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Changes in Care and Support Needs Following Community-Based Intervention for Individuals With Acquired Brain Injury

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  21 February 2012

Sue Sloan*
Affiliation:
Osborn Sloan & Associates Pty Ltd, Melbourne, Australia. sue@osbornsloan.com.au
Libby Callaway
Affiliation:
Department of Occupational Therapy, Monash University, Australia.
Dianne Winkler
Affiliation:
Summer Foundation Ltd, Melbourne, Australia.
Kirsten McKinley
Affiliation:
Osborn Sloan & Associates Pty Ltd, Melbourne, Australia.
Carlo Ziino
Affiliation:
Osborn Sloan & Associates Pty Ltd, Melbourne, Australia.
Katie Anson
Affiliation:
Osborn Sloan & Associates Pty Ltd, Melbourne, Australia.
*
*Address for correspondence: Sue Sloan, Senior Occupational Therapist/Neuropsychologist, Osborn Sloan & Associates Pty Ltd, 97 Princess Street, Kew VIC 3101, Australia.
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Abstract

Objective: To examine the care and support and participation outcomes for individuals with severe Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) provided with three consecutive years of Community Approach to Participation (CAP) intervention. Method: A case series study design was undertaken with a total of 43 participants from two private occupational therapy practices specialising in community-based, CAP rehabilitation for people with severe ABI. Data were collected at four time points: January 2004 (Baseline), January 2005 (T1), January 2006 (T2), and January 2007 (T3) and included rating on the Care and Needs Scale (CANS); number of hours of paid and gratuitous weekly support; FIM™ and Community Integration Questionnaire scores; and number of current life roles (as recorded on Part 1 of the Role Checklist). Participants were an average of 6.73 years post injury and were living in a range of community environments and residential facilities. Results: There was considerable change in participants' CANS rating across the intervention period, with statistically significant decreases occurring from Baseline to T1 and T1 to T2. Ninety-five per cent of participants received some level of weekly paid support throughout the intervention period, with the amount varying considerably. Paid care decreased by an average of 10.78 hours per week from 85.85 hours per week at Baseline to 75.06 at T3. Although not statistically significant, this equated to an average cost saving of AU$324.84 per participant per week by the end of CAP intervention. There was an overall mean reduction of 4.96 hours of gratuitous care per week per participant over the intervention period, which was statistically significant. Increases in functional independence, community integration, and role participation were also found. On the FIM™, statistically significant improvement occurred between Baseline and T1 and on the CIQ between Baseline and T1 and T1 and T2. Significant increase on the Role Checklist occurred between Baseline and T1 and between T2 and T3. The number of life roles in which participants engaged increased by an average of 1.65 roles by the end of the intervention period. A reduction in care and support needs (measured by the CANS) was significantly associated with: (1) a reduction in total care hours, (2) and an increase in functional independence on the FIM™, and (3) an increase in community integration on the CIQ. Conclusion: With a long term approach and contextualised intervention targeted at skill development in the areas that underpin personally valued participation, increased role performance and community integration can be achieved by people with severe ABI, even many years post injury. This increased capacity has been found to be associated with a reduction in care and support needs, including paid and gratuitous care hours, over time.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2009

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