Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 9
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Reynolds, Gemma Field, Andy P. and Askew, Chris 2016. Reductions in Children’s Vicariously Learnt Avoidance and Heart Rate Responses Using Positive Modeling. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, p. 1.


    Lester, Kathryn J. Lisk, Stephen C. Mikita, Nina Mitchell, Sophie Huijding, Jorg Rinck, Mike and Field, Andy P. 2015. The effects of verbal information and approach-avoidance training on children's fear-related responses. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, Vol. 48, p. 40.


    Reynolds, Gemma Field, Andy P. and Askew, Chris 2015. Learning to fear a second-order stimulus following vicarious learning. Cognition and Emotion, p. 1.


    Reynolds, Gemma Field, Andy P. and Askew, Chris 2015. Preventing the Development of Observationally Learnt Fears in Children by Devaluing the Model’s Negative Response. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Vol. 43, Issue. 7, p. 1355.


    Helsen, Kim Goubert, Liesbet and Vlaeyen, Johan W.S. 2013. Observational Learning and Pain-Related Fear: Exploring Contingency Learning in an Experimental Study Using Colored Warm Water Immersions. The Journal of Pain, Vol. 14, Issue. 7, p. 676.


    LoBue, Vanessa and Rakison, David H. 2013. What we fear most: A developmental advantage for threat-relevant stimuli. Developmental Review, Vol. 33, Issue. 4, p. 285.


    Dibbets, Pauline Poort, Hanneke and Arntz, Arnoud 2012. Adding imagery rescripting during extinction leads to less ABA renewal. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, Vol. 43, Issue. 1, p. 614.


    Lester, Kathryn J. Seal, Katherine Nightingale, Zoë C. and Field, Andy P. 2010. Are children's own interpretations of ambiguous situations based on how they perceive their mothers have interpreted ambiguous situations for them in the past?. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, Vol. 24, Issue. 1, p. 102.


    Muris, Peter and Field, Andy P. 2010. The Role of Verbal Threat Information in the Development of Childhood Fear. “Beware the Jabberwock!”. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, Vol. 13, Issue. 2, p. 129.


    ×

What Happens When Verbal Threat Information and Vicarious Learning Combine?

  • Chris Askew (a1), Hannah Kessock-Philip (a1) and Andy P. Field (a1)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1352465808004402
  • Published online: 01 July 2008
Abstract
Abstract

Recent research has shown that the verbal information and vicarious learning pathways to fear create long term fear cognitions and can create cognitive biases and avoidance in children. However, it is unlikely that these pathways operate in isolation in the aetiology of childhood fear and the interaction between these pathways is untested. Three preliminary experiments are reported that explore the combined effect of verbal threat information and vicarious learning on self-reported fear beliefs in 7–9-year-old children. Results showed that prior negative information significantly facilitated the effect of negative vicarious learning on children's fear beliefs (Experiment 1); however, there was not a significant combined effect of verbal threat information and vicarious learning when they the information was presented during (Experiment 2) or after (Experiment 3) vicarious learning. These results support the idea that verbal information can affect CS-US associations formed in subsequent vicarious learning events, but contradict the proposal that it can change fear beliefs already acquired through vicarious learning by changing how a person evaluates the vicarious learning episode.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Reprint requests to Andy Field, Department of Psychology, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 6GQ, UK. E-mail: andyf@sussex.ac.uk
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

C. Askew and A. P. Field (2007). Vicarious learning and the development of fears in childhood. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 26162627.

S. J. Dollinger , J. P. O'Donnell and A. A. Staley (1984). Lightning-strike disaster: effects on children's fears and worries. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 10281038.

A. P. Field (2006a). The behavioral inhibition system and the verbal information pathway to children's fears. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115, 742752.

A. P. Field (2006b). Watch out for the beast: fear information and attentional bias in children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35, 337345.

A. P. Field (2006c). Is conditioning a useful framework for understanding the development and treatment of phobias? Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 857875.

A. P. Field , N. G. Argyris and K. A. Knowles (2001). Who's afraid of the big bad wolf: a prospective paradigm to test Rachman's indirect pathways in children. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 39, 12591276.

A. P. Field and G. C. L. Davey (2001). Conditioning models of childhood anxiety. In W. K. Silverman and P. A. Treffers (Eds.), Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents: research, assessment and intervention. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

A. P. Field and J. Lawson (2003). Fear information and the development of fears during childhood: effects on implicit fear responses and behavioural avoidance. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41, 12771293.

A. P. Field , J. Lawson and R. Banerjee (2008). The verbal threat information pathway to fear in children: the longitudinal effects on fear cognitions and the immediate effects on avoidance behavior. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 117, 214224.

A. P. Field and H. Schorah (2007). The negative information pathway to fear and heart rate changes in children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48, 10881093.

A. P. Field and Storksen-Coulson (2007). The interaction of pathways to fear in childhood anxiety: a preliminary study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 30513059.

F. C. Gerull and R. M. Rapee (2002). Mother knows best: effects of maternal modelling on the acquisition of fear and avoidance behaviour in toddlers. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40, 279287.

S. Mineka and M. Cook (1993). Mechanisms involved in the observational conditioning of fear. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 122, 2338.

S. Mineka and R. Zinbarg (2006). A contemporary learning theory perspective on the etiology of anxiety disorders: it's not what you thought it was. American Psychologist, 61, 1026.

P. Muris (2007). Normal and Abnormal Fear and Anxiety in Children. Oxford: Elsevier Science.

P. Muris , D. Bodden , H. Merckelbach , T. H. Ollendick and N. King (2003). Fear of the beast: a prospective study on the effects of negative information on childhood fear. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41, 195208.

P. Muris and H. Merckelbach (2001). The etiology of childhood specific phobia: a multifactorial model. In M. W. Vasey and M. R. Dadds (Eds.), The Developmental Psychopathology of Anxiety (pp. 355385). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

T. H. Ollendick and N. J. King (1991). Origins of childhood fears: an evaluation of Rachman theory of fear acquisition. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 29, 117123.

S. Rachman (1977). Conditioning theory of fear-acquisition: critical examination. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 15, 375387.

D. B. Wright (1998). Modeling clustered data in autobiographical memory research: the multilevel approach. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 12, 339357.

W. Yule , O. Udwin and K. Murdoch (1990). The Jupiter sinking: effects on children's fears, depression and anxiety. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 31, 10511061.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
  • ISSN: 1352-4658
  • EISSN: 1469-1833
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioural-and-cognitive-psychotherapy
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: