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Whose Enlightenment?

  • Franz L. Fillafer

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The Enlightenment seems out of kilter. Until fairly recently, its trajectories were beguilingly simple and straightforward. Devised by Western metropolitan masterminds, the Enlightenment was piously appropriated by their latter-day apprentices in Central and Eastern Europe. This process of benign percolation made modern science, political liberty, and religious toleration trickle down to East-Central Europe. The self-orientalizing of nineteenth-century Central European intellectuals reinforced this impression, making concepts that were ostensibly authentic and pristine at their “Western” sources seem garbled and skewed once appropriated in their region.

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1 See, for example, Tutino, John, Making a New World: Founding Capitalism in the Bajío and Spanish North America (Durham, NC, 2011).

2 See Lehner, Ulrich, The Catholic Enlightenment: The Forgotten History of a Global Movement (Oxford, 2015). On the Bohemian version of this conservative Enlightenment, see Fillafer, Franz L., “Leo Thun und die Aufklärung: Wissenschaftsideal, Berufungspolitik und Deutungskämpfe,” in Die Thun-Hohensteinschen Universitätsreformen 1849–1860: Konzeption—Umsetzung—Nachwirkungen, ed. Mazohl, Brigitte and Aichner, Christof (Vienna, 2017), 5575 . On Hungary, see Gillemot, Kalatin, Gróf Széchényi Ferenc és bécsi köre [Count Ferenc Széchényi and his Viennese circle] (Budapest, 1933); Miskolczy, Ambrus, “Az ‘ismeretlen’ Széchényi Ferenc ‘ismert’ munkálata a Habsburg birodalom hungarizálásáról” [A ‘well-known’ work of the ‘unknown’ Ferenc Széchényi on the Hungarization of the Habsburg Empire], Levéltári Közlemények [Archival releases] 77 (2006): 1353 .

3 See Kley, Dale Van, “Christianity as Casualty and Chrysalis of Modernity,” American Historical Review 108 (2003): 10811104 ; Wahrman, Dror, “God and the Enlightenment,” Historical Review 108 (2003): 1057–60; Haakonssen, Knud, Enlightenments and Religions (Athens, 2010); Bonomi, Patricia U., Under the Cope of Heaven: Religion, Society, and Politics in Colonial America, rev. ed. (New York, 2003), 188.

4 See Fillafer, Franz L. and Osterhammel, Jürgen, “Cosmopolitanism and the German Enlightenment,” in Oxford Handbook of Modern German History, ed. Smith, Helmut Walser (Oxford, 2011), 119–43; Pocock, John G. A., Barbarism and Religion, vol. I: The Enlightenments of Edward Gibbon 1737–1794 (Cambridge, 1999), 9.

5 See Fillafer, Franz L., “Die Aufklärung in der Habsburgermonarchie und ihr Erbe: Ein Forschungsüberblick,” Zeitschrift für historische Forschung 40 (2013): 3597 ; Dijn, Annelien De, “The Politics of Enlightenment: From Peter Gay to Jonathan Israel,” The Historical Journal 55 (2012): 785805 .

6 See Sheehan, Jonathan, The Enlightenment Bible: Translation, Scholarship, Culture (Princeton, 2007).

7 Mokuter, Ivan, “Jezička obeležja srpskih izdanja budimske univerzitetske štamparije u periodu od 1796. do 1814. godine” [The characteristic features of the Serbian-language publications issued by the Buda University printing shop between 1796 and 1814], in Typographia universitatis Hungaricae Budae: 1777–1848 [The printing press of the Hungarian University at Buda: 1777–1848], ed. Király, Petér (Budapest, 1983), 377–85; Ress, Imre, “Serbische Gründungsversuche von Druckereien und die Universitätsdruckerei Ofen im Vormärz,” in Typographia universitatis Hungaricae Budae: 1777–1848, ed. Király, Petér (Budapest, 1983), 395400 ; Király, Petér, A kelet-közép-európai helyesírások és irodalmi nyelvek alakulása: A budai Egyetemi Nyomda kiadványainak tanulságai, 1777–1848 [The orthographical and literary development of the languages of East Central Europe: Lessons from the publications of the Buda University press] (Nyíregyháza, 2003).

8 Her essay is particularly strong on the history of censorship. The recruitment of a well-read, polyglot Serbian Orthodox cleric with impeccable moral conduct was a protracted process due to candidates’ dubious credentials: some of the eligible clerics were adulterers or muckrakers whose squabbles with superiors made them notorious, others wished to convert to Catholicism. Indeed, the final appointee Atanasije D. Sekereš did convert in 1776 when he had been censor for two years, but he was to hold office until his death (in 1794 or 1800). It would be very rewarding to study the lopsided, segmented, and hierarchized “confessionalization” of Habsburg ecclesiastical censorship. In the case of some denominations Habsburg legislation ascertained the respective censors’ capacities for judgment based on their belief in the religion whose ecclesiastical scholarship they vetted and sifted, while for other religions no comparable requirements of faith were enacted. Very little work exists on these issues beyond the mid-eighteenth-century cause célèbre, the wresting of general censorship from the Catholic Church in the 1750s, see Klingenstein, Grete, Staatsverwaltung und kirchliche Autorität: Das Problem der Zensur in der theresianischen Reform (Vienna, 1974). Cf. the engrossing study by Iveta Cermanová and Marek, Jindřich, Na rozhraní křesťanského a židovského světa: Příběh hebrejského cenzora a klementinského knihovníka Karla Fischera (1757–1844) [At the border of the Christian and Jewish worlds: The history of the Hebrew censor and Clementinum librarian Karl Fischer (1757–1844)] (Prague, 2007).

9 Evans, Robert J. W., “Comment,” Austrian History Yearbook 30 (1999): 229–35.

10 Vukašinović, Vladimir, Srpska barokna teologija: Biblijsko i svetotajinsko bogoslovlje u Karlovačkoj mitropoliji XVIII veka [Serbian baroque theology: Biblical and sacramental theology in the metropolitanate of Karlovci in the 18th century] (Trebinje, 2010), 311.

11 Venturi, Franco, Italy in the Enlightenment: Studies in a Cosmopolitan Century (London, 1972), 103.

12 Kostić, Mitja, Carski duhovnici propagatori unije među Srbima [Imperial priests as propagators of the union among the Serbs] (Sremski Karlovci, 1922), 8; Vukašinović, Srpska barokna teologija, 88–132. On the shift from the Christian to the enlightened credentials of “Europeanness” defended at the propugnaculum/antemurale Christianitis and the concomitant revamping of baroque “Slavonic reciprocity,” see Persida Lazarević di Giacomo, “Poetska ispisivanja jedne društvene krize: Austrijsko-rusko-turski rat (1787–1791/1792) u južnoslovenskim književnostima” [Poetic descriptions of a social crisis: The Austro-Russian-Turkish War (1787–1791/1792) in South Slavonic literatures], in Društvene krize i (srpska) književnost i kultura [Social crisis and (Serbian) literature and culture], ed. Dragan Bošković and Maja Andjelković (Kragujevac, 2011), 225–62.

13 See Kitromilides, Paschalis ed., Enlightenment and Religion in the Orthodox World (Oxford, 2016).

14 On the foundation of the first Serbian journal in Venice, see Todorović, Jelena, An Orthodox Festival Book in the Habsburg Empire: Zaharija Orfelin's Festive Greeting to Mojsej Putnik (1757) (Aldershot, 2006), 2627 . On the Serbian translation of Eybel's pamphlet, see Kostić, Mitja, “Odjeci Ajblove knjige protiv papstva među Srbima” [Echoes of Eybel's book against the pope among the Serbs], Godišnjak Skopskog Filozofskog Fakulteta [Yearbook of the Skopje faculty of philosophy] 1 (1930): 6370 . Orfelin's manuscript has only recently come to light; it was discovered in the context of a digitizing project pursued by the library of the Serbian Patriarchate, Serbian Orthodox Church, accessed 5 January 2017, http://www.spc.rs/sr/pronadjena_rukopisna_knjiga_zaharije_orfelina.

15 Ristović, Nenad, “Latin and Vernacular Relations in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries: The Serbian Case,” in Latin at the Crossroads of Identity: The Evolution of Linguistic Nationalism in the Kingdom of Hungary, ed. Almási, Gábor and Šubarić, Lav (Leiden, 2016), 268.

16 Ristović, “Latin and Vernacular Relations,” 269.

17 See Bošković, Vladimir, “‘Za sobedesovati s Musami i Gracijami’: O Dositejevim vezema s novim helenstvom ranoj recepciji njegovog dela kod Grka” [‘The discourse with the muses and graces’: On Dositej's links to modern Hellenism and the early reception of his Œuvre among the Greeks], in Dositej u srpskoj istoriji i kulturi [Dositej in Serbian history and culture], ed. Ivanić, Dušan (Belgrade, 2013), 359–90; Vukadinović, Nikifor, “Dositejeva Hristoitija i njeni uzori” [Dositej's Christoitheia and its models], Prilozi za književnost, jezik, istoriju i folklor [Contributions to literature, language, history, and folklore] 3, no. 1–2 (1923): 4881 .

18 Bakić-Hayden, Milica, “Nesting Orientalisms: The Case of Former Yugoslavia,” Slavic Review 54 (1995): 917–31.

19 See the excellent study by Fischer, Wladimir, Dositej Obradović als bürgerlicher Kulturheld: Zur Formierung des serbischen bürgerlichen Selbstbildes durch literarische Kommunikation, 1783–1845 (Frankfurt, 2007).

20 Tamborra, Angelo, “Jernej Kopitar a Roma (1842–1843): La politica slava di Gregorio XVI,” [Jernej Kopitar at Rome (1842–1843): The politics of Gregory XVI toward the Slavs] in Storiografia e storia: Studi in onore di Eugenio Duprè Theseider [Historiography and history: Studies in honor of Eugenio Duprè Theseider] (Rome, 1974), 947–74.

21 See Bonazza, Sergio, “Bartholomäus Kopitars Rolle in der Kirchenunion in Dalmatien (Ein Beitrag zum Austroslawismus),” in Festschrift für Wolfgang Gesemann, vol. 3: Slawische Sprachwissenschaft und Kulturgeschichte (Munich, 1986), 2751 ; Clewing, Konrad, Roher Diamant Dalmatien: Die habsburgische Verwaltung, ihre Probleme und das Land, wie beschrieben von seinem Gouverneur Lilienberg für Kaiser Franz I. (1834) (Munich, 2015), 18.

22 Heindl, Waltraud, Gehorsame Rebellen: Bürokratie und Beamte in Österreich, 2nd ed. (Vienna, 2013), 263–71.

23 Deak, John, Forging a Multinational State: State Making in Imperial Austria from the Enlightenment to the First World War (Stanford, 2015), 131.

24 Österreichisches Staatsarchiv, Vienna, Allgemeines Verwaltungsarchiv, Studienhofkommission Fasz. 10, Polizei- und Kameralwissenschaften, an die Niederösterreichische Regierung, 3/1770.

25 Krameš, Jiří, Kameralismus a klasická ekonomie v Čechách [Cameralism and classical economy in Bohemia] (Prague, 1998), 22, 34; Csizmadia, Andor, “Igazgatástudomány a XIX. század elején: Reviczky József” [The science of administration in the early 19th century: József Reviczky], in Jogi emlékek és hagyományok: Esszék és tanulmányok [Legal memories and traditions: Essays and studies] (Budapest, 1981), 246; Szaniszló, József, A közigazgatás-tudomány oktatásának és tanszékeinek története az ELTE Jog- és államtudományi Karán 1777–1977 között [History of the education in administrative science at the ELTE faculty of law and state sciences 1777–1977] (Budapest, 1977), 8487 ; Eckhardt, Sándor, A francia forradalom eszméi Magyarországon [The ideas of the French Revolution in Hungary] (Budapest, 1924), 32; Szilágyi, Márton, “Szempontok a magyar Sonnenfels-recepció újragondolásához” [Aspects of the Hungarian reception of Sonnenfels], in On the Road— Zwischen Kulturen Unterwegs, ed. Ágoston Zénó Bernád, Márta Csire, and Andrea Seidler (Vienna, 2009), 37–43.

26 On the ecclesiastical law of the Holy Roman Empire and its refractions in Habsburg usage after 1806, see Franz L. Fillafer, Escaping the Enlightenment: Liberal Thought and the Legacies of the Eighteenth Century in the Habsburg Monarchy, 1780–1848 (Ph.D. diss., University of Konstanz, 2012), 73–82.

27 Evans, R. J. W., “Language and State Building: The Case of the Habsburg Monarchy,” Austrian History Yearbook 35 (2004): 124 .

28 For the term Monarchiesprache, see Cornova, Ignaz, Paul Stransky's Staat von Böhmen, vol. 1 (Prague, 1792), 330. For the promotion of German in the primary schools, see Šmerda, Milan, “Integrační snahy v habsburské monarchii v době formování novodobých národů” [Efforts at integration in the Habsburg monarchy during the formative period of modern nations], Slovanské historické studie [Slavonic historical studies] 12 (1979): 155–56, n. 10 (Tobias von Gebler in August 1780); Bělina, Pavel, “Teoretické kořeny a státní praxe osvícenského absolutismu v habsburské monarchii” [Theoretical currents and state practice of enlightened absolutism in the Habsburg monarchy], Československý časopis historický [Czechoslovak historical magazine] 29 (1981): 904; Reiter, Clara, “‘Wo der Dollmetsch allzeit interpretiret…’ Das Hofdolmetscheramt am Wiener Hof: Vom Karrieresprungbrett zum Abstellgleis,” Lebende Sprachen 58 (2013): 197220 , focuses mainly on technicalities divested of their sociocultural context, adding little to our knowledge of the interplay of languages used at the Habsburg court.

29 But see Csetri, Elek, “Az erdélyi központi hatóságok tisztviselőinek nyelvtudásáról a XVIII. század végén” [The language knowledge among the officials of the Transylvanian central authorities at the end of the 18th century], in Europa és Erdélyi [Europe and Transylvania] (Kolozsvár, 2006), 109–17.

30 Magyar Országos Levéltár [Hungarian national archives], Budapest, Helyartót, 17808, Kari. prot. 702 [25 June 1790]; Eckhart, Ferenc, A Jog- és Allamtudományi kar története, 1667–1935 [History of the faculty of law and state science, 1667–1935] (Budapest, 1936), 205.

31 Fried, István, “Die ungarische Literatur im Zeitalter der Königin Maria Theresia,” in Maria Theresia als Königin von Ungarn, ed. Mraz, Gerda (Eisenstadt, 1984), 355–72.

32 Fillafer, Escaping the Enlightenment, 281–82. Zizius served at the Galician branch of the Arcièren guards. For the guards see Gestrich, Andreas, “Die galizischen adeligen Leibgarden am Wiener Hof: Ein Beispiel habsburgischer Inklusionspolitik nach den Teilungen Polen-Litauens,” Militär und Gesellschaft in der Frühen Neuzeit 17 (2013): 4164 .

33 Čepulo, Dalibor, “Razvoj pravne znanosti u Hrvatskoj 1776–1914” [The development of legal science in Croatia, 1776–1914], in Hrvatska i europa, kultura, znanost i umjetnost, sv. 4: Moderna kultura od preporoda do moderne (19. stoljeće) [Croatia and Europe, culture, science, and the arts, vol. 4: Modern culture from the revival to modernity (19th century)], ed. Ježić, Mislav (Zagreb, 2010), 831–36.

34 Hidvégi, Mária and Török, Borbála Zsuzsanna, “Grundlagen des modernen Regierens. Wissensaggregieren und Wissenslücken der ökonomischen statistischen Werke in Ungarn, 1770–1848,” in Berechnen/Beschreiben: Praktiken statistischen (Nicht-)Wissens 1750–1850, ed. Berg, Gunhild et al. (Berlin, 2015), 97120 . In Hungary, patriotic statisticians could draw on eighteenth-century collections of ethnographic and normative sources compiled by the Hungarian clergy that defended their autonomy from the state church erected in the Hereditary Lands, see Mandata regia per excelsum consilium locumentiale regium [Royal mandates for the Stateholder Council], 4 vols. (Vacii, 1775); cf. Schwartner, Martin, Statistik des Königreichs Ungern, vol.1, 2nd ed. (Ofen, 1809), 14.

35 Volf, Josef, “Přednášky o českém státnín právu na Pražské universitě 1782 až 1824” [Lectures on Bohemian state law at the University of Prague from 1782 to 1824], Sborník věd právních a státních [Proceedings of legal and state sciences] 21 (1921): 159–65; Urfus, Valentin, “Profesor českého státních práva Josef Veith a osvícenský patriotismus v Čechách na přelomu 18. století” [The professor of Bohemian state law Josef Veith and enlightened patriotism in Bohemia at the end of the 18th century], Acta Universitatis Carolinae—Historia universitatis Carolinae Pragensis [Journal of Charles University—History of Charles University in Prague] 10 (1969): 3146 .

36 See Withers, Charles W. J., Placing the Enlightenment: Thinking Geographically about the Age of Reason (Chicago, 2007).

37 Koerner, Lisbet, Linnaeus: Nature and Nation (Cambridge, 1999); Müller-Wille, Staffan, “Walnut-Trees at Hudson Bay, Coral Reefs in Gotland: Linnaean Botany and Its Relation to Colonialism,” in Colonial Botany: Science, Commerce, and Politics in the Early Modern World, ed. Schiebinger, Londa et al. (Philadelphia, 2005), 3448 .

38 Drace-Francis, Alex, “A Provincial Imperialist and a Curious Account of Wallachia: Ignaz von Born,” European History Quarterly 36 (2006): 80.

39 See Jonsson, Frederick Albritton, “Rival Ecologies of Global Commerce: Adam Smith and the Natural Historians,” American Historical Review 115 (2010): 1342–63; Ambirajan, S., Classical Political Economy and British Policy in India (Cambridge, 1978), 5961 .

40 See, for example, Moreno, Roberto, Linneo en México: Las controversias sobre el sistema binario sexual, 1788–1798 [Linnaeus in Mexico: The controversies over the binary sexual system, 1788–1798] (Mexico City, 1989); Estrada, Dorothy Tanck de, “Justas florales de los bótanicos ilustrados” [Floral jousts of enlightened botanists], Díalogos 18 (1982): 1931 .

41 For the broader context, see Babudieri, Fulvio, L'espansione mercantile austriaca nei territori d'oltremare nel XVIII secolo e suoi riflessi politici ed economici [The Austrian mercantile expansion in overseas territories in the eighteenth century and its political and economic effects] (Milan, 1978).

42 For Austrian perceptions of the early United States, see Benna, Hedwig, Contemporary Austrian Views of American Independence—A Documentary on the Occasion of the Bicentennial (Vienna, 1976); Köpf, Paul, Wir haben Nachricht aus Amerika. Der amerikanische Revolutionskrieg in zeitgenössischen Wiener Zeitungen 1774–1781 (Magister thesis, University of Vienna, 2009).

43 See McClure, Julia, The Franciscan Invention of the New World (Basingstoke, 2017).

44 For the Josephinian critique of Catholic idleness, see Schneider, Christine, Der niedere Klerus im josephinischen Wien zwischen staatlicher Funktion und seelsorgerischer Aufgabe (Vienna, 1999); Hersche, Peter, Muße und Verschwendung: Europäische Gesellschaft und Kultur im Barockzeitalter, vol. 1 (Freiburg, 2006), 605–44.

45 Albertone, Manuale, National Identity and the Agrarian Republic: The Transatlantic Commerce of Ideas between America and France (1750–1830) (Burlington, 2014), 54.

46 Drace-Francis, “A Provincial Imperialist.” It would be worthwhile to compare Born's writings with those of Balthasar Hacquet, an itinerant military surgeon and prolific ethnographer of the Habsburg realms who also held strong notions of civilizational superiority and inferiority. On Hacquet's account of the South Slavs, see Pederin, Ivan, “Balthasar Hacquet, prvi folklorist i etnolog hrvatskih krajeva” [Balthasar Hacquet, the first folklorist and ethnographer of the Croatian regions], in Radovi—Filozofski Fakultet, Sveučilište u Zadru [Works of the philosophical faculty, University of Zadar] 11 (1973): 421–40.

47 See Taylor, Alan, American Revolutions: A Continental History, 1750–1804 (London, 2016).

48 See Kurt Schmutzer, Der Liebe zur Naturgeschichte halber: Johann Natterers Reisen in Brasilien, 1817–1835 (Ph.D. diss., University of Vienna, 2007), 159–75.

49 Szűcs, Zoltan Gábor, “Magyar protokonzervatívok” [Hungarian protoconservatives], Kommentár [Commentary] 4 (2009): 18.

50 See, for example, Maurer, Michael, Aufklärung und Anglophilie in Deutschland (Göttingen, 1987); Maurer, Michael, ed., O Britannien, von deiner Freiheit einen Hut voll! Deutsche Reiseberichte des 18. Jahrhunderts (Munich, 1992).

51 This subject awaits its historian. Compare Várkonyi, Ágnes R., A pozitivista történetszemlélet a magyar történetirásban [The positivist conception of history and Hungarian historiography], vol. 2 (Budapest, 1973), 471. A helpful bibliography may be found in Bónis, György, “Az angol alkotmánytörténetírás tegnap és ma” [The historiography of the English constitution yesterday and today], Századok [Centuries] 74 (1940): 181, n. 1.

52 “Die Ungrische Constituzion hat viele Aehnlichkeiten mit der englischen, aber gerade in dem heilsamsten Theil giebt es Verschiedenheiten. 1. Das Volk in England ist Staatsbürgerlich. 2. Der Englische Adel ist so wie das Volk den Staatslasten unterworfen, aber keine Last ist Gesetzmäßig, als die sich die ganze Nazion selbst durch das Parlament auferlegt. 3. In England ist Pressfreyheit. 4. In England werden die Gesetze pünctlich beobachtet. 5. Selbst gewählte Richter, richten öffentlich.” From Berzeviczy's manuscript “Geschichte von Grossbritannien” [presumably written after 1816], Magyar Országos Levéltár, Budapest, P 53, Fsz. 130, quoted after Csáky, Moritz, Von der Aufklärung zum Liberalismus: Studien zum Frühliberalismus in Ungarn (Vienna, 1981), 84, n. 81.

53 Csáky, Von der Aufklärung zum Liberalismus.

54 József Vay, “Reflexiones ad recensionem operis Piringeriani Ephemeridibus Viennensibus, Anno 1816. Nris 104 et sequent. Insertam” [1817]: “Illud clarum esse videtur, genium seculi, reformationem, si quae in quibusdam suscipienda videretur, non per coarctionem libertatis et immunitatum jam lege stabilitarum, non per constitutionis ruinam, sed per personalis ac proprietatum securitatis, pro ratione conditionis singulorum, ampliorem ad omnes Regni Incolas extensionem <posse obtineri> poscere. [the last words amended with blue ink], Országos Széchényi Könyvtár Kezirattár, Budapest, Quart. Lat. 2163. 12; cf. Miskolczy, Ambrus, “Povedomie Hungarus v 19. storoči” [Hungarus's consciousness in the 19th century], Historický časopis [Historical magazine] 59 (2001): 224, n. 34.

55 On Hungarian noble republicanism, see Takáts, József, “Politikai beszédmodok a magyar 19. század elején” [Political modes of speech in Hungary at the beginning of the 19th century], Irodalomtörténeti közlémenyek [Notes on the history of literature] 5/6 (1998): 668–86. Cf. Lájos Csetri's remarks on the aspect of military valor in noble republicanism (“Spartan Branch of Plutarchism”), Csetri, ‘Nem sokaság, hanem lélek’: Berzsenyi-tanulmányok [‘Not multitude, but spirit’: Berzsenyi-studies] (Budapest, 1986), 64; Nagy, Ágoston, “‘Rómát, Athenát, Spártát álmodtam…’: Spárta toposza a 18–19. század fordulójának magyar politikai irodalmában” [“I dreamt of Rome, Athens, Sparta…”: The topos of Sparta in Hungarian political literature at the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries], in “Politica philosophiai okoskodás”: Politikai nyelvek és történeti kontextusok a középkortól a 20. századig, ed. Fazekas, Gergely T. et al. (Debrecen, 2013), 193207 .

56 Siemann, Wolfram, Metternich: Stratege und Visionär (Munich, 2016), 139–45.

57 Blumauer, Compare Alois, Beobachtungen über Österreichs Aufklärung und Litteratur (Vienna, 1782), 33: “Auf die nämliche Art, wie die Wilden in Amerika Feuer machen, erhielten die Europäer Aufklärung und Licht, sie rieben Geist auf Geist, wie jene Holz auf Holz. Widerspruch erzeugt Anstrengung des Geistes, öffnet neue Aussichten, treibt den Geist in unbekannte Gegenden und verlängert und verstärkt die Kette des menschlichen Wissens. Die Geschichte aller Wissenschaften bestätiget diese Wahrheit.”

58 Kornis, Gyula, Ungarische Kulturideale, 1777–1848 (Leipzig, 1930), 419.

59 Vyvíjalová, Mária, “Anton Bernolák a osvietenstvo” [Anton Bernolák and the Enlightenment], Historicky Časopis, 28 (1980): 77#x2013;78 ; Tibenský, Jan, “Veľkomoravská a cyrilometodejská tradícia v živote slovenskej feudálnej národnosti” [The great Moravian and Cyrillo-Methodian tradition in the life of the feudal Slovak nationality], Veľká Morava a naša doba: K 1100. výročiu príchodu Cyrila a Metoda [Great Moravia and our time: The 1100th anniversary of the arrival of Cyril and Methodius], ed. Butvin, Jozef (Bratislava, 1963), 76; Eliáš, Štefan, Uhorské vlastenectvo a Slováci: Syntéza historickej dimenzie [Hungarian patriotism and the Slovaks: Synthesis of the historical dimension] 2 vols. (Košice, 1991) (I had to rely on Emil Niederhauser's review of this work in Történelmi közlemények Abaúj-Torna vármegye és Kassa múltjából 1, no. 1 [1997]: 262–81); Červenák, Benjamín Pravoslav, Zrcadlo Slovenska [Mirror of Slovakia] (Pest, 1844), 84.

60 For a refreshing corrective to the older narrative on Slovak political life before 1848 that posits the predominance of Slovak national ideology and Magyar repression, see Demmel, József, A szlovák nemzet születése: Ľudovít Štúr és a szlovák társadalom a 19. századi Magyarországon [The birth of the Slovak nation: Ľudovít Štúr and Slovak society in 19th- century Hungary] (Pozsony, 2011).

61 Burke, Edmund, Reflections on the Revolution in France [1790], ed. Pocock, J. G. A. (Indianapolis, 1987), 67.

62 Agnani, Sunil, “Jacobinism in India, Indianism in English Parliament: Fearing the Enlightenment and Colonial Modernity with Edmund Burke,” Cultural Critique 68 (2008): 131–62.

63 See Cain, Peter J. and Hopkins, Anthony G., British Imperialism: Innovation and Expansion 1688–1914, 2 vols. (London, 1993–94) (a third, updated edition was published in 2016 with Routledge); Siemann, Metternich, 143, on Metternich's excerpt of Burke's letter to William Elliot from 1795, Národní archiv Praha, Rodinný archiv Metternichů [The National Archives Prague, Metternich Family Archive]—Acta Clementina II, kt. 2, 49.

64 See Janowski, Maciej, “Pitfalls and Opportunities: The Concept of East-Central Europe as a Tool of Historical Analysis,” European Review of History 6 (1999): 91100 .

65 Israel, Jonathan, The Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity, 1650–1750 (Oxford, 2001); Israel, Jonathan, Enlightenment Contested: Philosophy, Modernity, and the Emancipation of Man (Oxford, 2006). Cf. Walther, Manfred, “Spinozissimus ille Spinoza oder wie Spinoza zum ‘Klassiker’ wurde—zur Etikettierungs-, Rezeptions- und Wirkungsgeschichte Spinozas im europäischen Vergleich,” in Beobachter und Lebenswelt: Studien zur Natur-, Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaft, ed. Reinalter, Helmut, (Thaur, 1996), 183238 .

66 See Fillafer, Escaping the Enlightenment, 103–5.

67 See Guion, Béatrice, “Bossuet historien,” in Ferreyrolles, Gérard, Guion, Béatrice, and Quantin, Jean-Louis, Bossuet (Paris, 2008), 97195 ; cf. Reddy, William M., “The Eurasian Origins of Empty Time and Space: Modernity as Temporality Reconsidered,” History and Theory 55 (2016): 354.

68 Vopa, Anthony La, “A New Intellectual History? Jonathan Israel's Enlightenment,” Historical Journal 52 (2009): 738.

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Austrian History Yearbook
  • ISSN: 0067-2378
  • EISSN: 1558-5255
  • URL: /core/journals/austrian-history-yearbook
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