Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Rapid and continued population decline in the Spoon-billed Sandpiper Eurynorhynchus pygmeus indicates imminent extinction unless conservation action is taken

  • CHRISTOPH ZÖCKLER (a1), EVGENY E. SYROECHKOVSKIY (a2) and PHILIP W. ATKINSON (a3)
Summary
Summary

The Spoon-billed Sandpiper Eurynorhynchus pygmeus (IUCN Category: Critically Endangered) is in rapid decline. Data from across the entire breeding range (Chukotka and Koryakya in the Russian far north-east) and especially from the well-studied southern core breeding area at Meinypilgyno, confirm the continuing strong decline. At four breeding sites, where more than two counts were available for analysis, the decline was estimated at 26% per annum between 2002 and 2009, or an 88% decline over this period. Allowing for unsurveyed areas, this equates to a decline from a total population of approximately 1,000 breeding pairs in 2000 to 120–220 in 2009. Breeding studies at Meinypilgyno in 2003–2007 (not 2006) showed that the proportion of nests hatching at least one chick was 0.65 and once chicks left the nest, the mean brood size of chicks up to one week old was 1.99. Where it was possible to follow broods, 0.61 chicks fledged per nesting attempt. Survival and recruitment analysis of birds ringed at Meinypilgyno indicated that annual adult survival did not significantly differ over the 2003–2009 study but that recruitment in to the adult breeding population was effectively zero in all but one year of the study (2005). Resighting data for the last two years of the study were sparse due to very low numbers of marked adults being recorded and survival rates over the last 2–3 years of the study must therefore be treated with caution. The analysis therefore indicated that after fledging, survival during immaturity must be very low, leading to a low (or no) recruitment into an ageing population. Recent observations collated from the non-breeding areas confirm the declining trend observed in the breeding areas and imply that the main threats to the population lie along the migration route or in the wintering areas. These are poorly known although hunting in the wintering areas has been identified as a major mortality factor. Other threats include major loss of their intertidal habitats, and collection of birds on the breeding areas by specimen collectors. Improved monitoring in both the breeding and non-breeding areas as well as research on juvenile survival is recommended. Concerted international conservation action is essential if this species is to avoid extinction. This requires (i) improved understanding of the main wintering and staging areas and associated threats; (ii) addressing those threats that can be tackled with immediate effect, such as hunting; (iii) continued long-term monitoring on the breeding areas; (iv) an exploration of other potential breeding areas; (v) conservation action at all important stop-over and wintering sites along the entire flyway and (vi) consideration of a captive-breeding programme to ensure the survival of this species.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Rapid and continued population decline in the Spoon-billed Sandpiper Eurynorhynchus pygmeus indicates imminent extinction unless conservation action is taken
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Rapid and continued population decline in the Spoon-billed Sandpiper Eurynorhynchus pygmeus indicates imminent extinction unless conservation action is taken
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Rapid and continued population decline in the Spoon-billed Sandpiper Eurynorhynchus pygmeus indicates imminent extinction unless conservation action is taken
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence. Email: cz@arccona.com
References
Hide All
Barter M. (2003) The Yellow Sea – a race against time. Wader Study Group Bull. 100: 111113.
Bunting G. and Zöckler C. (2006) Short note on the Spoon-billed Sandpiper Database. Pp. 501502 in Boere G. C., Galbraith C. A. and Stroud D. A., eds. Waterbirds Aaround the World. Edinburgh: The Stationery Office.
BirdLife International (2001) Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International.
Choquet R., Lebreton J. D., Gimenez O., Reboulet A. M. and Pradel R. (2009) U-CARE: Utilities for performing goodness of fit tests and manipulating CApture-REcapture data. Ecography 32: 10711074.
Dorogoi I. V. (1997) The fauna and distribution of waders in North-East Asia. Pp. 5387 in Andreev A. V., ed. Species diversity and population status of waterbirds in north-east Asia. Magadan: NESC FEB RAS. (In Russian.)
Flint V. E. and Kondratiev A. Ya. (1977) An experience of evaluating of the total number of a rare stenotypic species (Spoon-billed Sandpiper Eurynorhynchus pygmeus as an example). P. 250 in M. A. Voinstvenski, ed. 7th All-Union Ornithol. Conf. Abstracts of talks. Part 2. Kiev, Naukova Dumka. (In Russian.)
Gerasimov N. N. and Vyatkin P. S. (1973) New data on nesting of waders on Kamchatka. Pp. 2528 in Flint V. E., ed. Fauna and ecology of waders. Part 2. Moscow: Moscow State University. (In Russian.)
Goss-Custard J. D., Durrell S. E. A. le V dit, Sitters H. and Swinfen R. (1981) Mist nets catch more juvenile Oystercatchers than adults. Wader Study Group Bull. 32: 13.
Johnson M., Ruthrauff D. R., McCaffery B. J., Haig S. M. and Walters J. R. (2010) Apparent survival of breeding Western Sandpipers on the Yukon-Kuskokwim River Delta, Alaska. Wilson J. Orn. 122: 1522.
Kistchinski A. A. (1988) Avifauna of north-east Asia: history and modern status. Moscow: Nauka. (In Russian.)
Krechmar A. V., Andreev A. V. and Kondratyev A. Ya. (1978) Ecology and distribution of birds at the north-east of the USSR. Moscow: Nauka. (In Russian.)
Leonovich V. V. (1973) Materials on the study of Spoon-billed Sandpiper. Pp. 7577 in Flint V. E., ed. Fauna and ecology of waders. Part 2. Moscow: Moscow Sate University. (In Russian.)
Lobkov E. G. 1986. The breeding birds of Kamchatka. Nauka Publishers, Vladivostok. (in Russian).
Moores N. (2001) Saemangeum: Internationally significant wetlands to be 100% reclaimed. Website WBK www.wbkenglish.com.
Moores N., Battley P., Rogers D., Park M.-N., Sung H.-C., van de Kam J. and Gosbell K. (2006) Birds Korea-AWSG Saemangeum shorebird monitoring program report, 2006. Busan: Birds Korea Publications.
Moores N., Rogers D., Kim R.-H., Hassell C., Gosbell K., Kim S.-A. and Park M.-N. (2008) The 2006–2008 Saemangeum shorebird monitoring program. Busan: Birds Korea.
Nol E., Williams S. and Sandercock B. K. (2010) Natal philopatry and apparent survival of juvenile Semipalmated Plovers. Wilson J. Orn. 122: 2328.
Pienkowski M. W. and Dick W. J. A. (1976) Some biases in cannon- and mist-netted samples of wader populations. Ringing & Migration 1: 105107.
Portenko L. A. (1972) Birds of the Chukotsky Peninsula and Wrangel Island. Part 1. Leningrad: Nauka. (In Russian).
Pradel R. (1996) Utilization of capture-mark-recapture for the study of recruitment and population growth rate. Biometrics 52: 703709.
Stroud D. A., Baker A., Blanco D. E., Davidson N. C., Delany S., Ganter B., Gill R., González P., Haanstra L., Morrison R. I. G., Piersma T., Scott D. A., Thorup O., West R., Wilson J. and Zöckler C. (on behalf of the International Wader Study Group). (2006) The conservation and population status of the world’s waders at the turn of the millennium. Pp. 643648 in Boere G. C., Galbraith C. A. and Stroud D. A., eds. Waterbirds around the world. Edinburgh, UK: The Stationery Office.
Syroechkovskiy E. Jr. (2005): The Spoon-billed Sandpiper on the edge: a review of breeding distribution, population estimates and plans for conservation in Russia. Pp. 169174 in Straw P., ed. Status and conservation of shorebirds in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. Proceedings of the Australasian Shorebirds Conference, 13-15 December 2003, Canberra, Australia. Wetlands International Global Series 18, International Wader Studies 17. Sydney, Australia.
Syroechkovskiy E. E. & Zöckler C. (2009) Preliminary results and conclusions of the Spoon-billed Sandpiper survey in Kamchatka and Chukotka 2009. Unpubl. Report for BirdLife International.
Syroechkovskiy E. E., Tomkovich P. S., Kashiwagy M., Lappo E. G., Zöckler C., Buzun V. A. and Taldenkov I. A. (2010) Population decline in the Spoon-billed Sandpiper (Eurynorhynchus pygmeus) from northern Chukotka based on monitoring of breeding grounds. Zoologicheskiy Zhurnal 89: 112. (In Russian.)
Taldenkov I. A. and Golub E. V. (2005) Breeding conditions in Meinypilgyno in 2004. In M. Y. Soloviev and P. S. Tomkovich (compilers): Arctic breeding conditions in the 2004 breeding season. Arctic Birds 7: 23.
Tomkovich P. S. 1994. Spatial structure of the Spoon-billed Sandpiper (Eurynorhynchus pygmeus) population at breeding grounds. Pp. 130148 in Kurochkin E. N., ed. Modern ornithology 1992. Moscow: Nauka Publ. (in Russian).
Tomkovich P. S. (1995) Breeding biology and breeding success of the Spoon-billed Sandpiper Eurynorhynchus pygmeus. Russ. J. Orn. 4: 7791. (In Russian.)
Tomkovich P. S. (2003) Maximal longevity in some waders in Chukotka. In Materials of the working group on waders 16:55–56 P. S. Tomkovich and A. O. Shubin (eds.) (In Russian with English summary.)
Tomkovich P. S. and Soloviev M. Y. (2000) Numbers of the Spoon-billed Sandpiper at the north of Kolyuchinskaya Gulf, Chukotka, and count methods for the species on breeding grounds. Russ. J. Orn. 9: 310. (in Russian.)
Tomkovich P. S., Syroechkovskiy E. E., Lappo E. G. and Zöckler C. (2002) First indications of a sharp population decline in the globally threatened Spoon-billed Sandpiper Eurynorhynchus pygmeus. Bird Conserv. Int. 12: 118.
White G. C. and Burnham K. P. (1999) Program MARK: Survival estimation from populations of marked animals. Bird Study 46(Suppl.): 120138.
Zöckler C. (2003) Neues vom Löffelstrandläufer Eurynorhynchus pygmeus und seinem alarmierenden Bestandsrückgang. Limicola 17: 188203.
Zöckler C., Balachandran S., Bunting G. C., Fanck M., Kashiwagi M., Lappo E. G., Maheswaran G., Sharma A., Syroechkovskiy E. E. and Webb K. (2005) The Indian Sunderbans: an important wintering site for Siberian waders. Wader Study Group Bull. 108: 4246.
Zöckler C., Syroechkovskiy E. E., Lappo E. G. and Bunting G. (2006) Stable isotope analysis and threats in the wintering areas of the declining Spoon-billed Sandpiper Eurynorhynchus pygmeus in the East Asia-Pacific Flyway. Pp. 147153 in Boere G. C., Galbraith C. A. and Stroud D. A., eds. Waterbirds around the world. Edinburgh, UK: The Stationery Office.
Zöckler C. and Lappo E. G. (2008) Calidris pygmeus (Linnaeus, 1758) Löffelstrandläufer. Atlas der Verbreitung palaearktischer Vögel. Lieferung 21: 18.
Zöckler C., Syroechkovskiy E. E., and Bunting G. (2008) International Single Species Action Plan for the conservation of the Spoon-billed Sandpiper Calidris pygmeus. On behalf of BirdLife International for the CMS. 55pp + annex.
Zöckler C., Htin Hla T., Clark N., Syroechkovskiy E., Yakushev N., Daengphayon S. and Robinson R. (2010) Hunting in Myanmar: a major cause of the decline of the Spoon-billed Sandpiper. Wader Study Group Bull. 117: 18.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Bird Conservation International
  • ISSN: 0959-2709
  • EISSN: 1474-0001
  • URL: /core/journals/bird-conservation-international
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 20
Total number of PDF views: 166 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 393 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 16th January 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.