Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Positive Experiences in Caregivers: An Exploratory Case Series

  • Emma Bacon (a1), Derek L. Milne (a2), Alia I. Sheikh (a2) and Mark H. Freeston (a2)
Abstract

Background: Recent research into positive experiences in caregivers has begun to redress the traditional focus on negative aspects of caregiving experiences. Method: This exploratory study used a cognitive-behavioural approach – namely, the transactional stress model (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984) – to investigate associations between appraisals, coping, and gains over a 6-week period in a small sample (N = 4; case series) design involving stroke caregivers. Analysis involved visual inspection of graphs, supported by descriptive statistics, and co-variation analysis. Results: Participants reported high levels of positive experiences, and these increased over the study period, a previously unreported trend. The study also found individual differences in the interactions between appraisal, coping, and caregiving gain variables, findings explained by the transactional stress model. Conclusions: Implications for clinical practice and future research are addressed.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Reprint requests to Alia Sheikh, Department of Clinical Psychology, Ridley Building, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, UK. E-mail: a.i.sheikh@ncl.ac.uk
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

G. Affleck and H. Tennen (1996). Construing benefits from adversity: adaptational significance and dispositional underpinnings. Journal of Personality, 64, 899922.

C. S. Anderson , J. Linto and E. G. Stewart-Wynne (1995). A population-based assessment of the impact and burden of caregiving for long-term stroke survivors. Stroke, 26, 843849.

L. Ayres (2000). Narratives of family caregiving: the process of making meaning. Research in Nursing and Health, 23, 424434.

K. M. Bellizzi (2004). Expressions of generativity and posttraumatic growth in adult cancer survivors. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 58, 267287.

M. Berg-Weger , D. M. Rubio and S. S. Tebb (2001). Strengths-based practice with family caregivers of the chronically ill: qualitative insights. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 82, 263272.

H. Blake and N. B. Lincoln (2000). Factors associated with strain in co-resident spouses of patients following stroke. Clinical Rehabilitation, 14, 307314.

C. Brannen and K. Petite (2008). An alternative framework for understanding women's caregiving stress: a qualitative application of the ways of coping model. Journal of Health Psychology, 13, 355365.

D. F. Brossart , R. I. Parker , E. A. Olson and L. Mahadevan (2006). The relationship between visual analysis and five statistical analyses in a simple AB single-case research design. Behavior Modification, 30, 531563.

H. K. Butcher and K. C. Buckwalter (2002). Exasperations as blessings: meaning-making and the caregiving experience. Journal of Aging and Identity, 7, 113132.

S. Cadell (2007). The sun always comes out after it rains: understanding posttraumatic growth in HIV caregivers. Health and Social Work, 32, 169176.

M. Dennis , S. O'Rourke , S. Lewis , M. Sharpe and C. Warlow (1998). A quantitative study of the emotional outcome of people caring for stroke survivors. Stroke, 29, 18671872.

B. M. Draper , C. J. Poulos , A. M. D. Cole , R. G. Poulous and F. Ehrlich (1992). A comparison of caregivers for elderly stroke and dementia victims. Journal of American Geriatrics Society, 40, 896901.

S. Folkman (1997). Positive psychological states and coping with severe stress. Social Sciences and Medicine, 45, 12071221.

G. Forsberg-Wärleby , A. Möller and C. Blomstrand (2001). Spouses of first-ever stroke patients: psychological well-being in the first phase after stroke. Stroke, 32, 16461651.

B. Han , and W. E. Hanley (1999). Family caregiving for patients with stroke: review and analysis. Stroke, 30, 14781485.

S. P. Hodgson , V. A. Wood and R. Langton-Hewer (1996). Identification of stroke carers “at risk”: a preliminary study of the predictors of carers' psychological well-being at one year post-stroke. Clinical Rehabilitation, 10, 337346.

M. P. Jensen , J. A. Turner , J. M. Romano and P. Karoly (1991). Coping with chronic pain: a critical review of the literature. Pain, 47, 249283.

Y. Kim , R. Schulz and C. S. Carver (2007). Benefit finding in the cancer caregiving experience. Psychosomatic Medicine, 69, 283291.

J. M. Kinney , M. A. P. Stephens , M. M. Franks and V. K. Norris (1995). Stresses and satisfactions of family caregivers to older stroke patients. The Journal of Applied Gerontology, 14, 321.

B. J. Kramer (1997). Gain in the caregiving experience: where are we? what next? The Gerontologist, 37, 218232.

R. S. Lazarus (2000). Towards better research on stress and coping. American Psychologist, 55, 665673.

J. López , J. López-Arrieta and M. Crespo (2005). Factors associated with the positive impact of caring for elderly and dependent relatives. Archives of Gerontoloy and Geriatrics, 41, 8194.

J. R. S. Low , S. Payne and P. Roderick (1999). The impact of stroke on informal carers: a literature review. Social Science and Medicine, 49, 711725.

N. Matson (1994). Coping, caring and stress: a study of stroke carers and carers of older confused people. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 33, 333344.

M. Nolan , G. Grant and N. Ellis (1990). Stress is in the eye of the beholder: reconceptualizing the measurement of carer burden. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 15, 544555.

E. J. Peacock and P. T. P. Wong (1990). The Stress Appraisal Measure (SAM): a multidimensional approach to cognitive appraisal. Stress Medicine, 6, 227236.

S. Powell , R. Rosner , W. Butollo , R. G. Tedeschi and L. G. Calhoun (2003). Posttraumatic growth after war: a study with former refugees and displaced people in Sarajevo. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 59, 7183.

R. Schulz and C. A. Tompkins (1990). Life events and changes in social relationships: examples, mechanisms and measurements. Social support and clinical psychology (Special Issue). Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 9, 6977.

R. Schulz , C. A. Tompkins and M. T. Rau (1988). A longitudinal study of the psychosocial impact of stroke on primary support persons. Psychology and Aging, 3, 131141.

M. E. P. Seligman and M. Csikszentmihalyi (2000). Positive psychology: an introduction. American Psychologist, 55, 514.

R. A. Silliman , J. L. Earp , R. H. Fletcher and E. H. Wagner (1988). Stroke: the perspective of family caregivers. The Journal of Applied Gerontology, 6, 363371.

M. A. P. Stephens , V. K. Norris , J. M. Kinney , S. W. Ritchie and R. C. Grotz (1988). Stressful situations in caregiving: relations between caregiver coping and wellbeing. Psychology and Aging, 3, 208209.

A. A. Stone and J. M. Neale (1984). New measurement of daily coping: development and preliminary results. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 892906.

A. A. Stone , E. Kennedy-Moore and J. M. Neale (1995). Association between daily coping and end-of-day mood. Health Psychology, 14, 341349.

R. G. Tedeschi and L. G. Calhoun (1996). The posttraumatic growth inventory: measuring the positive legacy of trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 9, 455471.

S. C. Thompson , N. I. Bundek and A. Sobolew-Shubin (1990). The caregivers of stroke patients: an investigation of factors associated with depression. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 20, 115129.

P. P. Vitaliano , D. J. DeWolfe , R. D. Maiuro , J. Russo and W. Katon (1990). Appraised changeability of a stressor as a modifier of the relationship between coping and depression: a test of the hypothesis of fit. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 582592.

D. R. Wade , J. Legh-Smith and R. Langton-Hewer (1986). Effects of living with and looking after survivors of stroke. British Medical Journal, 293, 418420.

A. M. Williams (1993). Caregivers of persons with stroke: their physical and emotional wellbeing. Quality of Life Research, 2, 213220.

M. Yamashita (1998). Family coping with mental illness: a comparative study. Journal of Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing, 5, 515523.

S. H. Zarit , K. E. Reever and J. Bach-Peterson (1980). Relatives of the impaired elderly: correlates of feelings of burden. The Gerontologist, 20, 646655.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
  • ISSN: 1352-4658
  • EISSN: 1469-1833
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioural-and-cognitive-psychotherapy
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 2
Total number of PDF views: 17 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 101 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 27th May 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.