Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-59b7f5684b-j5sqr Total loading time: 0.522 Render date: 2022-09-25T07:26:50.661Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": false, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

The Physical Consequences of Fiscal Flexibility: Sovereign Credit and Physical Integrity Rights

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  22 January 2016

Abstract

Leaders are assumed to face fiscal constraints on their ability to remain in office by competitively distributing public and/or private goods. However, many leaders can relax this constraint by borrowing on sovereign credit markets. This article argues that states with the fiscal flexibility offered by favorable credit terms have the resources necessary to (1) respond to citizen demands with policies other than widespread repression and (2) avoid agency loss that may result in unauthorized repression by state agents. Empirical analyses indicate that creditworthy states have greater respect for physical integrity rights and are less likely to suffer diminished respect for those rights when facing violent dissent or negative shocks to government revenues.

Type
Articles
Copyright
© Cambridge University Press 2016 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

Footnotes

*

Department of International Affairs, University of Georgia (email: kcclay@uga.edu); Department of Political Science, University of Mississippi (email: mrdigius@olemiss.edu). Data replication sets are available at https://dataverse.harvard.edu/dataverse/BJPolS, and online appendices are available at http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1017/S0007123415000502.

References

Abouharb, M. Rodwan, and Cingranelli, David L.. 2006. The Human Rights Effects of World Bank Structural Adjustment, 1981–2000. International Studies Quarterly 50:233262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ahlquist, John S. 2006. Economic Policy, Institutions, and Capital Flows: Portfolio and Direct Investment Flows in Developing Countries. International Studies Quarterly 50 (3):681704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alesina, Alberto, and Tabellini, Guido. 1990. A Positive Theory of Fiscal Deficits and Government Debt. Review of Economic Studies 57:403414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arbetman-Rabinowitz, Marina, and Johnson, Kristen. 2009. Relative Political Capacity: Theory, Model, Data & Updates. Paper Presented at the International Studies Association Conference, San Francisco, CA, 26 March.Google Scholar
Archer, Candace C., Biglaiser, Glen, and DeRouen, Karl Jr. 2007. Sovereign Bonds and the ‘Democratic Advantage’: Does Regime Type Affect Credit Rating Agency Ratings in the Developing World? International Organization 61:341365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Banks, Arthur S., and Wilson, Kenneth A.. 2012. Cross-Sectional Time-Series Data Archive. Databanks International.Google Scholar
Barro, Robert J. 1979. On the Determination of the Public Debt. The Journal of Political Economy 87 (5):940971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barry, Colin M., Clay, K. Chad, and Flynn, Michael E.. 2013. Avoiding the Spotlight: Human Rights Shaming and Foreign Direct Investment. International Studies Quarterly 57:532544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bates, Robert H. 2008. When Things Fell Apart: State Failure in Late-Century Africa. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beaulieu, Emily, Cox, Gary W., and Saiegh, Sebastian. 2012. Sovereign Debt and Regime Type: Reconsidering the Democratic Advantage. International Organization 66 (4):709738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beck, Nathanial, and Katz, Jonathan N.. 2011. Modeling Dynamics in Time-Series-Cross-Section Political Economy Data. Annual Review of Political Science 14:331352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bell, Sam R., Cingranelli, David, Murdie, Amanda, and Caglayan, Alper. 2013. Coercion, Capacity, and Coordination: Predictors of Political Violence. Conflict Management and Peace Science 30 (3):240262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bell, Sam R., Clay, K. Chad, and Murdie, Amanda. 2012. Neighborhood Watch: Spatial Effects of Human Rights INGOs. Journal of Politics 74 (2):354368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blanton, Shannon Lindsey, and Blanton, Robert G.. 2007. What Attracts Foreign Investors? An Examination of Human Rights and Foreign Direct Investment. The Journal of Politics 69 (1):143155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brooks, Sarah M., Cunha, Raphael, and Mosley, Layna. 2015. Categories, Creditworthiness, and Contagion: How Investors’ Shortcuts Affect Sovereign Debt Markets. International Studies Quarterly 59 (3):587601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bueno de Mesquita, Bruce, and Smith, Alastair. 2010. Leader Survival, Revolutions, and the Nature of Government Finance. American Journal of Political Science 54 (4):936950.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bueno de Mesquita, Bruce, Smith, Alastair, Siverson, Randolph, and Morrow, James D.. 2003. The Logic of Political Survival. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Cantor, Richard, and Packer, Frank. 1996. Determinants and Impact of Sovereign Credit Ratings. Economic Policy Review, October, 37–54.Google Scholar
Cingranelli, David, and Richards, David. 1999. Measuring the Level, Pattern, and Sequence of Government Respect for Physical Integrity Rights. International Studies Quarterly 43 (2):407417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cingranelli, David L., and Richards, David L.. 2011. The Cingranelli-Richards (CIRI) Human Rights Dataset. Available from http://www.humanrightsdata.org, accessed 28 November 2011.Google Scholar
Cingranelli, David L., Fajardo-Heyward, Paola, and Filippov, Mikhail. 2014. Principals, Agents and Human Rights. British Journal of Political Science 44 (3):605630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Conrad, Courtenay, and DeMeritt, Jacqueline H.R.. 2012. Constrained by the Bank and the Ballot: Unearned Revenue, Democracy and State Incentives to Repress. Journal of Peace Research 50 (1):105119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cranston, Maurice. 1973. What Are Human Rights? New York: Taplinger.Google Scholar
D’Ambrosio, Mary. 2005. A Less Risky World? Institutional Investor 30 (9):143148.Google Scholar
Davenport, Christian. 2007. State Repression and Political Order. Annual Review of Political Science 10:123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davenport, Christian, and Armstrong, David A. II. 2004. Democracy and the Violation of Human Rights: A Statistical Analysis from 1976–1996. American Journal of Political Science 48 (3):538554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DeMeritt, Jacqueline H.R., and Young, Joseph K.. 2013. A Political Economy of Human Rights: Oil, Natural Gas, and State Incentives to Repress. Conflict Management and Peace Science 30 (2):99120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De Soysa, Indra, and Neumayer, Eric. 2007. Resource Wealth and the Risk of Civil War Onset: Results from a New Dataset of Natural Resource Rents, 1970-1999. Conflict Management and Peace Science 24:201218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DiGiuseppe, Matthew, Barry, Colin M., and Frank, Richard W.. 2012. Good for the Money: International Finance, State Capacity and Internal Conflict. Journal of Peace Research 49 (3):391405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DiGiuseppe, Matthew, and Shea, Patrick. 2015. Sovereign Credit and the Fate of Leaders: Reassessing the ‘Democratic Advantage’. International Studies Quarterly 59 (3):557570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Donnelly, Jack. 2003. Universal Human Rights in Theory & Practice. 2nd Edition, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Drazen, Allan. 2001. Political Economy in Macroeconomics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Dunning, Thad. 2005. Resource Dependence, Economic Performance, and Political Stability. Journal of Conflict Resolution 49 (4):451482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Easterly, William. 2002. How Did the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Become Heavily Indebted? Reviewing Two Decades of Debt Relief. World Development 30 (10):16771696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Englehart, Neil A. 2009. State Capacity, State Failure, and Human Rights. Journal of Peace Research 46 (2):163180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Erikson, Silja, and De Soysa, Indra. 2009. A Fate Worse Than Debt? International Financial Institutions and Human Rights, 1981-2003. Journal of Peace Research 46 (4):485503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gandhi, Jennifer. 2008. Political Institutions under Dictatorship. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gleditsch, Nils Petter, Wallensteen, Peter, Eriksson, Mikael, Sollenberg, Margareta, and Strand, Håvard. 2002. Armed Conflict 1946–2001: A New Dataset. Journal of Peace Research 39 (5):615637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hafner-Burton, Emilie M. 2005. Right or Robust? The Sensitive Nature of Repression to Globalization. Journal of Peace Research 42 (6):679698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hafner-Burton, Emilie M.. 2008. Sticks and Stones: Naming and Shaming the Human Rights Enforcement Problem. International Organization 62:689716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hafner-Burton, Emilie M., and Tsutsui, Kiyoteru. 2007. Justice Lost! The Failure of International Human Rights Law to Matter Where Needed Most. Journal of Peace Research 44 (4):407425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harrelson-Stephens, Julie, and Callaway, Rhonda L.. 2003. Does Trade Openness Promote Security Rights in Developing Countries? Examining the Liberal Perspective. International Interactions 29:143158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Henderson, Conway W. 1993. Population Pressures and Political Repression. Social Science Quarterly 74 (2):322333.Google Scholar
Hesten, Alan, Summers, Robert, and Aten, Bettina. 2011. Penn World Table Version 7.0. Center for International Comparisons of Production, Income, and Prices, University of Pennsylvania, June 2011. Available from https://pwt.sas.upenn.edu/php_site/pwt_index.php, accessed 7 February 2015.Google Scholar
Kiewiet, D. Roderick, and McCubbins, Mathew D.. 1991. The Logic of Delegation: Congressional Parties and the Appropriations Process. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Knight, Jack. 1992. Institutions and Social Conflict. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lebovic, James H., and Voeten, Erik. 2009. The Cost of Shame: International Organizations and Foreign Aid in Punishing of Human Rights Violators. Journal of Peace Research 46 (1):7997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lichbach, Mark Irving. 1987. Deterrence or Escalation: The Puzzle of Aggregate Studies of Repression and Dissent. Journal of Conflict Resolution 31 (2):266297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marshall, Monty G., Jaggers, Keith, and Gurr, Ted Robert. 2011. Polity IV Project: Dataset Users’ Manual. Available from http://www.systemicpeace.org/inscr/p4manualv2010.pdf, accessed 29 November 2011.Google Scholar
Mason, T. David. 2004. Caught in the Crossfire. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.Google Scholar
Mason, T. David, and Krane, Dale A.. 1989. The Political Economy of Death Squads: Toward a Theory of the Impact of State-Sanctioned Terror. International Studies Quarterly 33 (2):175198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mitchell, Neil J., and McCormick, James M.. 1988. Economic and Political Explanations of Human Rights Violations. World Politics 40 (4):476498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moore, Will H. 1998. Repression and Dissent: Substitution, Context and Timing. American Journal of Political Science 42 (3):851873.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morisson, Kevin. 2009. Oil, Nontax Revenue, and the Redistributional Foundations of Regime Stability. International Organization 63 (1):107138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mousseau, Michael, and Mousseau, Demet Yalch. 2008. The Contracting Roots of Human Rights. Journal of Peace Research 45 (3):327344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Murdie, Amanda, and Peksen, Dursun. 2013. The Impact of Human Rights INGO Activities on Economic Sanctions. Review of International Organizations 8 (1):3353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Neumayer, Eric. 2003. Do Human Rights Matter in Bilateral Aid Allocation? A Quantitative Analysis of 21 Donor Countries. Social Science Quarterly 84 (3):650666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
North, Douglass C., and Weingast, Barry R.. 1989. Constitutions and Commitment: The Evolution of Institutional Governing Public Choice in Seventeenth-Century England. The Journal of Economic History 49 (4):803832.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oatley, Thomas. 2010. Political Institutions and Foreign Debt in the Developing World. International Studies Quarterly 54 (1):175195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Poe, Steven C. 2004. The Decision to Repress: An Integrative Theoretical Approach to the Research on Human Rights and Repression. In Understanding Human Rights Violations, edited by Sabine C. Carey and Steven C. Poe, 1642. Burlington, VT: Ashgate.Google Scholar
Poe, Steven C., Tate, C. Neal, and Keith, Linda Camp. 1999. Repression of the Human Right to Personal Integrity Revisited: A Global Cross-National Study Covering the Years 1976-1993. International Studies Quarterly 43 (2):291313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Policzer, Pablo. 2004. How Organizations Shape Human Rights Violations. In Understanding Human Rights Violations, edited by Sabine C. Carey and Steven C. Poe, 221238. Burlington: Ashgate.Google Scholar
Rasler, Karen. 1996. Concessions, Repression, and Political Protest in the Iranian Revolution. American Sociological Review 61 (1):132152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Regan, Patrick M., and Norton, Daniel. 2005. Greed, Grievance, and Mobilization in Civil Conflicts. Journal of Conflict Resolution 49 (3):319336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reinhart, Carmen M., and Rogoff, Kenneth S.. 2008. This Time is Different: Eight Centuries of Financial Folly. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reinhart, Carmen M., Rogoff, Kenneth S., and Savastano, Miguel A.. 2003. Debt Intolerance. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 1:162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ricciuti, Roberto, and DiLaurea, DAvide. 2003. An Experimental Analysis of Two Departures from Ricardian Equivalence. Economics Bulletin 8 (11):111.Google Scholar
Rich, Jennifer L. 2002. Argentina Shakes, Uruguay Rattles. The New York Times, 8 May.Google Scholar
Richards, David L., Gelleny, Ron, and Sacko, David. 2001. Money with a Mean Streak? Foreign Economic Penetration and Government Respect for Human Rights in Developing Countries. International Studies Quarterly 45 (2):219239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ron, James, Ramos, Howard, and Rodgers, Kathleen. 2005. Transnational Information Politics: NGO Human Rights Reporting, 1986-2000. International Studies Quarterly 49:557587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ross, Michael L. 2008. Oil, Islam and Women. American Political Science Review 102 (1):107123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Saiegh, Sebastian M. 2005. Do Countries Have a ‘Democratic Advantage’?: Political Institutions, Multilateral Agencies, and Sovereign Borrowing. Comparative Political Studies 38 (4):366387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Seater, John J. 1993. Ricardian Equivalence. Journal of Economic Literature 31 (1):142190.Google Scholar
Shue, Henry. 1980. Basic Rights: Subsistence, Affluence, and U.S. Foreign Policy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Smith, Alastair. 2008. The Perils of Unearned Income. Journal of Politics 70 (3):780793.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sorens, Jason, and Ruger, William. 2012. Does Foreign Investment Really Reduce Repression? International Studies Quarterly 56 (2):427436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sullivan, Christopher Michael. 2014. The (In)effectiveness of Torture for Combating Insurgency. 51 (3):388–404. Journal of Peace Research 51 (3):388404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tomz, Michael. 2007. Reputation and International Cooperation: Sovereign Debt Across Three Centuries. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
US Department of State. Various. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices. Available from http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/, accessed 30 October 2012.Google Scholar
Vaaler, Paul M., Schrage, Burkhard, and Block, Steven A.. 2006. Elections, Opportunism, Partisanship and Sovereign Ratings in Developing Countries. Review of Development Economics 1 (10):154170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wibbels, Erik. 2006. Dependency Revisited: International Markets, Business Cycles, and Social Spending in the Developing World. International Organization 60 (2):433468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Williams, Laron K., and Williams, Guy D.. 2012. But Wait, There’s More! Maximizing Substantive Inference from TSCS Models. Journal of Politics 74 (3):685693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wood, Reed M., and Gibney, Mark. 2010. The Political Terror Scale (PTS): A Re-Introduction and a Comparison to CIRI. Human Rights Quarterly 32 (2):367400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
World Bank. 2012. Global Development Finance: External Debt of Developing Countries. Washington, DC: The World Bank.Google Scholar
Supplementary material: PDF

Clay and Digiuseppe supplementary material S1

Appendix

Download Clay and Digiuseppe supplementary material S1(PDF)
PDF 482 KB
12
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

The Physical Consequences of Fiscal Flexibility: Sovereign Credit and Physical Integrity Rights
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

The Physical Consequences of Fiscal Flexibility: Sovereign Credit and Physical Integrity Rights
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

The Physical Consequences of Fiscal Flexibility: Sovereign Credit and Physical Integrity Rights
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *