Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-99c86f546-pkshj Total loading time: 0.541 Render date: 2021-11-30T01:18:56.428Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Convergence and Divergence in the Study of Ideology: A Critical Review

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  21 March 2016

Abstract

Dedicated research on ideology has proliferated over the last few decades. Many different disciplines and methodologies have sought to make a contribution, with the welcome consequence that specialist thinking about ideology is at a high-water mark of richness, diversity and theoretical sophistication. Yet this proliferation of research has fragmented the study of ideology by producing independent communities of scholars differentiated by geographical location and by disciplinary attachment. This review draws together research on ideology from several disciplines on different sides of the Atlantic, in order to address three questions that appear to be of great relevance to political scientists: (1) What do we mean by ideology? (2) How do we model ideology? (3) Why do people adopt the ideologies they do? In doing so, it argues that many important axes of debate cut across disciplinary and geographic boundaries, and points to a series of significant intellectual convergences that offer a framework for productive interdisciplinary engagement and integration.

Type
Review Articles
Copyright
© Cambridge University Press 2016 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

Footnotes

*

Department of Politics and International Relations, University of Oxford (email: jonathan.leadermaynard@politics.ox.ac.uk); Department of Political Science, University of California Santa Barbara (email: mildenberger@polsci.ucsb.edu). The authors would like to thank Michael Freeden, Tobias Schroeder, Thomas Homer-Dixon, M. Kent Jennings, and audience members at the University of Oxford, the University of Waterloo and the 2014 International Studies Association conference for feedback on earlier versions of this article. This article was supported in part by funding from the Waterloo Institute for Complexity and Innovation at the University of Waterloo.

References

Adams, Ian. 1998. Ideology and Politics in Britain Today. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
Alford, John, Funk, Carolyn, and Hibbing, John. 2005. Are Political Orientations Genetically Transmitted? American Political Science Review 99 (2):153167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Amodio, David, Jost, John, Master, Sarah, and Yee, Cindy. 2007. Neurocognitive Correlates of Liberalism and Conservatism. Nature Neuroscience 10 (10):12461247.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ansolabehere, Stephen, Rodden, Jonathan, and Snyder, James. 2006. Purple America. The Journal of Economic Perspectives 20 (2):97118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ayoob, Mohammed. 2009. The Many Faces of Political Islam: Religion and Politics in the Muslim World. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
Balkin, J. M. 1998. Cultural Software: A Theory of Ideology. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Ball, Terrance. 1996. Ideology and Consistency: A Dialogical Approach. Journal of Political Ideologies 1 (1):97102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beckwith, Jon, and Morris, Corey. 2008. Twin Studies of Political Behavior: Untenable Assumptions? Perspectives on Politics 6 (4):785791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bell, Daniel. 1962. The End of Ideology: On the Exhaustion of Political Ideas in the Fifties. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Bell, Edward, Schermer, Julie, and Vernon, Philip. 2009. The Origins of Political Attitudes and Behaviours: An Analysis Using Twins. Canadian Journal of Political Science 42 (4):855879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Billig, Michael. 1991. Ideology and Opinions: Studies in Rhetorical Psychology. New York: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
Billig, Michael, Condor, Susan, Edwards, Derek, Gane, Mike, Middleton, David, and Radley, Alan. 1988. Ideological Dilemmas: A Social Psychology of Everyday Thinking. New York: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
Bonanno, George, and Jost, John. 2006. Conservative Shift Among High-Exposure Survivors of the September 11th Terrorist Attacks. Basic and Applied Social Psychology 28 (4):311323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bouchard, Thomas. 2004. Genetic Influence on Human Psychological Traits A Survey. Current Directions in Psychological Science 13 (4):148151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boudon, Raymond. 1989. The Analysis of Ideology. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.Google Scholar
Boudon, Raymond. 1999. Local vs General Ideologies: A Normal Ingredient of Political Life. Journal of Political Ideologies 4 (2):141161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Braithwaite, Valerie. 1997. Harmony and Security Value Orientations in Political Evaluation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 23 (4):401414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Braithwaite, Valerie. 1998. The Value Balance Model of Political Evaluations. British Journal of Psychology 89 (2):223247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brick, Howard. 2013. The End of Ideology Thesis. In The Oxford Handbook of Political Ideologies, edited by Michael Freeden, Lyman Sargent and Marc Stears, 90112. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Browers, Michaelle. 2013. Islamic Political Ideologies. In The Oxford Handbook of Political Ideologies, edited by Michael Freeden, Lyman Sargent and Marc Stears, 627643. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Buckle, Tobias. 2013. Surveying Ideology in Mass Populations: A New Conceptual Method. Journal of Political Ideologies 18 (2):219242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carmines, Edward, and D’Amico, Nicholas. 2015. The New Look in Political Ideology Research. Annual Review of Political Science 18:205216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cassels, Alan. 2002. Ideology and International Relations in the Modern World. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Charney, E. 2008. Genes and Ideologies? Perspectives on Politics 6 (2):299319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chiao, Joan, Mathur, Vani, Harada, Tokiko, and Lipke, Trixie. 2009. Neural Basis of Preference for Human Social Hierarchy Versus Egalitarianism. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1167 (1):174181.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cohrs, J. Christopher. 2012. Ideological Bases of Violent Conflict. In The Oxford Handbook of Intergroup Conflict, edited by Linda Tropp, 5371. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Collins, Randall. 1998. The Sociology of Philosophies: A Global Theory of Intellectual Change. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Conover, Pamela., and Feldman, Stanley. 1981. The Origins and Meaning of Liberal/Conservative Self-Identifications. American Journal of Political Science 25 (4):617645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Converse, Philip. 1964. The Nature of Belief Systems in Mass Publics. In Ideology and Discontent, edited by David Apter, 206261. Glencoe, IL: Free Press of Glencoe.Google Scholar
Dillon, Michael, and Reid, Julian. 2009. The Liberal Way of War: Killing to Make Life Live. Abingdon: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Doherty, Daniel, Gerber, Alan S., and Green, Donald P.. 2006. Personal Income and Attitudes Toward Redistribution: A Study of Lottery Winners. Political Psychology 27 (3):441458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Douglas, Mary. 1970. Natural Symbols: Explorations in Cosmology. New York: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
Drolet, Jean-François. 2010. A Liberalism Betrayed? American Neoconservatism and the Theory of International Relations. Journal of Political Ideologies 15 (2):89118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eagleton, Terry. 1991. Ideology. London: Verso.Google Scholar
Eccleshall, Rober, Geoghegan, Vincent, Jay, Richard, and Wilford, Rick. 1984. Political Ideologies: An Introduction. London: Hutchinson Education.Google Scholar
Edelman, Murray. 1977. Political Language: Words That Succeed and Policies That Fail. Waltham, MA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Elster, Jon. 1982. Belief, Bias and Ideology. In Rationality and Relativism, edited by Martin Hollis and Steven Lukes, 123148. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Engerman, David. 2010. Ideology and the Origins of the Cold War, 1917–1962. In The Cambridge History of the Cold War, edited by Melvyn Leffler and Odd Arne Westad, 2043. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fairclough, Norman. 2001. Language and Power. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
Fairclough, Norman. 2010. Critical Discourse Analysis: The Critical Study of Language. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
Federico, Chrisopher. 2007. Expertise, Evaluative Motivation, and the Structure of Citizens’ Ideological Commitments. Political Psychology 28 (5):535561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Festinger, Leon, ed. 1957. A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance. London: Tavistock Publications.Google Scholar
Finlayson, Alan. 2012. Rhetoric and the Political Theory of Ideologies. Political Studies 60 (3):751767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fowler, Roger. 1991. Language in the News: Discourse and Ideology in the Press. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Frazer, Elizabeth. 2008. Political Theory and the Boundaries of Politics. In Political Theory: Methods and Approaches, edited by David Leopold and Marc Stears, 171195. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Freeden, Michael. 1996. Ideologies and Political Theory: A Conceptual Approach. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Freeden, Michael. 1998. Is Nationalism a Distinct Ideology? Political Studies 46 (4):748765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Freeden, Michael. 2005. Confronting the Chimera of a ‘Post-Ideological’ Age. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 8 (2):247262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Freeden, Michael, ed. 2007. The Meaning of Ideology: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Freeden, Michael. 2008. Thinking Politically and Thinking About Politics: Language, Interpretation, and Ideology. In Political Theory: Methods and Approaches, edited by David Leopold and Marc Stears, 196215. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Freeden, Michael. 2009. Liberal Languages: Ideological Imaginations and Twentieth-Century Progressive Thought . Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Freeden, Michael. 2013a. The Morphological Analysis of Ideology. In The Oxford Handbook of Political Ideologies, edited by Michael Freeden, Lyman Sargent and Marc Stears, 115137. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Freeden, Michael. 2013b. The Political Theory of Political Thinking: The Anatomy of a Practice. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Freeden, Michael. 2013c. Editorial: Emotions, Ideology and Politics. Journal of Political Ideologies 18 (1):110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Freeden, Micahel, Sargent, Lyman, and Stears, Marc, eds. 2013. The Oxford Handbook of Political Ideologies. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Geertz, Clifford. 1964. Ideology as a Cultural System. In Ideology and Discontent, edited by David Apter, 4776. Glencoe, IL: Free Press of Glencoe.Google Scholar
George, Alexander. 1987. Ideology and International Relations: A Conceptual Analysis. The Jerusalem Journal of International Relations 9 (1):121.Google Scholar
Gerber, Alan, Huber, Gregory, Doherty, David, Dowling, Conor, and Ha, Shang. 2010. Personality and Political Attitudes: Relationships Across Issue Domains and Political Contexts. American Political Science Review 104 (1):111133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gerring, John. 1997. Ideology: A Definitional Analysis. Political Research Quarterly 50 (4):957994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Glynos, Jason. 2001. The Grip of Ideology: A Lacanian Approach to the Theory of Ideology. Journal of Political Ideologies 6 (2):191214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gould-Davies, Nigel. 1999. Rethinking the Role of Ideology in International Politics During the Cold War. Journal of Cold War Studies 1 (1):90109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Graham, Jesse, Haidt, Jonathan, and Nosek, Brian. 2009. Liberals and Conservatives Rely on Different Sets of Moral Foundations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 96 (5):10291046.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gramsci, Antonio, ed. 1971. The Prison Notebooks. London, UK: Lawrence & Wishart.Google Scholar
Greenberg, Jeff, and Jonas, Eva. 2003. Psychological Motives and Political Orientation – The Left, the Right, and the Rigid: Comment on Jost et al. (2003). Psychological Bulletin 129 (3):376382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haidt, Jonathan. 2007. The New Synthesis in Moral Psychology. Science 316 (5827):9981002.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Haidt, Jonathan. 2012. The Righteous Mind: Why Good People are Divided by Politics and Religion. New York: Random House LLC.Google Scholar
Haidt, Jonathan, Graham, Jesse, and Joseph, Craig. 2009. Abo ve and Below Left-Right: Ideological Narratives and Moral Foundations. Psychological Inquiry 20 (2–3):110119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hall, Stuart. 1996a. New Ethnicities. In Stuart Hall: Critical Dialogues in Cultural Studies, edited by David Morley and Kuan-Hsing Chen, 441449. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Hall, Stuart. 1996b. The Meaning of New Times. In Stuart Hall: Critical Dialogues in Cultural Studies, edited by David Morley and Kuan-Hsing Chen, 223237. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Hall, Stuart. 1996c. Variants of Liberalism. In Politics and Ideology, edited by James Donald and Stuart Hall, 3469. Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press.Google Scholar
Hamilton, Malcolm. 1987. The Elements of the Concept of Ideology. Political Studies 35 (1):1838.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hammack, Philip. 2008. Narrative and the Cultural Psychology of Identity. Personality and Social Psychology Review 12 (3):222247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hatemi, Peter, Gillespie, Nathan, Eaves, Lindon, Maher, Brion, Webb, Bradley, Heath, Andrew, Medland, Sarah, Smythe, David, Beeby, Harry, Gordon, Scott et al. 2011. A Genome-Wide Analysis of Liberal and Conservative Political Attitudes. The Journal of Politics 73 (1):271285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hendrickson, Joy, and Zaki, Hoda. 2013. Modern African Ideologies. In The Oxford Handbook of Political Ideologies, edited by Michael Freeden, Lyman Sargent and Marc Stears, 607627. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Hersh, Eitan. 2013. Long-Term Effect of September 11 on the Political Behavior of Victims’ Families and Neighbors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110 (52):2095920963.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heywood, Andrew, ed. 2007. Political Ideologies: An Introduction. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
Hochschild, Jennifer. 2001. Where You Stand Depends on What You See: Connections Among Values, Perceptions of Fact, and Political Prescriptions. In Citizens and Politics: Perspectives From Political Psychology, edited by James Kuklinski, 313340. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hofstede, Geert. 2011. Dimensionalizing Cultures: The Hofstede Model in Context. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture 2 (1). Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.9707/2307-0919.1014, accessed 22 November 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Homer-Dixon, Thomas, Leader-Maynard, Jonathan, Mildenberger, Matto, Milkoreit, Manjana, Mock, Steven, Quilley, Stephen, Schroeder, Tobias, and Thagard, Paul. 2013. A Complex Systems Approach to the Study of Ideology: Cognitive-Affective Structures and the Dynamics of Belief Systems. Journal of Social and Political Psychology 1 (1):337363.Google Scholar
Howarth, David, Norval, Aletta, and Stavrakakis, Yannis, eds. 2000. Discourse Theory and Political Analysis: Identities, Hegemonies and Social Change. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
Humphrey, Matthew. 2005. (De)contesting Ideology: The Struggle Over the Meaning of the Struggle Over Meaning. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 8 (2):225246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hunt, Michael. 2009. Ideology and U.S. Foreign Policy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Huntington, Samuel. 1957. Conservatism as an Ideology. The American Political Science Review 51 (2):454473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Inglehart, Ronald, and Welzel, Christian. 2010. Changing Mass Priorities: The Link Between Modernization and Democracy. Perspectives on Politics 8 (2):551567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Iyer, Ravi, Koleva, Sena, Graham, Jesse, Ditto, Peter, and Haidt, Jonathan. 2012. Understanding Libertarian Morality: The Psychological Dispositions of Self-Identified Libertarians. PLOS One 7 (8):e42366.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jacoby, William. 2009. Ideology and Vote Choice in the 2004 Election. Electoral Studies 28 (4):584594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jenco, Leigh. 2013. Chinese Political Ideologies. In The Oxford Handbook of Political Ideologies, edited by Michael Freeden, Lyman Sargent and Marc Stears, 644660. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Jennings, M. Kent. 1992. Ideological Thinking Among Mass Publics and Political Elites. Public Opinion Quarterly 56 (4):419441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jost, John. 2006. The End of the End of Ideology. American Psychologist 61 (7):651670.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jost, John, Kay, Aaron, and Thorisdottir, Hulda, eds. 2009. Social and Psychological Bases of Ideology and System Justification. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jost, John, and Major, Brenda. 2001. The Psychology of Legitimacy: Emerging Perspectives on Ideology, Justice and Intergroup Relations. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Jost, John, Nosek, Brian, and Gosling, Samuel. 2008. Ideology: Its Resurgence in Social, Personality, and Political Psychology. Perspectives on Psychological Science 3 (2):126136.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jost, John, Federico, Christopher, and Napier, Jaime. 2006. Political Ideology: Its Structure, Functions and Elective Affinities. Annual Review of Psychology 60:307337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jost, John, Federico, Christopher, and Napier, Jaime. 2013. Political Ideologies and Their Social Psychological Functions. In The Oxford Handbook of Political Ideologies, edited by Michael Freeden, Lyman Sargent and Marc Stears, 232250. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Jost, John, Banaji, Mahzarin, and Nosek, Brian. 2004. A Decade of System Justification Theory: Accumulated Evidence of Conscious and Unconscious Bolstering of the Status Quo. Political Psychology 25 (6):881919.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jost, John, and Hunyady, Orsolya. 2005. Antecedents and Consequences of System-Justifying Ideologies. Current Directions in Psychological Science 14 (5):260265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jost, John, Glaser, Jack, Kruglanski, Arie, and Sulloway, Frank. 2003a. Exceptions That Prove the Rule – Using a Theory of Motivated Social Cognition to Account for Ideological Incongruities and Political Anomalies: Reply to Greenberg and Jonas (2003). Psychological Bulletin 129 (3):383393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jost, John, Glaser, Jack, Kruglanski, Arie, and Sulloway, Frank. 2003b. Political Conservatism as Motivated Social Cognition. Psychological Bulletin 129 (3):339375.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kanai, Ryota, Feilden, Tom, Firth, Colin, and Rees, Geraint. 2011. Political Orientations are Correlated With Brain Structure in Young Adults. Current Biology 21 (8):677680.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kerlinger, Fred. 1967. Social Attitudes and Their Criterial Referents: A Structural Theory. Psychological Review 74 (2):110122.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Knight, Kathleen. 2006. Transformations in the Concept of Ideology in the Twentieth Century. American Political Science Review 100 (4):619626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Larrain, Jorge, ed. 1979. The Concept of Ideology. London: Hutchinson & Co.Google Scholar
Leader Maynard, Jonathan. 2013. A Map of the Field of Ideological Analysis. Journal of Political Ideologies 18 (3):299327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leonardo, Zeus. 2003. Discourse and Critique: Outlines of a Post-Structuralist Theory of Ideology. Journal of Education Policy 18 (2):203214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Luskin, Robert. 1987. Measuring Political Sophistication. American Journal of Political Science 31 (4):856899.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McCrae, Robert. 1996. Social Consequences of Experiential Openness. Psychological Bulletin 120 (3):323337.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McLellan, David. 1995. Ideology. London: Open University Press.Google Scholar
Mirels, Herbert, and Dean, Janet. 2006. Right-Wing Authoritarianism, Attitude Salience, and Beliefs About Matters of Fact. Political Psychology 27 (6):839866.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mondak, Jeffery. 2010. Personality and the Foundations of Political Behavior . Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mondak, Jeffery, Hibbing, Matthew, Canache, Damarys, Seligson, Mitchell, and Anderson, Mary. 2010. Personality and Civic Engagement: An Integrative Framework for the Study of Trait Effects on Political Behavior. American Political Science Review 104 (1):85110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nafstad, Hilde, Blakar, Rolv, Calquist, Erick, Phelps, Joshua, and Rand-Hendriksen, Kim. 2007. Ideology and Power: The Influence of Current Neo-Liberalism in Society. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology 17 (4):313327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Norval, Aletta. 2000. The Things We Do With Words – Contemporary Approaches to the Analysis of Ideology. British Journal of Political Science 30 (2):313346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Owen, J. 1997. Liberal Peace, Liberal War: American Politics and International Security. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Oxley, Douglas, Smith, Kevin, Alford, John, Hibbing, Matthew, Miller, Jennifer, Scalora, Mario, Hatemi, Peter, and Hibbing, John. 2008. Political Attitudes Vary With Physiological Traits. Science 321 (5896):16671670.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pan, Jennifer, and Xu, Yiqing. 2015. China’s Ideological Spectrum. MIT Political Science Department Research Paper No. 2015-16. Available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2593377, accessed 22 November 2015.Google Scholar
Phillips, Russell, and LeDoux, Joseph. 1992. Differential Contribution of Amygdala and Hippocampus to Cued and Contextual Fear Conditioning. Behavioral Neuroscience 106 (2):274285.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Poole, Keith, and Rosenthal, Howard. 1997. Congress: A Political-Economic History of Roll Call Voting. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Poole, Keith, and Rosenthal, Howard. 2011. Ideology and Congress, Vol. 1. Piscataway. NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
Powdthavee, Nattavudh, and Oswald, Andrew J.. 2014. Does Money Make People Right-Wing and Inegalitarian? A Longitudinal Study of Lottery Winners. IZA Discussion Paper No. 7934. Available from http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2396429, accessed 22 November 2015.Google Scholar
Rico, Guillem, and Jennings, M. Kent. Forthcoming. The Formation of Left-Right Identification: Pathways and Correlates of Parental Influence. Political Psychology. doi: 10.1111/pops.12243.Google Scholar
Rokeach, Milton. 1973. The Nature of Human Values . New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
Rosenberg, Shawn. 1988. Reason, Ideology and Politics. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.Google Scholar
Rule, Nicholas, Freeman, Jonathan, Moran, Joseph, Gabrieli, John, Adams, Reginald, and Ambady, Nalini. 2010. Voting Behavior is Reflected in Amygdala Response Across Cultures. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 5 (2–3):349355.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sargent, Lyman, ed. 2009. Contemporary Political Ideologies: A Comparative Analysis. Boston, MA: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
Schwarzmantel, John. 1998. The Age of Ideology: Political Ideologies From the American Revolution to Post-Modern Times. London: Macmillan Press Ltd..CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Settle, Jaime, Dawes, Christopher, Christakis, Nicholas, and Fowler, James. 2010. Friendships Moderate an Association Between a Dopamine Gene Variant and Political Ideology. The Journal of Politics 72 (4):11891198.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shelby, Tommie. 2003. Ideology, Racism and Critical Social Theory. The Philosophical Forum 34 (2):153188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shenhav, Shaul. 2006. Political Narratives and Political Reality. International Political Science Review 27 (3):245262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shultziner, Doron. 2013. Genes and Politics: A New Explanation and Evaluation of Twin Study Results and Association Studies in Political Science. Political Analysis 21 (3):350367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sibley, Chris., and Duckitt, John. 2008. Personality and Prejudice: A Meta-Analysis and Theoretical Review. Personality and Social Psychology Review 12 (3):248279.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Simonds, Arthur. 1989. Ideological Domination and the Political Information Market. Theory and Society 18 (2):181211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Skinner, Quentin. 1965. History and Ideology in the English Revolution. The Historical Journal 8 (2):151178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Skinner, Quentin. 1974. Some Problems in the Analysis of Political Thought and Action. Political Theory 2 (3):277303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Skinner, Quentin. 1978. The Foundations of Modern Political Thought: Volumes One and Two. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Skinner, Quentin. 1999. Rhetoric and Conceptual Change. Finnish Yearbook of Political Thought 3:6073.Google Scholar
Skinner, Quentin. 2002. Visions of Politics – Volume 1. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Smith, Kevin, Oxley, Douglas, Hibbing, Matthew, Alford, John, and Hibbing, John. 2011. Linking Genetics and Political Attitudes: Reconceptualizing Political Ideology. Political Psychology 32 (3):369397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Snow, David. 2004. Framing Processes, Ideology, and Discursive Fields. In The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements, edited by David Snow, Sarah Soule and Hanspeter Kriesi. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. doi: 10.1002/9780470999103.ch17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stanley, Ben. 2008. The Thin Ideology of Populism. Journal of Political Ideologies 13 (1):95110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stavrakakis, Yannis. 2000. On the Emergence of Green Ideology: The Dislocation Factor in Green Politics. In Discourse Theory and Political Analysis: Identities, Hegemonies and Social Change, edited by David Howarth, Aletta Norval and Yannis Stavrakakis, 100118. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
Steger, Manfried. 2008. The Rise of the Global Imaginary: Political Ideologies From the French Revolution to the Global War on Terror. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Steger, Manfried. 2013. Political Ideologies in the Age of Globalization. In The Oxford Handbook of Political Ideologies, edited by Michael Freeden, Lyman Sargent and Marc Stears, 214231. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Stimson, James. 2004. Tides of Consent: How Public Opinion Shapes American Politics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stoker, Laura, and Bass, Jackie. 2013. Political Socialization: Ongoing Questions and New Directions. In The Oxford Handbook of American Public Opinion and Media, edited by Robert Shapiro and Lawrence Jacobs, 453470. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Swedlow, Brendon. 2008. Beyond Liberal and Conservative: Two-Dimensional Conceptions of Ideology and the Structure of Political Attitudes and Values. Journal of Political Ideologies 13 (2):157180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tarrow, Sidney. 2013. The Language of Contention. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tetlock, Philip. 1984. Cognitive Style and Political Belief Systems in the British House of Commons. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 46 (2):365375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thagard, Paul. 2012. Mapping Minds Across Cultures. In Grounding Social Sciences in Cognitive Sciences, edited by Ron Sun, 3562. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Thagard, Paul, and Kroon, Fred. 2008. Hot Thought: Mechanisms and Applications of Emotional Cognition. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Thompson, John, ed. 1984. Studies in the Theory of Ideology. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tully, James. 1983. The Pen is a Mighty Sword: Quentin Skinner’s Analysis of Politics. British Journal of Political Science 13 (4):489509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
van Dijk, Teun. 1998. Ideology: A Multidisciplinary Approach. New York: Sage Books.Google Scholar
van Dijk, Teun. 2013. Ideology and Discourse. In The Oxford Handbook of Political Ideologies, edited by Michael Freeden, Lyman Sargent and Marc Stears, 175196. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Weber, Christopher, and Federico, Christopher. 2007. Interpersonal Attachment and Patterns of Ideological Belief. Political Psychology 28 (4):389416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wittgenstein, Ludwig. 2001. Philosophical Investigations. New York: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.Google Scholar
Wodak, Ruth, and Meyer, Michael, eds. 2009. Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis. New York: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
Wuthnow, Robert. 1989. Communities of Discourse: Ideology and Social Structure in the Reformation, the Enlightenment, and European Socialism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Zaller, John. 1992. The Nature and Origins of Mass Opinion. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zamboni, Giovana, Gozzi, Marta, Krueger, Frank, Duhamel, Jean-René, Sirigu, Angela, and Grafman, Jordan. 2009. Individualism, Conservatism, and Radicalism as Criteria for Processing Political Beliefs: A Parametric fMRI Study. Social Neuroscience 4 (5):367383.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zizek, Slavoj. 1994. The Spectre of Ideology. In Mapping Ideology, edited by Slavoj Zizek, 133. New York: Verso.Google Scholar
Zizek, Slavoj. 1996. Invisible Ideology: Political Violence Between Fiction and Fantasy. Journal of Political Ideologies 1 (1):1532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
15
Cited by

Linked content

Please note a has been issued for this article.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Convergence and Divergence in the Study of Ideology: A Critical Review
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Convergence and Divergence in the Study of Ideology: A Critical Review
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Convergence and Divergence in the Study of Ideology: A Critical Review
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *