Andrade J., Kavanagh D. and Baddeley A. (1997). Eye-movements and visual imagery: a working memory approach to the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 36, 209–223.
Armstrong M. S. and Vaughan K. (1996). An orienting response model of eye movement desensitization. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 25, 283–291.
Baddeley A. D. (1986). Working Memory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bakan P. and Svorad D. (1969). Resting EEG alpha asymmetry of reflective lateral eye movements. Nature, 223, 975–976.
Barrowcliff A. L., Gray N. S., MacCulloch S., Freeman T. C. A. and MacCulloch M. J. (2003). Horizontal rhythmical eye movements consistently diminish the arousal provoked by auditory stimuli. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 42, 289–302.
Bisson J. and Andrew M. (2007). Psychological treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007, Issue 3: CD003388
Boudewyns P. A. and Hyer L. A. (1996). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) as treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 3, 185–195.
Brunyé T. T., Mahoney C. R., Augustyn J. S. and Taylor H. A. (2009). Horizontal saccadic eye movements enhance the retrieval of landmark shape and location information. Brain and Cognition, 70, 279–288.
Cahill S. P., Carrigan M. H. and Frueh B. C. (1999). Does EMDR work? And if so, why?: a critical review of controlled outcome and dismantling research. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 13, 5–33.
Christman S. D., Garvey K. J., Propper R. E. and Phaneuf K. A. (2003). Bilateral eye movements enhance the retrieval of episodic memories. Neuropsychology, 17, 221–229.
Christman S. D. and Propper R. E. (2001). Superior episodic memory is associated with interhemispheric processing. Neuropsychology, 15, 607–616.
Compton R. J. and Mintzer D. A. (2001). Effects of worry and evaluation stress on interhemispheric interaction. Neuropsychology, 15, 427–433.
Davidson P. R. and Parker K. C. H. (2001). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): a meta-analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 305–316.
Ehlers A., Clark D. M., Hackmann A., Grey N., Liness S., Wild J., et al. (2010). Intensive cognitive therapy for PTSD: a feasibility study. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 38, 383–398.
Gunter R. W. (2009). EMDR works. . . but how? Recent progress in the search for treatment mechanisms. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 3, 161–168.
Gunter R. W. and Bodner G. E. (2008). How eye movements affect unpleasant memories: support for a working memory account. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46, 913–931.
Hertlein K. M. and Ricci R. J. (2004). A systematic research synthesis of EMDR studies: implementation of the platinum standard. Trauma, Violence and Abuse, 5, 285–300.
Högberg G., Pagani M., Sundin O., Soares J., Aberg-Wistedt A., Tärnell B., et al. (2007). On treatment with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder in public transportation workers: a randomized controlled trial. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 61, 54–61.
Ironson G. I., Freund B., Strauss J. L. and Williams J. (2002). Comparison of two treatments for traumatic stress: a community-based study of EMDR and prolonged exposure. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 113–128.
Kavanagh D. J., Freese S., Andrade J. and May J. (2001). Effects of visuospatial tasks on desensitization to emotive memories. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40, 267–280.
Kilpatrick D. G. and Best C. L. (1984). Some cautionary remarks on treating sexual assault victims with implosion. Behavior Therapy, 15, 421–423.
Lee C. W. and Drummond P. D. (2008). Effects of eye movement versus therapist instructions on the process of distressing memories. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22, 801–808.
Lilley S. A., Andrale J., Turpin G., Sabin-Farrell R. and Holmes E. (2009). Visuospatial working memory interference with recollections of trauma. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 48, 309–321.
Lohr J. M., Lilienfeld S. O., Tolin D. F. and Herbert J. D. (1999). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: an analysis of specific versus nonspecific treatment factors. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 13, 185–207.
MacCulloch M. J. and Feldman P. (1996). Eye movement desensitization treatment utilises the positive visceral element of the investigatory reflex to inhibit the memories of post-traumatic stress disorder: a theoretical analysis. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 169, 571–579.
Maltzman I. and Raskin D. C. (1965). Effects of individual differences in the orienting reflex on conditioning and complex processes. Journal of Experimental Research in Personality, 1, 1–16.
Maxfield L., Melynk W. T. and Hayman C. A. G. (2008). A working memory explanation for the effects of eye movements in EMDR. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2, 247–261.
National Institute for Clinical Excellence (2005). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): the management of PTSD in adults and children in primary and secondary care. London: NICE Guidelines.
Power K., McGoldrick T., Brown K., Buchanan R., Sharp D., Swanson V., et al. (2002). A controlled comparison of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing versus exposure plus cognitive restructuring versus waiting list in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 9, 299–318.
Propper R. E. and Christman S. D. (2008). Interhemispheric interaction and saccadic horizontal eye movements: implications for episodic memory, EMDR and PTSD. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2, 269–281.
Rogers S. and Silver S. M. (2002). Is EMDR an exposure therapy? A review of trauma protocols. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 43–59.
Samara Z., Elzinga B. M., Slagter H. A. and Nieuwenhuis S. (2011). Do horizontal saccadic eye movements increase interhemispheric coherence? Investigation of a hypothesized neural mechanism underlying EMDR. Front Psychiatry, 2, 4.
Schubert S. and Lee C. W. (2009). Adult PTSD and its treatment with EMDR: a review of controversies, evidence, and theoretical knowledge. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 3, 117–132.
Schubert S., Lee C. W. and Drummond P. D. (2011). The efficacy and psychophysiological correlates of dual-attention tasks in eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25, 1–11.
Shapiro F. (1989a). Efficacy of the eye movement desensitization procedure in the treatment of traumatic memories. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 2, 199–223.
Shapiro F. (1989b). Eye movement desensitization: a new treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 20, 211–217.
Shapiro F. (2001). Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing: basic principles, protocols and procedures (2nd edn). New York: Guilford Press.
Shapiro F. (2002). EMDR 12 years after its introduction: past and future research. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 1–22.
Shapiro F. and Maxfield L. (2002). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): information processing in the treatment of trauma. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 933–946.
Shepherd J., Stein K. and Milne R. (2000). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder: a review of an emerging therapy. Psychological Medicine, 2000, 863–871.
Sokolov E. (1990). The orienting response, and future directions of its development. Pavlovian Journal of Biological Sciences, 25, 142–150.
Stickgold R. (2002). EMDR: a putative neurobiological mechanism of action. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 61–75.
Stickgold R., Hobson J. A., Fosse R. and Fosse M. (2001). Sleep, learning and dreams: off-line memory reprocessing. Science, 294, 1052–1057.
Tulving E., Kapur S., Craik F. I. M., Moscovitch M. and Houle S. (1994). Hemispheric encoding/retrieval asymmetry in episodic memory: positron emission technology findings. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 91, 2016–2020.
van den Hout M., Muris P., Salemink E. and Kindt M. (2001). Autobiographical memories become less vivid and emotional after eye movements. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40, 121–130.
Wilson D. L., Silver S. M., Covi W. G. and Foster S. (1996). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: effectiveness and autonomic correlates. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 27, 219–229.