AdamsJames. 2001. Party Competition and Responsible Party Government: A Theory of Spatial Competition Based Upon Insights from Behavioral Voting Research. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
AdamsJames, ClarkMichael, EzrowLawrence, and GlasgowGarrett. 2004. Understanding Change and Stability in Party Ideologies: Do Parties Respond to Public Opinion or to Past Election Results?
British Journal of Political Science
AdamsJames, ClarkMichael, EzrowLawrence, and GlasgowGarrett. 2006. Are Niche Parties Fundamentally Different from Mainstream Parties? The Causes and the Electoral Consequences of Western European Parties’ Policy Shifts, 1976–1998. American Journal of Political Science
AdamsJames, and EzrowLawrence. 2009. Who do European Parties Represent? How Western European Parties Represent the Policy Preferences of Opinion Leaders. Journal of Politics
AdamsJames, and Somer-TopcuZeynep. 2009. Policy Adjustment by Parties in Response to Rival Parties’ Policy Shifts: Spatial Theory and the Dynamics of Party Competition in Twenty-Five Post-War Democracies. British Journal of Political Science
ArmingeonKlaus, WeisstannerDavid, EnglerSarah, PotolidisPanajotis, and GerberMarlène. 2012. Comparative Political Data Set I 1960-2010. Bern: Institute of Political Science, University of Bern.
BartelsLarry M. 2008. Unequal Democracy: The Political Economy of the New Gilded Age. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
BeckwithKaren. 2014. Women, Gender, and Conservative Parties in the 21st Century. Presented at the Conference on Women, Gender and Conservative Parties in the 21st Century, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, 9 –11 October.
BenoitKenneth, and LaverMichael. 2007. Estimating Party Policy Positions: Comparing Expert Surveys and Hand-Coded Content Analysis. Electoral Studies
BerkmanMichael B., and O’ConnorRobert E.. 1993. Do Women Legislators Matter? Female Legislators and State Abortion Policy. American Politics Research
BernauerJulian, GigerNathalie, and RossetJan. 2015. Mind the Gap: Do Proportional Electoral Systems Foster a More Equal Representation of Women and Men, Poor and Rich?
International Political Science Review
BerryWilliam D., GolderMatt, and MiltonDaniel. 2012. Improving Tests of Theories Positing Interaction. Journal of Politics
2005. Critical Mass Theory Revisited: The Behavior and Success of Token Women in State Legislatures. Politics and Gender
BudgeIan. 1994. A new Spatial Theory of Party Competition: Uncertainty, Ideology and Policy Equilibria Viewed Comparatively and Temporally. British Journal of Political Science
BudgeIan, KlingemannHans-Dieter, VolkensAndrea, BaraJudith, and TanenbaumEric. 2001. Mapping Policy Preferences. Estimates for Parties, Electors, and Governments 1945–1998. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
CampbellRosie, and ChildsSarah. 2015. ‘To the Left, to the Right’. Representing Conservative Women’s Interests. Party Politics
CareyJohn M. 2007. Competing Principals, Political Institutions, and Party Unity in Legislative Voting. American Journal of Political Science
CatalanoAna. 2009. Women Acting for Women? An Analysis of Gender and Debate Participation in the British House of Commons 2005–2007. Politics & Gender
CelisKaren. 2006. Substantive Representation of Women: The Representation of Women’s Interests and the Impact of Descriptive Representation in the Belgian Parliament (1900–1979). Journal of Women, Politics & Policy
ChengChristine, and TavitsMargit. 2011. –Informal Influences in Selecting Female Political Candidates. Political Research Quarterly
CrispBrian F., BetulDemirkaya, Leslie A.Schwindt-Bayer, and CourtneyMillian. 2016. The Role of Rules in Representation: Group Membership and Electoral Incentives. British Journal of Political Science. doi: 10.1017/S0007123415000691.
DahlerupDrude, and FreidenvallLenita. 2005. Quotas as a ‘Fast Track’ to Equal Representation for Women: Why Scandinavia is No Longer the Model. International Feminist Journal of Politics
DaltonRussell J. 1985. Political Parties and Political Representation. Comparative Political Studies
DevlinClaire, and ElgieRobert. 2008. The Effect of Increased Women’s Representation in Parliament: The Case of Rwanda. Parliamentary Affairs
DolanKathleen. 2011. Do Women and Men Know Different Things? Measuring Gender Differences in Political Knowledge. The Journal of Politics
DuvergerMaurice. 1955. The Political Role of Women. Paris: UNESCO.
EnnsPeter K., and WlezienChristopher. 2011. Who Gets Represented?
New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
EriksonRobert, MacKuenMichael, and StimsonJames. 2002.
The Macro Polity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
EsaiassonPeter, and HolmbergSören. 1996. Representation from Above: Members of Parliament and Representative Democracy in Sweden. Aldershot: Dartmouth.
EzrowLawrence. 2008. Research Note: On the Inverse Relationship Between Votes and Proximity for Niche Parties. European Journal of Political Research
EzrowLawrence, De VriesCatherine, SteenbergenMarco, and EdwardsErica. 2011. Mean Voter Representation and Partisan Constituency Representation: Do Parties Respond to the Mean Voter Position or to Their Supporters?
FoxRichard L., and LawlessJennifer L.. 2004. Entering the Arena? Gender and the Decision to Run for Office. American Journal of Political Science
FranceschetSusan, and PiscopoJennifer M.. 2008. Gender Quotas and Women’s Substantive Representation: Lessons from Argentina. Politics & Gender
FukuyamaFrancis. 1998. Women and the Evolution of World Politics. Foreign Affairs
GilensMartin. 2005. Inequality and Democratic Responsiveness. Public Opinion Quarterly
GilensMartin. 2009. Preference Gaps and Inequality in Representation. PS: Political Science & Politics
GilensMartin, and PageBenjamin I.. 2014. Testing Theories of American Politics: Elites, Interest Groups, and Average Citizens. Perspectives on Politics
GriffinJohn D., and NewmanBrian. 2005. Are Voters Better Represented?
Journal of Politics
GreeneZachary, and O’BrienDiana Z.. 2016. Diverse Parties, Diverse Agendas? The Parliamentary Party’s Role in Platform Formation. European Journal of Political Research
HainmuellerJens, MummoloJonathan, and XuYiqing. 2016. How Much Should We Trust Estimates from Multiplicative Interaction Models? Simple Tools to Improve Empirical Practice. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Political Methodology, Houston, TX, 21–23 July.
HixSimon, NouryAbdul, and RolandGérard. 2005. Power to the Parties: Cohesion and Competition in the European Parliament, 1979–2001. British Journal of Political Science
HomolaJonathan. 2017. “Replication Data for: Are Parties Equally Responsive to Women and Men?”, doi: 10.7910/DVN/K1TVXL, Harvard Dataverse, V1, UNF:6:BqhmZTHFo+59PB/BAAdHaA==.
HuberJohn D. 1989. Values and Partisanship in Left-Right Orientations: Measuring Ideology. European Journal of Political Research
InglehartRonald, and KlingemannHans-Dieter. 1976. Party Identification, Ideological Preference and the Left-Right Dimension Among Western Mass Publics. In Party Identification and Beyond, edited by Ian Budge, Ivor Crewe, and Dennis Farlie, 243–273. London: Wiley.
InglehartRonald, and NorrisPippa. 2003. Rising Tide: Gender Equality and Cultural Change Around the World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
KittilsonMiki Caul. 1999. Women’s Representation in Parliament: The Role of Political Parties. Party Politics
KittilsonMiki Caul. 2011. Women, Parties and Platforms in Post-Industrial Democracies. Party Politics
KittilsonMiki Caul, and Schwindt-BayerLeslie A.. 2012. The Gendered Effects of Electoral Institutions: Political Engagement and Participation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
KlingemannHans-Dieter, VolkensAndrea, BaraJudith, BudgeIan, and McDonaldMichael. 2006. Mapping Policy Preferences II. Estimates for Parties, Electors, and Governments in Eastern Europe, the European Union and the OECD 1990–2003. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
KnutsenOddbjørn. 1997. The Partisan and the Value-Based Component of Left-Right Self-Placement: A Comparative Study. International Political Science Review
KoenigAnne M., EaglyAlice H., MitchellAbigail A., and RistikariTiina. 2011. Are Leader Stereotypes Masculine? A Meta-Analysis of Three Research Paradigms. Psychological Bulletin
KunovichSheri, and PaxtonPamela. 2005. Pathways to Power: The Role of Political Parties in Women’s National Political Representation. American Journal of Sociology
LaverMichael, and BudgeIan. 1992. Party Policy and Government Coalitions. London: Macmillan.
LawlessJennifer L., and FoxRichard L.. 2005. It Takes a Candidate: Why Women Don’t Run for Office. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
LoweWill, BenoitKenneth, MikhaylovSlava, and LaverMichael. 2011. Scaling Policy Preferences from Coded Political Texts. Legislative Studies Quarterly
MansbridgeJane. 1999. Should Blacks Represent Blacks and Women Represent Women? A Contingent ‘Yes’. Journal of Politics
McAllisterIan, and StudlarDonley T.. 1992. Gender and Representation Among Legislative Candidates in Australia. Comparative Political Studies
McDonaldMichael, and BudgeIan. 2005. Elections, Parties, Democracy: Conferring the Median Mandate. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
MilkmanKatherine L., AkinolaModupe, and ChughDolly. 2015. What Happens Before? A Field Experiment Exploring How Pay and Representation Differentially Shape Bias on the Pathway into Organizations. Journal of Applied Psychology
MondakJeffery J., and AndersonMary R.. 2004. The Knowledge Gap: A Reexamination of Gender-Based Differences in Political Knowledge. The Journal of Politics
Moss-RacusinCorinne A., DovidioJohn F., BrescollVictoria L., GrahamMark J., and HandelsmanJo. 2012. Science Faculty’s Subtle Gender Biases Favor Male Students. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
NirLilach, and McClurgScott D.. 2015. How Institutions Affect Gender Gaps in Public Opinion Expression. Public Opinion Quarterly
NorrisPippa, and LovenduskiJoni. 1995. Political Recruitment: Gender, Race and Class in the British Parliament. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
NorrisPippa. 1996. Legislative recruitment. In
Comparing Democracies: Elections and Voting in Global Perspective, edited by LeDuc, Lawrence, Richard G. Niemi, and Pippa Norris, 184–215. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
O’BrienDiana Z. 2012. When Women Matter: The Relationship Between Women’s Presence and Policy Representation in Western European States. Paper 973. Electronic Theses and Dissertations.
O’BrienDiana Z. 2015. Rising to the Top: Gender and Party Leadership in Advanced Industrial Democracies. American Journal of Political Science
O’BrienDiana Z., and RickneJohanna. 2016. Gender Quotas and Women’s Political Leadership. American Political Science Review
O’NeillOlivia A., and Charles O’ReillyIII. 2011. Reducing the Backlash Effect: Self-Monitoring and Women’s Promotions. Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology
OsbornTracy L. 2012. How Women Represent Women: Political Parties, Gender and Representation in the State Legislatures. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
PhillipsAnne. 1995. The Politics of Presence. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
RobertsAndrew, SeawrightJason, and CyrJennifer. 2012. Do Electoral Laws Affect Women’s Representation?
Comparative Political Studies
SartoriGiovanni. 1968. Representational Systems. International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences
SartoriGiovanni. 1976. Parties and Party Systems: A Framework for Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
SchmittHermann, ScholzEvi, LeimIris, and MoschnerMeinhard. 2008. The Mannheim Eurobarometer Trend File 1970–2002, Version 2.0.1. Europäische Kommission. Köln: GESIS Datenarchiv.
Schwindt-BayerLeslie A. 2006. Still Supermadres? Gender and Policy Priorities of Latin American Legislators. American Journal of Political Science
Schwindt‐BayerLeslie A., and MishlerWilliam. 2005. An Integrated Model of Women’s Representation. Journal of Politics
SiebererUlrich. 2006. Party Unity in Parliamentary Democracies: A Comparative Analysis. Journal of Legislative Studies
SorokaStuart N., and WlezienChristopher. 2008. On the Limits to Inequality in Representation. PS: Political Science & Politics
StimsonJames, MacKuenMichael, and EriksonRobert. 1995. Dynamic Representation. American Political Science Review
SwersMichele. 2005. Connecting Descriptive and Substantive Representation: An Analysis of Sex Differences in Cosponsorship Activity. Legislative Studies Quarterly
VegaArturo, and FirestoneJuanita M.. 1995. The Effects of Gender on Congressional Behavior and the Substantive Representation of Women. Legislative Studies Quarterly
VolkensAndrea, BaraJudith, BudgeIan, McDonaldMichael D., and KlingemannHans-Dieter. 2013. Mapping Policy Preferences from Texts: Statistical Solutions for Manifesto Analysts. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
VolkensAndrea, LacewellOnawa, LehmannPola, RegelSven, SchultzeHenrike, and WernerAnnika. 2012. Manifesto Project. Berlin: Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung.
WängnerudLena. 2000. Testing the Politics of Presence: Women’s Representation in the Swedish Riksdag. Scandinavian Political Studies
WängnerudLena. 2009. Women in Parliaments: Descriptive and Substantive Representation. Annual Review of Political Science
WernerAnnika, LacewellOnawa, and VolkensAndrea. 2011. Manifesto Coding Instructions, 4th fully revised Edition. Berlin: Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung.