Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-nr4z6 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-18T07:40:00.424Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Using an Evidence-Based Methodology to Identify the Competences Required to Deliver Effective Cognitive and Behavioural Therapy for Depression and Anxiety Disorders

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  29 February 2008

Anthony D. Roth*
Affiliation:
University College London, UK
Stephen Pilling
Affiliation:
University College London, UK
*
Reprint requests to Anthony D. Roth, Joint Course Director, Doctorate in Clinical Psychology, Sub-Department of Clinical Health Psychology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK. E-mail: a.roth@ucl.ac.uk

Abstract

A number of developments make the formal specification of competences in CBT both timely and relevant, in particular the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme, the increasing focus on process and therapist variables in determining outcome, and the increasing diversity of CBT. This paper outlines the development of an evidence-based methodology for determining both a model and a framework for CBT competences, and considers issues related to the implementation of the framework.

Type
Accelerated Publication
Copyright
Copyright © British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies 2008

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Barber, J. P., Liese, B. S. and Abrams, M. J. (2003). Development of the Cognitive Therapy Adherence and Competence Scale. Psychotherapy Research, 13, 205221.Google Scholar
Barlow, D. H. and Cerny, J. A. (1988). Psychological Treatment of Panic. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Barlow, D. H. and Craske, M. G. (2007). Mastery of Your Anxiety and Panic: therapist guide for anxiety, panic, and agoraphobia (4th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press Inc.Google Scholar
Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F. and Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive Therapy of Depression. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Bennett-Levy, J. (2005). Therapist skills: a cognitive model of their acquisition and refinement. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 34, 5778.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blackburn, I. M., James, I. A., Milne, D. L. and Reichelt, F. K. (2001). The revised cognitive therapy scale (CTSR): psychometric properties. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 29, 431447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brosan, L., Reynolds, S. and Moore, R. G. (2006). Factors associated with competence in cognitive therapists. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 35, 179190.Google Scholar
Brown, G. S., Lambert, M. J., Jones, E. R. and Minami, T. (2005). Identifying highly effective psychotherapists in a managed care environment. American Journal of Managed Care, 11, 513520.Google Scholar
Department of Health (2007). Commissioning a Brighter Future: improving access to psychological therapies. London: Department of Health.Google Scholar
DeRubeis, R. J. and Feeley, M. (1990). Determinants of change in cognitive therapy for depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 14, 469482.Google Scholar
Feeley, M., DeRubeis, R. J. and Gelfand, L. A. (1999). The temporal relation of adherence and alliance to symptom change in cognitive therapy for depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 578582.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Frost, R. O. and Steketee, G. (Eds.) (2002). Cognitive Approaches to Obsessions and Compulsions: theory, assessment, and treatment. Netherlands: Pergamon/Elsevier Science Inc.Google Scholar
Katon, W., Von Korff, M., Lin, E., Walker, E., Simon, G. E., Bush, T. and Ludman, E. (1995). Collaborative management to achieve treatment guidelines: impact on depression in primary care. Journal of the American Medical Association, 273, 2631.Google Scholar
Katzelnick, D., Simon, G. E., Pearson, S. D., Manning, W., Helstad, C. P., Henk, H. J., Cole, S. M., Lin, E. H. B., Taylor, L. H. and Kobak, K. A. (2000). Randomized trial of a depression management program in high utilizers of medical care. Archives of Family Medicine, 9, 345351.Google Scholar
Keller, M., McCullough, J. P., Klein, D. N., Arnow, B., Dunner, D. L., Gelenberg, A. J., Markowitz, J. C., Nemeroff, C. B., Russell, J. M., Thase, M. E., Trivedi, M. H. and Zajecka, J. (2000). A comparison of nefazodone, the cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy, and their combination for the treatment of chronic depression. New England Journal of Medicine, 342, 14621470.Google Scholar
Lambert, M. J. and Ogles, B. M. (2004). The efficacy and effectiveness of psychotherapy. In Lambert, M. J.. (Ed.), Bergin and Garfield's Handbook of Psychotherapy and Behaviour Change (pp. 139193). New York: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
Lejuez, C. W., Hopko, D. R. and Hopko, S. D. (2001). A brief behavioral activation treatment for depression: treatment manual. Behavior Modification, 25, 255286.Google Scholar
Mynors-Wallis, L. M., Gath, D. H., Day, A. and Baker, F. (2000). Randomized controlled trial of problem solving treatment, antidepressant medication, and combined treatment for major depression in primary care. British Medical Journal, 320 (7226), 2630.Google Scholar
NICE (2004a). Anxiety: management of anxiety (panic disorder, with or without agoraphobia, and generalized anxiety disorder) in adults in primary, secondary and community care. (http://guidance.nice.org.uk/CG22/guidance/pdf/English)Google Scholar
NICE (2004b). Depression: management of depression in primary and secondary care – NICE guidance. (http://guidance.nice.org.uk/CG23/guidance/pdf/English)Google Scholar
NICE (2005a). Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: core interventions in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder and body dysmorphic disorder. (http://guidance.nice.org.uk/CG31/guidance/pdf/English)Google Scholar
NICE (2005b). Management of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Adults in Primary, Secondary and Community Care. (http://guidance.nice.org.uk/CG26/guidance/pdf/English)Google Scholar
Okiishi, J. C., Lambert, M. J., Eggert, D., Nilesen, L. and Dayton, D. D. (2006). An analysis of therapist treatment effects: toward providing feedback to individual therapists on their clients' psychotherapy outcome. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62, 11571172.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Proudfoot, J., Ryden, C., Everitt, B., Shapiro, D. A., Goldberg, D., Mann, A., Tylee, A., Marks, I. and Gray, J. (2004). Clinical efficacy of computerized cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety and depression in primary care. British Journal of Psychiatry, 185, 4654.Google Scholar
Roth, A. D. and Pilling, S. (2007). The Competences Required to Deliver Effective Cognitive and Behavioural Therapy for People with Depression and with Anxiety Disorders. London: Department of Health.Google Scholar
Roth, A. D. and Pilling, S. (in preparation). The impact of adherence and competence on outcome in CBT and in psychological therapies.Google Scholar
Roth, A. D., Pilling, S. and Turner, J. (in preparation). Therapist training and supervision in CBT in major trials for depression and anxiety.Google Scholar
Roth, A. D. and Fonagy, P. (2005). What Works for Whom: a critical review of psychotherapy research (2nd. ed.). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Schulte, D. and Eifert, G. H. (2002). What to do when manuals fail? The dual model of psychotherapy. Clinical Psychology Science and Practice, 9, 312328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shadish, W. R., Navarro, A. M., Matt, G. E. and Phillips, G. (2000). The effects of psychological therapies under clinically representative conditions: a meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 512529.Google Scholar
Siev, J. and Chambless, D. L. (2007). Specificity of treatment effects: cognitive therapy and relaxation for generalized anxiety and panic disorders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75, 13522.Google Scholar
Stein, D. M. and Lambert, M. J. (1995). Graduate training in psychotherapy: are therapy outcomes enhanced? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 182196.Google Scholar
Stirman, S. W., DeRubeis, R. J., Crits-Christoph, P. and Rothman, A. (2005). Can the randomized controlled trial literature generalize to nonrandomized patients? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 127135.Google Scholar
Strunk, D. R., Brotman, M. A. and DeRubeis, R. J. (in preparation). The process of change in cognitive therapy for depression: predictors of early inter-session symptom gains and continued response to treatment.Google Scholar
Teasdale, J. D., Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M. G., Ridgeway, V. A., Soulsby, J. M. and Lau, M. A. (2000). Prevention of relapse/recurrence in major depression by mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 615623.Google Scholar
Submit a response

Comments

No Comments have been published for this article.