Long-term population monitoring is crucial to evaluate the effectiveness of conservation efforts. Systematic surveys of the endangered Black-faced Spoonbill Platalea minor, the rarest spoonbill species globally, are not possible during the breeding season as the largest breeding grounds are inaccessible to surveyors. Instead, we have examined population trend in this species during the winter by utilising a dataset of synchronised surveys conducted annually across 42 sites between 1997 and 2014. We found that the global population has increased from 535 individuals in 1997 to 2,726 in 2014, an annual increase of 8.0%. Population increases were more pronounced in protected sites and sites with low levels of human disturbance, indicating that control of human disturbance is crucial for conservation in this species. It is of concern that the wintering populations are highly clumped and the two largest populations have ceased to increase since 2012; research to investigate the underlying causes is urgently needed. Synchronised surveys in all known wintering sites should be continued to provide up-to-date data on the global population of this endangered species.
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