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Additive negative effects of Philornis nest parasitism on small and declining Neotropical bird populations



The declining-population paradigm holds that small populations are particularly vulnerable to anthropogenic influences such as habitat destruction, pollution and species introductions. While the effects of particular stressors, such as parasitism, may be unimportant in a large, healthy population, they can be serious and even devastating in situations characterised by a restricted geographic range, or by fragmented or reduced population sizes. We apply this idea to nest parasitism of threatened Neotropical bird species that exist in small populations, focusing on dipteran nest parasites in the genus Philornis. We review the literature on Philornis parasitism exerting negative pressure on bird populations that have become small and isolated due to human actions and present a new case of Philornis parasitism of a threatened hummingbird species. Our aim is to raise awareness about the exacerbating effect that nest parasites can have on small and declining bird populations; especially when biological information is scarce. The five reviewed cases involve two species of Darwin’s Finches in the Galápagos Islands attacked by the invasive P. downsi, two species of hawks on islands in the Caribbean attacked by the native P. pici and P. obscura, and the Yellow Cardinal Gubernatrix cristata in southern South America attacked by an unknown Philornis species. We also present new documentation of parasitism of a threatened hummingbird species in mainland Ecuador by an unidentified Philornis species. We recommend more field studies to determine the presence of nest parasites in bird populations worldwide to improve understanding how nest parasites affect bird fitness and population viability and to allow time to act in advance if needed. Parasitism by Philornis may represent a severe mortality factor in most already threatened bird species, putting them at greater risk of extinction. Therefore, parasitism management should be included in all threatened species recovery plans.

El paradigma de las poblaciones en disminución afirma que las poblaciones pequeñas son particularmente vulnerables a las influencias antropogénicas tales como la destrucción de hábitats, la contaminación y la introducción de especies. Mientras los efectos de estresores particulares, tales como el parasitismo, pueden no ser importantes en poblaciones grandes y saludables, éstos podrían ser devastadores en poblaciones que tienen un rango geográfico restricto, un tamaño reducido o que se encuentran fragmentadas. Aquí se aplica esta idea al parasitismo de nido en especies de aves Neotropicales amenazadas con poblaciones pequeñas, enfocándonos en los parásitos de nido del género Philornis. Revisamos casos en la literatura referidos a el parasitismo de Philornis ejerciendo una presión negativa en poblaciones de aves que presentan un tamaño poblacional reducido o están aisladas debido a la acción humana y presentamos un nuevo caso de parasitismo de Philornis en una especie de colibrí en peligro de extinción. Nuestro objetivo es poner en relieve el efecto agravatorio que los parásitos de nidos pueden tener en poblaciones de aves reducidas y en disminución numérica, especialmente cuando la información biológica es escasa. Los cinco casos examinados incluyen dos especies de Pinzones de Darwin en las Islas Galápagos que son atacadas por la mosca invasora P. downsi, dos especies de gavilanes en islas del Caribe que son atacadas por las moscas nativas P. pici y P. obscura y el Cardenal Amarillo Gubernatrix cristata en el Sur de Sudamérica que es parasitado por una especie de Philornis sin identificar. Además, presentamos nueva información de parasitismo en una especie de colibrí en peligro en Ecuador que es atacada por una especie de Philornis no identificada. Recomendamos más estudios de campo a nivel mundial para determinar la presencia de parásitos de nido en poblaciones de aves con el objetivo de entender cómo estos parásitos afectan el fitness de las aves y la viabilidad de la población para actuar a tiempo de ser necesario. El parasitismo de Philornis puede representar un factor de mortalidad significativo que pone en mayor riesgo de extinción especies de aves que ya se encuentran en peligro. Por lo tanto, sugerimos que el manejo de parásitos sea incluido en todos los planes de recuperación de dichas especies.


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Additive negative effects of Philornis nest parasitism on small and declining Neotropical bird populations



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