Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 21
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    ALAVI, NAZANIN HIRJI, ALYSSA SUTTON, CHLOE and NAEEM, FAROOQ 2016. Online CBT Is Effective in Overcoming Cultural and Language Barriers in Patients With Depression. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, Vol. 22, Issue. 1, p. 2.

    Fleming, Theresa Lucassen, Mathijs Stasiak, Karolina Shepherd, Matthew and Merry, Sally 2016. The impact and utility of computerised therapy for educationally alienated teenagers: The views of adolescents who participated in an alternative education-based trial. Clinical Psychologist, Vol. 20, Issue. 2, p. 94.

    Forti-Buratti, M. Azul Saikia, Rupalim Wilkinson, Esther L. and Ramchandani, Paul G. 2016. Psychological treatments for depression in pre-adolescent children (12 years and younger): systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry,

    Kendall, Philip C. Makover, Heather Swan, Anna Carper, Matthew M. Mercado, Roger Kagan, Elana and Crawford, Erika 2016. What Steps to Take? How to Approach Concerning Anxiety in Youth. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice,

    Stasiak, Karolina Fleming, Theresa Lucassen, Mathijs F.G. Shepherd, Matthew J. Whittaker, Robyn and Merry, Sally N. 2016. Computer-Based and Online Therapy for Depression and Anxiety in Children and Adolescents. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, Vol. 26, Issue. 3, p. 235.

    Vigerland, Sarah Ljótsson, Brjánn Thulin, Ulrika Öst, Lars-Göran Andersson, Gerhard and Serlachius, Eva 2016. Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy for children with anxiety disorders: A randomised controlled trial. Behaviour Research and Therapy, Vol. 76, p. 47.

    Kolshus, E. M. Kolshus, E. H. Gavin, B. Cullen, W. and McNicholas, F. 2015. General Practitioners’ experience of child and adolescent suicidal ideation and behaviour – a survey. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine, p. 1.

    Lucassen, Mathijs F.G. Merry, Sally N. Hatcher, Simon and Frampton, Christopher M.A. 2015. Rainbow SPARX: A Novel Approach to Addressing Depression in Sexual Minority Youth. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, Vol. 22, Issue. 2, p. 203.

    Pennant, Mary E. Loucas, Christina E. Whittington, Craig Creswell, Cathy Fonagy, Peter Fuggle, Peter Kelvin, Raphael Naqvi, Sabrina Stockton, Sarah and Kendall, Tim 2015. Computerised therapies for anxiety and depression in children and young people: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, Vol. 67, p. 1.

    Rooksby, Maki Elouafkaoui, Paula Humphris, Gerry Clarkson, Jan and Freeman, Ruth 2015. Internet-assisted delivery of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for childhood anxiety: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, Vol. 29, p. 83.

    Smith, Patrick Scott, Rebecca Eshkevari, Ertimiss Jatta, Fatoumata Leigh, Eleanor Harris, Victoria Robinson, Alex Abeles, Paul Proudfoot, Judy Verduyn, Chrissie and Yule, William 2015. Computerised CBT for depressed adolescents: Randomised controlled trial. Behaviour Research and Therapy, Vol. 73, p. 104.

    Creswell, C. Waite, P. and Cooper, P. J. 2014. Assessment and management of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Archives of Disease in Childhood, Vol. 99, Issue. 7, p. 674.

    Dolle, Kathrin and Schulte-Körne, Gerd 2014. Komplementäre Ansätze zur Behandlung von depressiven Störungen bei Kindern und Jugendlichen. Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie, Vol. 63, Issue. 3, p. 237.

    Friedberg, Robert D. Hoyman, Lisa C. Behar, Simone Tabbarah, Sarah Pacholec, Nina M. Keller, Marisa and Thordarson, Micaela A. 2014. We’ve Come a Long Way, Baby!: Evolution and Revolution in CBT with Youth. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, Vol. 32, Issue. 1, p. 4.

    Kauer, Sylvia Deidre Mangan, Cheryl and Sanci, Lena 2014. Do Online Mental Health Services Improve Help-Seeking for Young People? A Systematic Review. Journal of Medical Internet Research, Vol. 16, Issue. 3, p. e66.

    March, Sonja Spence, Susan H. and Donovan, Caroline L. 2014. The Wiley Handbook of Anxiety Disorders.

    Martínez, Vania Martínez, Pablo Vöhringer, Paul A Araya, Ricardo and Rojas, Graciela 2014. Computer-assisted cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression in primary care clinics in Santiago, Chile (YPSA-M): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials, Vol. 15, Issue. 1,

    Cheung, Amy H. Kozloff, Nicole and Sacks, Diane 2013. Pediatric Depression: An Evidence-Based Update on Treatment Interventions. Current Psychiatry Reports, Vol. 15, Issue. 8,

    Attwood, Megan Meadows, Sara Stallard, Paul and Richardson, Thomas 2012. Universal and targeted computerised cognitive behavioural therapy (Think, Feel, Do) for emotional health in schools: results from two exploratory studies. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Vol. 17, Issue. 3, p. 173.

    Fleming, Theresa Dixon, Robyn Frampton, Christopher and Merry, Sally 2012. A Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial of Computerized CBT (SPARX) for Symptoms of Depression among Adolescents Excluded from Mainstream Education. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, Vol. 40, Issue. 05, p. 529.


Computerized CBT (Think, Feel, Do) for Depression and Anxiety in Children and Adolescents: Outcomes and Feedback from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

  • Paul Stallard (a1), Thomas Richardson (a1), Sophie Velleman (a1) and Megan Attwood (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 28 January 2011

Background: Research has demonstrated the effectiveness of computerized cognitive behaviour therapy (cCBT) for depression and anxiety in adults, but there has been little work with children and adolescents. Aims: To describe the development of a cCBT intervention (Think, Feel, Do) for young people, and preliminary outcomes and feedback from a pilot randomized controlled trial. Method: Twenty participants aged 11 to 16 with depression or anxiety were randomized to receive cCBT immediately or after a delay. Standardized measures were used to assess self-reported anxiety, depression, self-esteem and cognitions, as well as parent rated strengths and difficulties. A feedback form was also completed to assess young people's views of the programme. Results: A total of 15 participants completed the pre and post assessments in the trial, and 17 provided feedback on the intervention. Paired samples t-tests demonstrated significant improvements on 3 subscales in the control condition, compared to 7 subscales in the cCBT condition. Feedback showed moderate to high satisfaction for participants. Conclusions: This study provides encouraging preliminary results for the effectiveness and acceptability of cCBT with this age group.

Corresponding author
Reprint requests to Paul Stallard, Mental Health Research and Development Unit (MHRDU), School for Health, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY, UK. E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

A. Barak , L. Hen , M. Boniel-Nissim and N. Shapira (2008). A comprehensive review and a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of internet-based psychotherapeutic interventions. Journal of Technology in Human Services, 26, 109160.

A. Beattie , A. Shaw , S. Kaur and D. Kessler (2009). Primary-care patients’ expectations and experiences of online cognitive behavioural therapy for depression: a qualitative study. Health Expectations, 12, 4559.

J. Bergstrom , G. Andersson , A. Karlsson , S. Andreewitch , C. Ruck , P. Carlbring and N. Lindefors (2008). An open study of the effectiveness of Internet treatment for panic disorder delivered in a psychiatric setting. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 63, 4450.

P. Birleson (1980). The validity of depressive disorder in childhood and the development of a self-rating scale; a research report. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 22, 7388.

S. Cartwright-Hatton , C. Roberts , P. Chitsabesan , C. Fothergill and R. Harrington (2004). Systematic review of the efficacy of cognitive behaviour therapies for childhood and adolescent anxiety disorders. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 43, 421–236.

E. J. Costello , S. Mustillo , A. Erkanli , G. Keller and A. Angold (2003). Prevalence and development of psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 837844.

M. G. Craske , R. D. Rose , A. Lang , S. S. Welch , L. Campbell-Sills , G. Sullivan , C. Sherbourne , A. Bystrisky , M. Stein and P. P. Roy-Byrne (2009). Computer-assisted delivery of cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders in primary care settings. Depression and Anxiety, 26, 235242.

P. Cuijpers , I. M. Marks , A. Van Straten , K. Cavanagh , L. Gega and G. Andersson (2009). Computer-aided psychotherapy for anxiety disorders: a meta-analytic review. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 38, 6682.

M. J. Cunningham , V. M. Muthrich , R. M. Rapee , H. J. Lyneham , C. A. Schniering and J. L. Hudson (2009). The Cool Teens CD-Rom for anxiety disorders in adolescents: a pilot case series. European Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 18, 125129.

T. Ford , R. Goodman and H. Meltzer (2003). The British Child and Adolescent Mental Health survey 1999: the prevalence of DSM-IV disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 12031211.

R. Goodman (1997). The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: a research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 581586.

R. Goodman (2001). Psychometric properties of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 13371345.

C. Graham , A. Franses , M. Kenwright and I. Marks (2000). Psychotherapy by computer: a postal survey of responders to a teletext article. Psychiatric Bulletin, 24, 331332.

K. M. Griffiths and H. Christensen (2007). Internet-based mental health programs: a powerful tool in the rural medical kit. Australian Journal of Rural Health, 15, 8187.

C. L. Hicks , C. L. Von Baeyer and P. J. McGrath (2006). Online psychological treatment of pediatric recurrent pain: a randomized evaluation. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 31, 724736.

S-I. Ishikawa , I. Okajima , H. Matsuoka and Y. Sakano (2007). Cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 12, 164172.

D. Kessler , G. Lewis , S. Kaur , N. Wiles , M. King , S. Weich , D. J. Sharp , R. Araya , S. Hollinghurst and T. J. Peters (2009). Therapist-delivered internet psychotherapy for depression in primary care: a randomized controlled trial. The Lancet, 374, 628634.

J. B. Klein , R. H. Jacobs and M. A. Reinecke (2007). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression: a meta-analytic investigation of changes in effect-size estimates. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46, 14031413.

D. Learmonth , J. Trosh , S. Rai , J. Sewell and K. Cavanagh (2008). The role of computer-aided psychotherapy within an NHS CBT specialist service. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, 8, 117123

S. March , S. H. Spence and C. L. Donovan (2009). The efficacy of an internet-based cognitive-behavioural therapy intervention for child anxiety disorders. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 34, 474487.

P. Muris , H. Merckelbach , H. Schmidt , B. Gadet and N. Bogie (2001). Anxiety and depression as correlates of self-reported behavioural inhibition in normal adolescents. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 39, 10511061.

R. O'Kearney , M. Gibson , H. Christensen and K. M. Griffiths (2006). Effects of a cognitive-behavioural internet program on depression, vulnerability to depression and stigma in adolescent males: a school-based controlled trial. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 35, 4354.

M. A. Reger and G. A. Gahm (2009). A meta-analysis of the effects of internet and computer-based cognitive behavioural treatments for anxiety. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65, 5375.

T. Richardson , P. Stallard and S. Velleman (2010). Computerized cognitive behavioural therapy for the prevention and treatment of depression and anxiety in children and adolescents: a systematic review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 13, 275290.

M. Rosenberg (1965). Society and the Adolescent Self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

S. H. Spence (1998). A measure of anxiety symptoms among children. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 545566.

S. H. Spence , P. M. Barrett and C. M. Turner (2003). Psychometric properties of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale with young adolescents. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 17, 605625.

S. H. Spence , J. M. Holmes , S. March and T. V. Lipp (2006). The feasibility and outcome of clinic plus internet delivery of cognitive-behaviour therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 614621.

P. Stallard , S. Velleman and T. Richardson (2010). Computer use and attitudes towards computerised therapy amongst young people and parents attending Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 15, 8084.

N. Titov , G. Andrews , G. Schwencke , J. Drobny and D. Einstein (2008). Shyness 1: distance treatment of social phobia over the Internet. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 42, 585594.

B. W. Van Voorhees , J. Fogel , M. A. Reinecke , T. Gladstone , S. Stuart , J. Gollan , (2009). Randomized clinical trial of an internet-based depression prevention program for adolescents (Project CATCH-IT) in primary care: 12 week outcomes. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 30, 2337.

L. Warmerdam , A. van Straten , J. Jongsma , J. Twisk and P. Cuijpers (2010). Online cognitive behavioral therapy and problem-solving therapy for depressive symptoms: exploring mechanisms of change. Journal of Behaviour Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 41, 6470.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
  • ISSN: 1352-4658
  • EISSN: 1469-1833
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioural-and-cognitive-psychotherapy
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *