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    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Achiam-Montal, Michal Tibi, Lee and Lipsitz, Joshua D. 2013. Panic Disorder in Children and Adolescents with Noncardiac Chest Pain. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, Vol. 44, Issue. 6, p. 742.

    Gazarian, Douglas Multach, Matthew D. Ellison, William D. Chelminski, Iwona Dalrymple, Kristy and Zimmerman, Mark 2016. Does ‘fear of dying’ indicate a more severe presentation of panic disorder?. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, Vol. 40, p. 52.


Do Symptom Interpretations Mediate the Relationship Between Panic Attack Symptoms and Agoraphobic Avoidance?

  • David Berle (a1), Vladan Starcevic (a2), Denise Milicevic (a1), Anthony Hannan (a1) and Karen Moses (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 26 March 2010

Background: There is little consensus as to whether agoraphobic avoidance in panic disorder is characterized by a prominence of particular symptoms and interpretations of those symptoms. Aims: We sought to clarify the relationship between symptoms and agoraphobic avoidance and to establish whether catastrophic interpretations of symptoms mediate any such relationships. Method: The Symptom Checklist 90-Revised, Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire and Mobility Inventory were administered to 117 patients with panic disorder who were attending an outpatient anxiety disorders clinic. Results: Medium to large associations were found between most symptoms and agoraphobic avoidance and between particular symptoms and the corresponding symptom interpretation items. Some interpretations of symptoms were found to mediate relationships between symptoms and agoraphobic avoidance. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the catastrophic misinterpretation model of panic disorder can to some extent be invoked to explain the extent of agoraphobic avoidance, but that there may also be other pathways leading from symptoms to agoraphobia.

Corresponding author
Reprint requests to David Berle, Nepean Anxiety Disorders Clinic, Sydney West Area Health Service, PO Box 63, Penrith NSW 2751, Australia. E-mail:
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