 1927, no. 11 (11 1927): 407–8Google Scholar. For the objections of the Social Democrats, see Bauer, Otto's speech in the Nationalrat on 03 3, 1927Google Scholar, as printed in Zum Wort gemeldet. Otto Bauer (Vienna, 1968), 167–72.Google Scholar

109 For a discussion of the long and convoluted struggle to get the health insurance bill for agricultural workers passed, see Miller, , “Bauerndemokratie in Practice,” 410–11Google Scholar; idem, Engelbert Dollfuss als Agrarfachmann, 7881Google Scholar; and Maurer, , Kanzler Dollfuß, 2729Google Scholar. For the provisions of the law, see “Das Landarbeiterversicherungsgesetz,” Die Landwirtschaft, Jahrgang 1929, no. 1 (01 1929): 34Google Scholar; and Mertha, Rudolf and Dollfuß, Engelbert, Die Sozialversicherung in der Landwirtschaft Österreichs. Nach dem Stande von Ende März 1929 (Vienna, 1929)Google Scholar. See also the following pamphlets authored or coauthored by Engelbert Dollfuß, published in Vienna in 1929 by Agrarverlag under the title Die Altersfürsorgerente in der Land- und Forstwirtschaft Österreichs. The individual subtitles of the pamphlets are as follows: Eine Anleitung für Wien, Niederösterreich und Burgenland; Eine Anleitung für Oberösterreich (with W. Hans); Eine Anleitung für Steiermark (with K. Weinzierl); Eine Anleitung für Kärnten (with S. Stotter); and Eine Anleitung für Salzburg, Tirol und Vorarlberg (with F. Koch).

110 Kraus, , Bauern, 4748Google Scholar; Otruba, , ‘“Bauer’ und ‘Arbeiter,’” 57Google Scholar; “Gegen die Verschleppung der Zolltarifnovelle. Eine Entschließung der Vollversammlung der n.-ö. Landes-Landwirtschaftskammer,” Die Landwirtschaft, Jahrgang 1927, no. 7 (07 1927): 247–48Google Scholar; Hofrat, Dr. Winter, “Die derzeitige zollpolitische Lage der österreichischen Landwirtschaft,” Die Landwirtschaft, Jahrgang 1927, no. 8 (08 1927): 287–89.Google Scholar

111 Strobl, , “Kanzler Dollfuß als Agrarier,” 6165Google Scholar; “In Gedenken an Bundeskanzler Dr. Engelbert Dollfuß,” 188–90Google Scholar; Eder, Julius, Kanzler Dollfuß. Seine österreichische Sendung (Vienna, 1933), 1011.Google Scholar

112 For accusations against Zwetzbacher, see Winkler, Franz, Die Diktatur in Oesterreich (Zürich, 1935), 16Google Scholar. On Dollfuß's reputation as an expert, see Kluge, , Bauern, Agrarkrise und Volksernährung, 372–73Google Scholar (on Reither, 's appointment, 371)Google Scholar; Strobl, , “Kanzler Dollfuß als Agrarier,” 6465Google Scholar; Maurer, , Kanzler Dollfuß, 2930Google Scholar; and Brook-Shepherd, , Dollfuss, 41–12.Google Scholar

113 Bauer, Otto, Sozialdemokratische Agrarpolitik. Erläuterung des Agrarprogrammes der deutschösterreichischen Sozialdemokratie (Vienna, 1926)Google Scholar; interview with Chancellor Bruno Kreisky at Kreisky's home at Armbrustergasse, 1 in Vienna on 07 9, 1986Google Scholar. Kreisky also told the same story to Dollfuß's daughter; see Nicoladoni-Dollfuß, , “Engelbert Dollfuß—Agrarpolitiker und Staatsmann,” 8Google Scholar, and Dollfuß, , Mein Vater, 6162.Google Scholar

114 For Dollfuß, 's appointment on 07 22Google Scholar, see Minister for Trade and Commerce Schuster to Chancellor Schober, , Vienna, , 08 8, 1930Google Scholar, Allgemeines Verwalrungsarchiv (Vienna), BK Inneres. Präsidium, carton 58, no. 8097, Pr./1930; Neue Freie Presse, 10 2, 1930 (morning edition), 6Google Scholar; and Maurer, , Kanzler Dollfuß, 30.Google Scholar

115 Maurer, , Kanzler Dollfuß, 31Google Scholar; Brook-Shepherd, , Dollfuss, 4344Google Scholar; Gregory, , Dollfuss and His Times, 139.Google Scholar

116 Gulick, Charles A., Austria from Habsburg to Hitler, 2 vols. (New York, 1948), 2:901–3Google Scholar; Staudinger, Anton, “Bemühungen Carl Vaugoins um Supremetie der christlichsozialen Partei in Österreich (1930–1933)” (D.Phil, diss., University of Vienna, 1969), 27Google Scholar; Andics, Helmut, 50 Jahre unseres Lebens. Österreichs Schicksal seit 1918 (Vienna, 1968), 189.Google Scholar

117 For a lengthy discussion in the council of ministers about the advisability of appointing Strafella, see the minutes of the ministerial council no. 649 dated Vienna, 09 24, 1930Google Scholar, as printed in Vom Justizpalast zum Heldenplatz. Studien und Dokumentationen, ed. Jedlicka, Ludwig and Neck, Rudolf (Vienna, 1975), 296302Google Scholar (on Banhans, , 296–97).Google Scholar

118 Neue Freie Presse, 09 29, 1930 (evening edition), 2Google Scholar; ibid, Oct. 2, 1930 (morning edition), 6; ibid., Oct. 15, 1930 (evening edition), 6; ibid., Oct. 22, 1930 (evening edition), 1; Nachlaß, Schumy, pt. 3: “Heimwehr” (unpublished manuscript in the library of the Institut für Zeitgeschichte, Vienna), 6768.Google Scholar

119 Renner's speech in the Nationalrat in response to Chancellor Ender's announcement of his government's program on Dec. 5, 1930, as printed in Fischer, Heinz, ed., Karl Renner. Porträt einer Evolution (Vienna, 1970), 351–52Google Scholar. See also Stenographische Protokolle über die Sitzungen des Nationalrates, 3rd session of the 4th legislative period (19301932), 1:1920.Google Scholar

120 Chancellor Ender, Otto's speech in the Nationalrat on 12 5, 1930Google Scholar, Stenographische Protokolle über die Sitzungen des Nationalrates, 3rd session of the 4th legislative period (19301932), 1:15Google Scholar. Dollfuß praised Strafella's work as railway president and gave him considerable credit for his energetic work in pushing through many needed reforms; see Verwaltungsarchiv, Allgemeines (Vienna), Ministerratsprotokoll no. 699, 06 5, 1931, carton 139, para. 13, pp. 1124Google Scholar. These minutes can also be found in Vom Justizpalast zum Heldenplatz, ed. Jedlicka and Neck, 311–15.Google Scholar

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122 For improvements in railway management, see Verwaltungsarchiv, Allgemeines (Vienna), Ministerratsprotokoll no. 699, 06 5, 1931, carton 139, para. 13Google Scholar; also reprinted in Vom Justizpalast zum Heldenplatz, ed. Jedlicka and Neck, 311–14Google Scholar. For Social Democratic consternation, see, among other things, Knosp, Joseph's speech in the Nationalrat on 02 18, 1931Google Scholar, Stenographische Protokolle über die Sitzungen des Nationalrates, 18th session of the 4th legislative period (19301932), 1:565–68Google Scholar; Bauer, Otto's speech in the Nationalrat on 02 10, 1931Google Scholar, ibid., 13th session of the 4th legislative period, 291Google Scholar; and Ellenbogen, Wilhelm's speech in the Nationalrat on 05 5, 1931Google Scholar, ibid., 27th session of the 4th legislative period, 772–81.Google Scholar

123 He was replaced by Edgar Penzig, an industrialist, the director of the Bad Vöslau yarn factory; Verwaltungsarchiv, Allgemeines (Vienna), Ministerratsprotokoll no. 679, 03 18, 1931, carton 139, para. 1, p. 2Google Scholar. For Dollfuß's appointment to his new post, see Chancellor Ender, to the president of the Bundesrat, 03 18, 1931Google Scholar, Stenographische Protokolle über die Sitzungen des Bundesrates, 160th session on 03 31, 1931, of the 4th legislative period, p. 1689.Google Scholar

124 For a lengthy discussion of the arguments over Strafella's dismissal in the ministerial council, see Verwaltungsarchiv, Allgemeines (Vienna), Ministerratsprotokoll no. 699, 06 5, 1931, para. 13, pp. 1114Google Scholar; reprinted in Vom Justizpalast zum Heldenplatz, ed. Jedlicka and Neck, 311–15.Google Scholar

125 For Dollfuß's activities and speeches at European conferences, see especially Weber, Edmund, “Der Agrarpolitiker Dr. Dollfuß und der europäische Wirtschaftsraum,” Agrarische Rundschau 2, no. 2 (Summer 1935): 110–26.Google Scholar

126 Kraus, , “Der Österreichische Bauernbund,” 152Google Scholar. For the two problems facing Dollruß, see Kluge, , Bauern, Agrarkrise und Volksernährung, 357–58Google Scholar. On limiting the free-market economy, see Miller, , Engelbert Dollfuss als Agrarfachmann, 91Google Scholar; and Stepan, Rainer, “Dollfuß, die Parlamentsausschaltung 1933 und das Jahr 1934,” Christliche Demokratie 2, no. I (02 1984)Google Scholar: Konflikt und Versöhnung, 121.Google Scholar

127 Manhalter, Rudolf, speech in the Nationalrat on 05 29, 1931Google Scholar, Stenographische Protokolle über die Sitzungen des Nationalrates, 32nd session of the 4th legislative period (19301932), 1:896–97Google Scholar; Stoiber, Jakob, “Agrarpolitische Bilanz des Jahres 1932,” Die Landwirtschaft, Jahrgang 1933, no. 1 (01 1933): 2Google Scholar; Kraus, , Bauern, 51.Google Scholar

128 Dollfuß, Engelbert, “Wie helfen wir der österreichischen Landwirtschaft?” Die Landwirtschaft, Jahrgang 1932, no. 1 (01 1932): 2Google Scholar. On the importance of a strong agricultural economy, see Manhalter, Rudolf, speech in the Nationalrat on 05 29, 1931Google Scholar, Stenographische Protokolle über die Sitzungen des Nationalrates, 32nd session of the 4th legislative period (19301932), 1:896Google Scholar; and Miller, , Engelbert Dollfuss als Agrarfachmann, 102.Google Scholar

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130 Dollfuß, 's speech in the Nationalrat on 10 22, 1931Google Scholar, Stenographische Protokolle über die Sitzungen des Nationalrates, 52nd session of the 4th legislative period (19301932), 4:1302Google Scholar; Strobl, , “Kanzler Dollfuß als Agrarier,” 13Google Scholar; Strobl, Ludwig, “Das Viehverkehrsgesetz in Wirkung,” Die Landwirtschaß, Jahrgang 1932, no. 1 (01 1932): 45.Google Scholar

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133 Sturm, Josef report, 10 31, 1931Google Scholar, Stenographische Protokolle über die Sitzungen des Bundesrates, 170th session of the 4th legislative period (19301932), p. 1704Google Scholar; Maurer, , Kanzler Dollfuß, 39Google Scholar; Kober, Rudolf, “Das Alpmeliorationswesen in Oesterreich,” Die Landwirtschaft, Jahrgang 1932, no. 7–8 0708 1932): 164–65.Google Scholar

134 Dollfuß, 's speech in the Nationalrat on 10 22, 1931Google Scholar, Stenographische Protokolle über die Sitzungen des Nationalrates, 52nd session of the 4th legislative period (19301932), 4:1305Google Scholar; Haunold, Sepp, “Der Milchausgleichsfonds,” Die Landwirtschaft, Jahrgang 1932, no. 1 (01 1932): 68Google Scholar; Miller, , Engelbert Dollfuss als Agrarfachmann, 121–22Google Scholar; Maurer, , Kanzler Dollfuß, 38.Google Scholar

135 Dollfuß, 's proposal to the Council of Ministers on 05 15, 1931Google Scholar, Verwaltungsarchiv, Allgemeines (Vienna), Ministerratsprotokoll no. 691, carton 139, para. 2, pp. 35Google Scholar; Miller, , Engelbert Dollfuss als Agrarfachmann, 124Google Scholar. On the geographical restrictions, see Kluge, , Bauern, Agrarkrise und Volksemährung, 380–81Google Scholar; and Stöchler, Josef report, 07 21, 1931Google Scholar, Stenographische Protokolle über die Sitzungen des Bundesrates, 166th session of the 4th legislative period (19301932), p. 1750.Google Scholar

136 Dollfuß, 's speech in the Nationalrat on 10 22, 1931Google Scholar, Stenographische Protokolle über die Sitzungen des Nationalrates, 52nd session of the 4th legislative period (19301932), 4:1302, 1304–6Google Scholar; Weigl, Richard's speech in the Nationalrat on 05 29, 1931Google Scholar, ibid., 32nd session of the 4th legislative period (19301932), 4:890–91.Google Scholar

137 Miller, , Engelbert Dollfuss als Agrarfachmann, 119–21, 124–28.Google Scholar

138 On these improvements and tensions, see Kluge, , Bauern, Agrarkrise und Volksernährung, 388–89Google Scholar. On animosity between small- and large-scale growers, see Kluge, , “Engelbert Dollfuß. Agrarpolitiker in der Krisenzeit,” 137–38Google Scholar; Hareter, Alexander's speech in the Nationalrat on 04 29, 1931Google Scholar, Stenographische Protokolle über die Sitzungen des Nationalrates, 26th session of the 4th legislative period (19301932), 1:761Google Scholar; Adolf Müller's speech in the Nationalrat on the same day, ibid., pp. 750–51; and Abram, Simon's speech in the Nationalrat on 06 30, 1931Google Scholar, ibid., 39th session of the 4th legislative period (19301932), 1:1032–33.Google Scholar

139 Kluge, , Bauern, Agrarkrise und Volksernährung, 394, 405.Google Scholar

140 Strobl, , “Kanzler Dollfuß als Agrarier,” 61Google Scholar. See also Kluge, , Bauern, Agrarkrise und Volksernährung, 372.Google Scholar

141 Kluge, , Bauern, Agrarkrise und Volksernährung, 392–93 (here, 392).Google Scholar

142 Renner, to Dollfuß, , Vienna, 12 31, 1931Google Scholar, in Nasko, Siegfried, Karl Renner in Dokumenten und Erinnerungen (Vienna, 1982), 111.Google Scholar

143 Stein, Viktor's speech in the Nationalrat on 07 14, 1931Google Scholar, Stenographische Protokolle über die Sitzungen des Nationalrates, 42nd session of the 4th legislative period (19301932), 4:1066–67.Google Scholar

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145 Freundlich, Emmy's speech in the Nationalrat on 05 29, 1931Google Scholar, ibid., 32nd session of the 4th legislative period (1930–32), p. 809. For complaints over increased prices, see especially her speech on June 30, 1931, ibid., 39th session of the 4th legislative period (19301932), pp. 1035–36.Google Scholar

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148 Schuschnigg, Kurt, Dreimal Österreich, 2nd ed. (Vienna, 1937), 166.Google Scholar

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150 Koerner, Ralf Richard, So haben sie es damals gemacht. Die Propagandavorbereitungen zum Österreichanschluß durch das Hitlerregime 19331938 (Vienna, 1958), 175Google Scholar; Jagschitz, , “Engelbert Dollfuss 1892 bis 1934,” 197Google Scholar; Böhm, Wilhelm, “Februar 1934,” Österreich in Geschichte und Literatur 2, no. 2 (1958): 74.Google Scholar

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152 Quotations are from Schärf, Adolf, Erinnerungen aus meinem Leben (Vienna, 1965), 113Google Scholar; and Helmer, Oskar, 50 Jahre erlebte Geschichte (Vienna, [1957]), 158.Google Scholar

153 Deutsch, , Ein weiter Weg, 184–85.Google Scholar

154 Seipel, to Mataja, Heinrich, 03 30, 1930Google Scholar, in Weinzierl-Fischer, Erika, Die österreichischen Konkordate von 1855 und 1933 (Vienna, 1960), 209 n. 133Google Scholar. For Dollfuß's opposition to Seipel in 1931, see von Klemperer, Klemens, Ignaz Seipel, Christian Statesman in a Time of Crisis (Princeton, N.J., 1972), 423–26.Google Scholar

155 Sources place Dollfuß's height as measured at various times between 151 and 154 centimeters (or 4' 11 4/10” and 5' 7/10”). See Maurer, , Kanzler Dollfuß, 18Google Scholar; Messner, , Dollfuss, 5Google Scholar; Rambaud, , Le Grand petit Chancelier Dollfuss, 39Google Scholar; Brook-Shepherd, , Dollfuss, 16Google Scholar; and Jagschitz, , “Die Jugend des Bundeskanzlers,” 125–26.Google Scholar

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157 Renner, Karl, Nachgelassene Werke, vol. 2: Österreich von der ersten zur zweiten Republik (Vienna, 1953), 113–14.Google Scholar

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159 Kluge, , Bauern, Agrarkrise und Volksernährung, 367.Google Scholar

160 See Jagschitz, Gerhard, “Von der Demokratie zum Ständestaat,” in Österreich 1918–1938, edited by the Institut für österreichkunde (Vienna, 1970), 5861Google Scholar; and Miller, , Engelbert Dollfuss als Agrarfachmann, 139–41Google Scholar. For an excellent evaluation of Dollfuß's ideas and practices as an agricultural leader, see especially Kluge, , Bauern, Agrarkrise und Volksernährung, 365–74.Google Scholar

161 See Miller, , Engelbert Dollfuss als Agrarfachmann, 140–41.Google Scholar

162 Strobl, , “Kanzler Dollfuß als Agrarier,” 58Google Scholar; Kluge, , Bauern, Agrarkrise und Volksernährung, 365.Google Scholar

163 See Rath, R. John, “The Deterioration of Democracy in Austria, 1927–1932,” Austrian History Yearbook 27 (1996): 224–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

164 See Maleta, Alfred, “Dr. Engelbert Dollfuss,”Google Scholar in idem, Bewältigte Vergangenheit. österreich 1932–1940 (Graz, 1981), 177.Google Scholar

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