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A Question of Empire: Leopold I and the War of Spanish Succession, 1701–1705

  • Linda Frey (a1) and Marsha Frey (a2)
Extract

The War of Spanish Succession (1701–1714), one of the major international conflicts of the eighteenth century, sought to resolve the greatest diplomatic issue of the day: the partition of the Spanish empire. This essay focuses on the Austrian emperor Leopold I's diplomatic efforts in the courts of the Maritime Powers to obtain the Spanish inheritance during the first years of that conflict. The early years of the war (between 1701 and 1705) were a formative period in the development of Habsburg foreign policy. The problems that plagued the Maritime Powers after Leopold's death in 1705, such as the disputes over the deployment of troops, the differences of opinion over precisely how the Spanish empire should be divided and the policy to be followed in dealing with the Hungarian rebels and the elector of Bavaria, and the questions that arose over the alliances with Portugal and Savoy were all either existing or anticipated during the latter years of his reign.

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1 Elliott, John H.. Imperial Spain (London: Edward Arnold. Publisher, 1963). p. 354. For Charles Il's character, see ibid., pp. 356–357; Lynch, John, Spain under the Habshurgs (2 vols.. New York: Oxford University Press. 1969). Vol. 11, pp. 2 and 229; and Arnold Gaedeke, Die Polilik Öslerreichs in der spanischen Erhfolgefrage (2 vols., Leipzig: Duncker and Humblot, 1877), Vol. I, p. 52.

2 See the appendix.

3 Grimblot, Paul (ed.), Letters of William III and Louis XIV and of Their Ministers (2 vols., London: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1848), Vol. 11, p. 528.

4 Sutton to Blathwayt, August 17, 1700, British Museum, Additional Manuscripts, No. 9736, Fo. 71.

5 For good analyses of the problem of Spanish Succession, see Grimblot, Letters of William III and Louis XIV, pp. 483–573; Churchill, Winston S., Marlborough, His Life and Times (2 vols., London: George C. Harrap and Co., 1947), Vol. I, pp. 451457;Lodge, Richard, “The Spanish Succession,” History, new ser.. Vol. Xll (1927–28), pp. 333336;Reynald, Hermile, Succession d'Espagne (2 vols., Paris: E. Plonetcie., 1883);Lamberty, G. de, Memoires pour servir a I'histoire du XVIII ième siècle (14 vols., The Hague: H. Schleurleer, 1724–40), Vol. I, pp. 1162; and de Stuers, John, Étude historique sur les droits successoraux de la reine Marie Thèrése de France (Geneva: Éditions Suzerenne, 1949).

6 Pressure from parliament and the United Provinces forced William III to recognize Philip as king of Spain. Wratislaw, the imperial representative in London, reported that the states-general had told William that the delays in recognizing Philip “etoient sujets à des interpretations maligne come si tout leur but n'avoit est que de gagner du temps, pour se mettre en état de faire la guerre.” See Wratislaw's report of March I, 1701, Haus-, Hof- und Staatsarchiv (Vienna) (hereafter cited as “Staatsarchiv [Vienna]”), England, Carton XXXIII, Fos. 1–3.

7 Sutton to Blathwayt, Vienna, December 2, 1700, British Museum, Additional Manuscripts, No. 9736, Fos. 117.

8 The emperor did not declare war on Louis XIV until May, 1702. Even after Leopold I began hostilities in Italy the French ambassador remained in Vienna because “neither the Emperor or the French King are willing to understand the war in Italy as a rupture.” Stepney to Hedges, Vienna, July 20, 1701, Public Record Office (London), Stale Papers, Germany, 105/63. See also Stepney to Blathwayt, Vienna, June 29. 1701, British Museum, Additional Manuscripts, No. 9720, Fos. 27–28. The marquis of Villars did not leave Vienna until after July 28, 1701, and Count Sinzendorf remained in Paris until after August 24, 1701. Also consult Stepney to Ellis, Vienna, July 27, 1701, ibid., No. 28,909, Fo. 86; Stepney to Ellis, Vienna, August 24, 1701, ibid., Fo. 95. For Franco-Austrian attitudes toward the Spanish Succession question, see Grimblot, I jams of William III and Louis XIV, Vol. II, pp. 519–544; Louis André, Louis XIV et I'Europe (Paris. 1950), pp. 289–292; Max Braubach, Versailles und Wien von Ludwig XIV bis Kaunit: (Bonn: Ludwig Rohrscheid Verlag, 1952); Sorel, Albert (ed.), Recueil des instructions donnees au.x ambassadeurs el niinislres de France: Aulriche, Vol. 1 (Paris: Felix Alcan, 1884), pp. 129136; Jean Dumont (ed.). Corps universe! diplomatique du droit des gens. Vol. VIII. Pt. 1 (Amsterdam: P. Brunei, J. Wetstein, and G. Smith, 1731), pp. 10–31; Alfred Arneth (ed.), “Hauptbericht des Grafen Philipp Ludwig von Sinzendorf an Kaiser Leopold I,” Archiv für Kunde osterreichischer Geschichts-Quellen, Vol. XIII (1854), pp. 1–70; and Sinzendorf reports, January IAugust 10, 1701, Staatsarchiv (Vienna), Frankreich, Carton XXII.

9 Hugo Hantsch, Die Entwicklung Österreich-Ungarns zur Grossmucht (Freiburg im Breisgau: Herder, 1933), p. 80;Hantsch, Hugo, Die Geschichte Österreichs (2 vols.. Vienna: Verlag Styria, 1947), Vol. II, p. 94.

10 Thomson, Mark A., “Louis XIV and the Origins of the War of the Spanish Succession,” in Hatton, Ragnhild and Bromley, J. S. (eds.), William III and Louis XIV. Essays 1680–1720 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1968), pp. 151152;Sorel, , Recueil. Autriche, Vol. I; Auerbach, Bertrand (ed.), Recueil, Diète Germanique, Vol. XVI11 (Paris: Félix Alcan, 1912);Lebon, André (ed.), Recueil, Bavière. Palatinat, Deux Points, Vol. VII (Paris: Félix Alcan, 1889);Livet, Georges (ed.), Recueil, Étals Allemandes, Vol. XVIII (Paris: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1963). Since the Recueil is a multivolume work in which new volumes edited by different historians appear in print every year or so, we are identifying each appropriate book only with the name of the editor and the country to which it refers.

11 Wines, Roger, “The Imperial Circles, Princely Diplomacy and Imperial Reform, 1681–1714,” The Journal of Modern History, Vol. XXXIX (03, 1967). pp. 129.

12 For the text of the Treaty of the Grand Alliance, see Lamberty, , Mémories pour servir à I'hisloire du XVIIIièeme siècle. Vol. I, pp. 620628; Trevelyan, George Macaulay (ed.). Select Documents for Queen Anne's Reign, 1702–1709 (Cambridge, England: University Press, 1929), pp. 5–9; and Public Record Office (London), State Papers, Germany, 105/64/27/30. For Leopold I's views on the alliance, see Wratislaw to Leopold, March 11, 1701, Staatsarchiv (Vienna), England, Carton XXXIII, Fos. 33–42; Wratislaw to Leopold, March 15, 1701, ibid., Fos. 43–51; Wratislaw's memoir of May 22, 1701, ibid., Fos. 48—49; and Hedges to Wratislaw, May 28, 1701, ibid., Fo. 46.

13 Churchill, Marlborough, Vol. I, pp. 473–474.

14 Robethon, “A Letter Written to One of the Members of Parliament” in 1692, Stadtarchiv (Hanover), No. 16,692, p. 174. See also Coxe, William (ed.), Private and Original Correspondence of Charles Talbol, Duke of Shrewsbury (London: Longmans, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, 1821), pp. 360361.

15 Pribram, Alfred Francis, Austria-Hungary and Great Britain, 1908–1914 (London: Oxford University Press, 1951), pp. 12;Firth, C. H., “England and Austria,” Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 3rd ser.. Vol. XI (1917), pp. 16 and 34.

16 Firth, “England and Austria,” p. 6; Algemeene Rijksarchief (The Hague), Archief Staten Generaal, Lias Engeland, Nos. 5928–5930, 6007–6008, and passim.

17 Vernon to Shrewsbury, December 19, 1704, British Museum, Additional Manuscripts, No. 9090, Fos. 184185.See also Hatton, Ragnhild, Europe in the Age of Louis XIV (London: Thames and Hudson, 1969), p. 113.

18 Marlborough to Heinsius, January 10, 1708, Algemeene Rijksarchief (The Hague), Archief Heinsius, No. 2384, Fo. 65d.

19 Trevelyan, George Macaulay, England under Queen Anne (3 vols., New York: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1934), Vol. 11, p. 288.

20 Swift, Jonathan, The Conduct of the Allies and of the Late Ministry in Beginning and Carrying on the Present War (London: John Morphew, 1711), p. 12.

21 John, Henry St., Viscount Bolingbroke, Works, Vol. VI (London: G. G. and J. Robinson, 1754), p. 41.See also Defoe, Daniel, A Further Search into the Conduct of the Allies (London: J. Baker, 1712), p. 4;Bolingbroke, Viscount, The Representation of the Right Honourable Lord Viscount Bolingbroke (London: John Morphew, 1715), pp. 8, 9, and 12; and John, Henry St., Viscount Bolingbroke, Works, Vol. II (Philadelphia, Pa.: Carey and Hart, 1841), pp. 456461.

22 Bolingbroke, , Works, Vol. VI, pp. 3637. See also A Few Words upon the Examiner's Scandalous Peace (London: n. p., 1711);Hare, Francis, The Management of the War in a Letter to a Tory Member (London: A. Baldwin, 1711), pp. 12; and Hare, Francis, The Works of the Right Reverend and Learned Dr. Francis Hare (4 vols., London: E. Owen, 1746), Vol. IV, pp. 188281.

23 Gaeddert, Dale Albert, “The Franco-Bavarian Alliance during the War of the Spanish Succession” (unpublished doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, 1969);König, Georg Friedrich, “König Wilhelm 111, Bayern, und die Grosse Allianz,” Historische Zeitschrift, Vol. XVIII (1904), pp. 193229;Legrelle, Arsène, La diplomatie française el la succession d' Espagne (6 vols., Paris: Fl. Ballé-Plus, 1892), Vol. V, pp. 3952;Lebon, Recueil, Bavière, Vol. VII; Wratislaw reports on January 15 and 30 and March 30, 1703, Staatsarchiv (Vienna),England, Carton XXXVII, Fos. 56–57, 52–53, and 91–93; Bruyninx to Heinsius, December 30, 1702, Algemeene Rijkarchief (The Hague), Archief Heinsius, No. 764; Stepney to Hedges, Vienna, July 30 and August 30, 1702, Public Record Office (London), Slate Papers. Germany, 105/65; Stepney to Albemarle, Vienna, July 16 and August 20, 1701, British Museum, Additional Manuscripts, No. 9720.

24 Fieldhouse, H. N., “St. John and Savoy in the War of the Spanish Succession,” English Historical Review, Vol. L (1935), p. 279;Beaucaire, Comte Horris de (ed.), Recueil. Savoie-Sardaigne, Vol. XIV (Paris: Félix Alcan, 1898), p. 211;Blackley, William (ed.), The Diplomatic Correspondence of the Right Honourable Richard Hill (2 vols., London: John Murray, 1845), Vol. I. pp. 244245, 260–261, 269–270. and 420–473; and Vol. II, p. 850; Hedges to Whitworth, November 23, 1702, British Museum, Additional Manuscripts, No. 37,351; Stepney, to Hedges, , October 18, 1702. Public Record Office (London), State Papers, Germany, 105/66.

25 Hedges to Stepney. Whitehall, July 27, 1702, British Museum, Additional Manuscripts, No. 7059, Fo. 259; Stepney to Hedges, Vienna, March 1, 1703, Public Record Office (London), State Papers, Germany, 105/67/322; Stepney to Hedges, Vienna, October 25, 1702, ibid., 105/66; Klopp, Onno, Der Fall des Houses Stuart (14 vols., Vienna: Wilhelm Braumüller, 1879), Vol. X, pp. 213214; memoir included in a report dated September 26, 1702, Staatsarchiv (Vienna), England, Carton XXV, Fos. 53–54.

26 Heinsius to Marlborough, The Hague, October 27, 1702, Algemeene Rijksarchief (The Hague), Archief Heinsius, No. 72; Heinsius to Marlborough, January 9, 1703, ibid., No. 74; memorial to the emperor, dated October 15, 1703, Algemeene Rijksarchief (The Hague), Archief Stolen Generaal, No. 6585; Hedges to Stepney, Whitehall, October 27, 1702, Public Record Office (London), State Papers, Miscellaneous. 104/200/386.

27 Stepney to Hedges, April 22, 1702, Public Record Office (London), State Papers. Germany. 80/20; Stepney to Hedges, Vienna, November 19, 1702; memorial dated October 27, 1702; Stepney to Hedges, November 29, 1702; memorial dated December 2, 1702; and Stepney to Hedges, December 23. 1702, all in ibid., 80/19; Stepney to Ellis, Vienna, June 27, 1703, British Museum, Additional Manuscripts. No. 28,914, Fo. 157; t'Hoff, B. Van (ed.). The Correspondence 1701–1711 of John Churchill. First Duke of Marlborough and Anlhonie Heinsius, Grand Pensionary of Holland (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1941), pp. 4041;Francis, A. D., The Methuens and Portugal 1691–1708 (Cambridge, England: University Press, 1966), p. 108;Kamen, Henry, The War of the Succession in Spain 1700–1715 (Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 1969), pp. 9495;Saint-Aymour, Vicomte de Caix (ed.), Recueil. Portugal. Vol. III (Paris: Félix Alcan, 1886), pp. 211239;Legrelle, , La diplomatie française et la succession d' Espagne, Vol. V, pp. 6062.

28 Stepney to Hedges, Vienna, July 4, 1703, Public Record Office (London), State Papers, Germany, 105/69; emperor's ratification of the defensive and offensive alliance with Portugal of July 3, 1703, ibid., 108/133. For a copy of the treaty, see ibid., 105/68/389–390.

29 Bruyninx to Heinsius, Vienna, June 22, 1701, Algemeene Rijksarchief (The Hague), Archief Heinsius No. 709; Klopp, , Der Fall des Houses Stuart, Vol. IX, p. 433; Wratislaw reports of October 18 and December 27, 1701, and December 22, 1703, Staatsarchiv (Vienna), England, Carton XXXIII, Fos. 39–42, 25–30, and 5–7; Stepney to Vernon, March 18 and February 8, 1702, Public Record Office (London), State Papers, Germany, 80/18.

30 Bruyninx to Heinsius, April 28, 1703, Algemeene Rijksarchief (The Hague), Archief Heinsius, No. 842.

31 Stepney to Hedges, Vienna, February 7, 1703, Public Record Office (London); Stale Papers. Germany, 105/67; Stepney to Vernon, Vienna, February 8, 1702, ibid., 80/18; Bruyninx to Heinsius, Vienna, February 15 and April 18, 1702, Algemeene Rijksarchief (The Hague), Archief Heinsius, No. 764; Hanoteau, Jean, Recueil. Rome, Vol. XVII (Paris: Felix Alcan, 1911). p. 286287.

32 Instructions from Lamberg, July 20, 1701, Staatsarchiv (Vienna) England, Carton XXXIV, Fos. 5–10; Wratislaw report of May 9, 1702, ibid., Carton XXXV, Fo. 38; Hoffman report of May 16, 1702, ibid., Carton XXXVI, Fos., 25–26; reply to Wratislaw's proposals of April 15, dated May 2, 1702, Public Record Office (London), Stale Papers. Germany, 104/202/186; Stepney to Vernon, Vienna, March 4, 1702, ibid., 80/18; Bruyninx to Heinsius, Vienna, December 30, 1702, Algemeene Rijksarchief (The Hague), Archief Heinsius, No. 764.

33 See the report entitled “Troops destined for Italy in 1703,” in Public Record Office (London), Slate Papers. Germany, 105/67/235–240.

34 Stepney to Ellis, Vienna, April 11, 1703, ibid., 105/68; Stepney to Hedges, Vienna, October 24, 1703, ibid., 80/21; Owen, John, War at Sea under Queen Anne (Cambridge, England: University Press, 1938), p. 43.

35 Harley to Stepney, July 16, 1704, Public Record Office (London), State Papers. Germany, 104/37; Ellis to Stepney, Whitehall, September 16, 1704, British Museum, Additional Manuscripts, No. 28,916, Fo. 7; Prince Eugene Francis of Savoy, Feldzüge (21 vols., Vienna: Verlag des K. K. Generalstabes, 1876–92), Vol. VI, pp. 209–310; Blackley, The Diplomatic Correspondence of the Right Honourable Richard Hill, Vol. 1, pp. 365–366; Van t'Hoff, The Correspondence of John Churchill and Anthonie Heinsius, pp. 141, 144, and 146.

36 Gallas memoir of September 4, 1705, and Queen Anne's reply of September 9, 1705, Public Record Office (London), State Papers. Germany, 105/76; Gallas reports of September 11 and 25, 1705, Staatsarchiv (Vienna), England, Carton XXXIX; Prinz Eugen, Feldzüge, Vol. VII, pp. 92–187; Braubach, Max, Prinz Eugen von Savoyen (5 vols., Vienna: Verlag fur Geschichte und Politik, 1965), Vol. II, pp. 142144; Churchill, Marlborough, Vol. II, pp. 79–192.

37 Klopp, Der Fall des Houses Stuart, Vol. XII, pp. 221–222; Raby to Robethon, Berlin, April 2, 1707, Stadtarchiv (Hanover), No. 16,693; Godolphin to Marlborough, May 9, 1707, British Museum, Additional Manuscripts, No. 9099, Fos. 14–15; Godolphin to Marlborough, May 20, 1707, ibid., Fo. 59; Salms to Churchill, Vienna, May 4, 1707, ibid., Fos. 7–9; Taylor, Frank, The Wars of Marlborough (2 vols., Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1921), Vol. II, pp. 4951.

38 Churchill, Marlborough, Vol. 11, pp. 163–175 and 219–220; Trevelyan, England under Queen Anne, Vol. II, pp. 142–144 and 294.

39 Stepney to Hedges, Vienna, October 20, 1703, Public Record Office (London), State Papers, Germany, 80/23; Stepney to Harley, Vienna, July 19, 1704, ibid.

40 Duparc, Pierre (ed.), Recueil, Venise, Vol. XXVI (Paris: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, n. d.), p. 127; Gallas memoir of May 6,1706, Staatsarchiv (Vienna), England, Carton XL; Stepney to Harley (private), Vienna, June 23, 1706, Public Record Office (London), State Papers, Germany, 105/77; Harley to Stepney, Whitehall, October 20, 1704, ibid., 80/23/103; Stepney to Hedges, November 19, 1704, ibid., 80/24; Stepney to Harley, October 16,1704, ibid.; Stepney to Hedges, November 22,26, and 29, and December 17, 1704, ibid.

41 Sutton to Blathwayt, Neustadt, August 27, 1700, British Museum, Additional Manuscripts, No. 9736, Fo. 76; Bruyninx to Heinsius, Vienna, November 9, 1701, Algemeene Rijksarchief (The Hague), Archief Heinsius, No. 709; Klopp, Der Fall des Houses Stuart, Vol. XI, pp. 46–48; Prinz Eugen, Feldzüge, Vol. V, pp. 137–285; Hedges to Stepney, Whitehall, January 10, 1703, Public Record Office (London), State Papers, Germany, 105/67/135; Mensi, Franz, Die Finanzen Osterreichs von 1701 bis 1740 (Vienna: Hof-Verlags- und Universitat-Buchhandlung, 1890).

42 Churchill, Marlborough, Vol. I, pp. 473–474.

43 Status report on imperial regiments on December 24, 1701, British Museum, Additional Manuscripts, No. 9721, Fo. 64; Stepney to Harley, August 7, 1706, ibid., No. 7059, Fos. 155–156; Heinsius to Marlborough, June 3, 1704, Algemeene Rijksarchief (The Hague), Archief Heinsius, No. 76; Coxe, William (ed). Memoirs of the Duke of Marlborough (3 vols., London: George Bell and Sons, 1905), Vol. I, p. 383; Taylor, The Wars of Marlborough, Vol. I, pp. 271–272.

44 Whitworth to Hedges, Vienna, January 16, 1704, British Museum, Additional Manuscripts, No. 37,351, Fo. 369.

45 Churchill, Marlborough, Vol. 1, pp. 712–713; Whitworth to Hedges, December 26, 1703, British Museum, Additional Manuscripts, No. 37,351, Fo. 280; States General to Leopold 1, November 27, 1703, ibid., Fos. 287–289; Gwyn to Halifax, Hanover, December 20, 1703, British Museum, Egenon Manuscripts, No. 929, Fo. 52; Bruyninx to Heinsius, Vienna, March 14, 1703, Algemeene Rijksarchief (The Hague) Archief Heinsius, No. 842; Harley to Sunderland, Whitehall, July 28, 1705, Public Record Office (London), State Papers, Germany, 104/39/65.

46 Stepney to Harley, Vienna, March 18, 1705, Public Record Office (London), State Papers, Germany, 105/75

47 Stepney to Cardonnel, Vienna, February 28, 1705, ibid.; Stepney to Harley, Vienna, February 4, 1705, ibid., 80/25.

48 Memoir dated September 10, 1702, ibid., 80/20; memoir of December 20, 1702, British Museum, Additional Manuscripts, No. 37,156, Fos. 83–84; memoir of November 22, 1702, ibid., Fo. 129.

49 Stepney to Vernon, March 24, 1702, Public Record Office (London), State Papers, Germany, 80/18; Vernon to Stepney, Whitehall, March 31, 1702, ibid., 105/65; Bruyninx to Heinsius, Vienna, February 7, 1703, Algemeene Rijksarchief (The Hague), Aichief Heinsius, No. 842.

50 Gaeddert, “The Franco-Bavarian Alliance during the War of Spanish Succession,” passim; Lebon, Recueil, Baviere, Vol. VII, pp. 104–117 and 119; Legrelle, La diplomalie francaise el la succession d'Espagne, Vol. V, pp. 39–52; Stepney to Hedges, Vienna, July 30 and August 30, 1702, Public Record Office (London), State Papers, Germany, 105/65; Stepney to Albemarle, July 16 and August 20, 1701, British Museum, Additional Manuscripts, No. 9720.

51 Wratislaw reports, January 15 and March 30, 1703, Staatsarchiv (Vienna), England, Carton XXXVII, Fos. 52–53 and 56–57; Queen Anne to Wratislaw, January 27, 1703, Public Record Office (London), State Papers, Germany, 100/10; Hedges to Stepney, Whitehall, January 23, 1703, Public Record Office (London), State Papers, Miscellaneous. 104/200/416; Bruyninx to Heinsius, Vienna, February 7, 1703, Algemeene Rijksarchief (The Hague), Archief Heinsius, No. 842.

52 Whitworth to Hedges, Vienna, January 16, 1704, British Museum, Additional Manuscripts, No. 37,351, Fo. 369; reply sent to Wratislaw on April 4, 1704, Public Record Office (London), State Papers. Germany, 102/10/223; Stepney to Marlborough, Berlin, February 26, 1704, ibid., 80/23.

53 Churchill, Marlborough, Vol. 1, pp. 721–722; Taylor, The Wars of Marlborough, Vol. 1, p. 152; Stepney to Hedges, Vienna, March 26, 1704, Public Record Office (London), State Papers, Germany, 105/71/445; instructions of April 4,1704, British Museum, Additional Manuscripts, No. 28,947, Fos. 254–255.

54 Gaeddert, “The Franco-Bavarian Alliance during the War of Spanish Succession,” pp. 150–152; Stepney to Harley, October 10, 1704, Public Record Office (London), State Papers, Germany, 80–24.

55 Gaeddert, “The Franco-Bavarian Alliance during the War of Spanish Succession,” pp. 152–154; Stepney to Harley, Vienna, January 2, 1706, Public Record Office (London), State Papers, Germany, 80/28; Stepney to Secretary of State, Tyrnau, May 3,1706, ibid., 105/77; Stepney to Harley, Vienna, December 7,1705, Indiana University Library, Stepney Letters.

56 Sutton to Stepney, Pera of Constantinople, November 27, 1703, British Museum, Additional Manuscripts, No. 7075, Fo. 125; Sutton to ?, Pera of Constantinople, November 27, 1703, ibid., No. 37,352.

57 Klopp, Der Fall des Houses Stuart, Vol. XI, p. 215; Stanhope to Hedges, The Hague, January 1, 1704, Public Record Office (London), Slate Papers, Holland, 80/226; Bruyninx to Heinsius, January 9, 1704, Algemeene Rijksarchief (The Hague), Archief Heinsius, No. 919.

58 Harley to Stepney, Whitehall, September 12, 1704, British Museum, Additional Manuscripts, No. 37,352, Fo. 336; Stepney to Cardonnel, Vienna, June 28, 1706, Public Record Office (London), State Papers, Germany, 105/77. many, 105/77.

59 Halifax to Marlborough, The Hague, August 18, 1706, British Museum, Additional Manuscripts, No. 9096, Fo. 180; Stepney to Harley, Vienna, n. d., ibid., No. 7059, Fos. 180–182.

60 Marlborough to Godolphin, Helchin, July 29, 1707, and Meldert, July 7, 1707, ibid., No. 9100, Fo. 76; Godolphin to Marlborough, Windsor, July 5, 1707, ibid., Fo. 16.

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