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The Development and Evaluation of a Large-Scale Self-Referral CBT-I Intervention for Men Who Have Insomnia: An Exploratory Study

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  06 May 2009

Marc Archer
Kings College London, UK
June S. L. Brown*
Kings College London, UK
Helen Idusohan
South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, UK
Shirley Coventry
South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, UK
Andiappan Manoharan
Kings College London, UK
Colin A. Espie
University of Glasgow Sleep Research Laboratory, UK
Reprint requests to June Brown, Institute of Psychiatry, De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, UK. E-mail:


Background: Whilst effective psychological treatments such as CBT-I have been developed for insomnia, few services provide CBT-I and awareness of CBT-I is low among referrers. In addition, men tend to seek help less frequently for their insomnia than women. This paper describes the development and evaluation of psycho-educational CBT-I workshops, each for up to 25 people, and designed to be acceptable to men. Method: The CBT-I programme was based on Morin and Espie (2003), and adapted into a self-referral one-day workshop format designed specifically to improve access. Workshops were held on Saturdays in leisure centres. A one group pretest-posttest design was used and assessments were collected before and 6 weeks after each workshop. Over a 6-month period, 74 men self-referred, and attended the Introductory Talks preceding the workshops. Of these, 49.3% had never sought help from their GP, 66.2% suffered from clinical insomnia (ISI) and 61.6% were experiencing elevated depression symptoms (BDI over 10). Results: At follow-up, the workshops were found to be effective in reducing insomnia and depression. Satisfaction ratings with the workshops were very high. Conclusions: Given these promising results, further work is now proposed for a larger controlled study with a longer-term follow-up.

Research Article
Copyright © British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies 2009

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