Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 44
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Hollins Martin, Caroline J. and Martin, Colin R. 2016. Comprehensive Guide to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders.

    Jacobi, Tobi and Roberts, Lara Rose 2016. The Voluntary Sector in Prisons.

    Josefowitz, Nina 2016. Incorporating Imagery Into Thought Records: Increasing Engagement in Balanced Thoughts. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice,

    O'Driscoll, Ciarán Mason, Oliver Brady, Francesca Smith, Ben and Steel, Craig 2016. Process analysis of trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy for individuals with schizophrenia. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, Vol. 89, Issue. 2, p. 117.

    James, Stella 2015. Women’s experiences of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after traumatic childbirth: a review and critical appraisal. Archives of Women's Mental Health, Vol. 18, Issue. 6, p. 761.

    Jensen, Tine K. Thoresen, Siri and Dyb, Grete 2015. Coping responses in the midst of terror: The July 22 terror attack at Utøya Island in Norway. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, Vol. 56, Issue. 1, p. 45.

    McManus, Freda Muse, Kate Surawy, Christina Hackmann, Ann and Williams, J. Mark G. 2015. Relating Differently to Intrusive Images: the Impact of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) on Intrusive Images in Patients with Severe Health Anxiety (Hypochondriasis). Mindfulness, Vol. 6, Issue. 4, p. 788.

    Øktedalen, Tuva Hoffart, Asle and Langkaas, Tomas Formo 2015. Trauma-related shame and guilt as time-varying predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms during imagery exposure and imagery rescripting—A randomized controlled trial. Psychotherapy Research, Vol. 25, Issue. 5, p. 518.

    Padmanabhanunni, Anita and Edwards, David 2015. A Case Study of Social Cognitive Treatment of PTSD in a South African Rape Survivor: The Central Role of Case Formulation. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, Vol. 24, Issue. 2, p. 174.

    Padmanabhanunni, Anita and Edwards, David 2014. A Phenomenological Case Study of the Therapeutic Impact of Imagery: Rescripting of Memories of a Rape and Episodes of Childhood Abuse and Neglect. Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology, Vol. 14, Issue. 1, p. 1.

    Palgi, Sharon Palgi, Yuval Ben-Ezra, Menachem and Shrira, Amit 2014. “I Will Fear no Evil, for I Am with Me”: Mentalization-Oriented Intervention with PTSD Patients. A Case Study. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, Vol. 44, Issue. 3, p. 173.

    2014. Forensic Psychiatry.

    Baker, Roger Gale, Lisa Abbey, Gareth and Thomas, Sarah 2013. Emotional Processing Therapy for post traumatic stress disorder. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, Vol. 26, Issue. 3-4, p. 362.

    Lad, Sunil 2013. A case report of treatment of offence related PTSD. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, Vol. 24, Issue. 6, p. 788.

    Nijdam, Mirjam J. Baas, Melanie A. M. Olff, Miranda and Gersons, Berthold P. R. 2013. Hotspots in Trauma Memories and Their Relationship to Successful Trauma-Focused Psychotherapy: A Pilot Study. Journal of Traumatic Stress, Vol. 26, Issue. 1, p. 38.

    Veale, David Murphy, Philip Ellison, Nell Kanakam, Natalie and Costa, Ana 2013. Autobiographical memories of vomiting in people with a specific phobia of vomiting (emetophobia). Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, Vol. 44, Issue. 1, p. 14.

    Edwards, David and Arntz, Arnoud 2012. The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Schema Therapy.

    Hardy, Amy Smith, Ben Gottlieb, Jennifer Mueser, Kim and Steel, Craig 2012. CBT for Schizophrenia.

    Bernardes, Dora 2011. Learning from an Iranian man about CBT for treatment of PTSD. Ethnicity and Inequalities in Health and Social Care, Vol. 4, Issue. 4, p. 210.

    Hackmann, Ann 2011. Imagery Rescripting in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, Vol. 18, Issue. 4, p. 424.

  • Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, Volume 30, Issue 1
  • January 2002, pp. 37-56


  • Nick Grey (a1), Kerry Young (a2) and Emily Holmes (a2) (a3)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 January 2002

This paper describes a distinct clinical approach to the treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). It is theoretically guided by recent cognitive models of PTSD and explicitly combines cognitive therapy techniques within exposure/reliving procedures. A clinically pertinent distinction is made between the cognitions and emotions experienced at the time of the trauma and, subsequently, in flashback experiences, and secondary negative appraisals. The term peritraumatic emotional “hotspot” is used to describe moments of peak distress during trauma. It is argued that a focus on cognitively restructuring these peritraumatic emotional hotspots within reliving can significantly improve the effectiveness of the treatment of PTSD and help explain some treatment failures with traditional prolonged exposure. An approach to the identification and treatment of these hotspots is detailed for a range of cognitions and emotions not limited to fear.

Corresponding author
Reprint requests to Nick Grey, Centre for Anxiety Disorders and Trauma, Institute of Psychiatry, 99 Denmark Hill, London SE5 8AF, UK. E-mail:
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
  • ISSN: 1352-4658
  • EISSN: 1469-1833
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioural-and-cognitive-psychotherapy
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *