We report the rediscovery of the Cherry-throated Tanager Nemosia rourei in southern Espírito Santo, Brazil, in February 1998, and the first substantive observations of its behaviour, vocalizations and other aspects of its natural history. Approximately 10 individuals, occasionally in groups of up to five birds, were located in humid montane forest at 1,100 m a.s.l. at the privately owned “Fazenda Pindobas IV” (20°19′S, 41°17′W). This small population appears to be safe, as the property owners are preserving the remaining native forest there, and hope soon to register the land as a Private Natural Heritage Reserve (RPPN). The species probably also occurs at similar elevations on neighbouring fazendas. Past reports of the species are reviewed, and the accuracy of the type locality, “Muriaé, Minas Gerais” is re-evaluated. As a result, we suggest that our locality of rediscovery, Jatibocas, where Helmut Sick surely saw a group of eight birds in August 1941, and the Nova Lombardia (= Augusto Ruschi) Biological Reserve, where a single individual was certainly sighted by Derek Scott and others in October 1995, all in south-central Espírito Santo, be considered the only confirmed points of occurrence of the Cherry-throated Tanager.
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