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    McHugh, Tony Forbes, David Bates, Glen Hopwood, Malcolm and Creamer, Mark 2012. Anger in PTSD: Is there a need for a concept of PTSD-related posttraumatic anger?. Clinical Psychology Review, Vol. 32, Issue. 2, p. 93.

    Tafarodi, Romin W. Marshall, Tara C. and Milne, Alan B. 2003. Self-esteem and memory.. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 84, Issue. 1, p. 29.

  • Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, Volume 25, Issue 4
  • October 1997, pp. 329-337

Unfinished Processing in the Emotional Disorders: The Zeigarnik Effect

  • Ian A. James (a1) and Katherine Kendell (a2)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 June 2009

Intrusions and perseverations, although often associated with psychiatric disorders, have a functional role within the information processing system (Eberly, Harkness, & Engdhal, 1991). Research suggests that these phenomena act as conscious aide memoires (Kvavilashvili, 1987) informing the cognitive system that there are prospective tasks to be done (i.e. tasks started, or intentions made, but not finished). In the case of psychiatric problems, the intrusions and perseverations may reflect the presence of unresolved issues that require further processing. The current paper outlines this hypothesis and presents the Zeigarnik effect (Zeigarnik, 1927) as one potential factor amongst others helping to maintain the incidence of intrusions. The paper also describes the possible modus operandi of this effect in terms of post-traumatic stress, obsessive-compulsive disorder and general-anxiety disorder. A number of treatment strategies are discussed which may decrease the incidence of Zeigarnik intrusions.

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K. Savitsky , V. Husted-Medvec , & T. Gilovich (1997). Remembering and regretting: The Zeigarnik Effect and the cognitive availability of regrettable actions and inactions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23(3), 248257.

M. Spranca , E. Minsk & J. Baron (1991). Omission and commission in judgement of choice. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 27, 76105.

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Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
  • ISSN: 1352-4658
  • EISSN: 1469-1833
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioural-and-cognitive-psychotherapy
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