Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Crafting Mass Partisanship at the Grass Roots

  • David Samuels and Cesar Zucco

Abstract

What are the sources of mass partisanship? The focus of this article is on the role of party organizational strategies in Brazil, where sociological cleavages are weak. All Brazilian parties post electoral gains by opening local branch offices, but only the Workers’ Party (PT) manages to win voters’ hearts and minds, cultivating mass partisan identification. This follows from its deliberate effort to use its local party organization to reach out to organized civil society – to ‘mobilize the organized.’ Results further indicate that the PT only gains partisan identifiers where civil society is organizationally dense. Together, this suggests that party strategy to cultivate partisanship is insufficient: pre-existing organizational networks must exist in civil society, meaning that ‘top-down’ and ‘bottom-up’ strategies are two sides of the same coin.

Copyright

Footnotes

Hide All
*

Department of Political Science, University of Minnesota; Department of Political Science, Fundação Getúlio Vargas (emails: dsamuels@umn.edu; cesar.zucco@fgv.br). Supplementary information, data and replication code is permanently available in the Dataverse Network and accessible through the following address: http://dx.doi.org/10.7910/DVN/23575. Versions of this article were presented at the conference on Party-Building in Latin America at Harvard University and at the workshop ‘The PT from Lula to Dilma,’ at the University of Oxford. The authors thank David Art, Oswaldo Amaral, Kosuke Imai, Rachel Meneguello, André Oliveira, Pedro Ribeiro, Taylor Boas, and Kathryn Hochstetler for their comments, and the staff at the IBGE (Juarez Silva Filho), CESOP (Rosilene Gelape), and Datafolha (Ana Cristina Cavalcanti de Souza) for granting access to data. Online appendices are available at http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1017/S0007123413000549

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Amaral, Oswaldo. 2010. As Transformações na Organização Interna do Partido dos Trabalhadores Entre 1995 e 2009. Doctoral dissertation. Unicamp, Campinas.
Ames, Barry. 2001. The Deadlock of Democracy in Brazil. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Anderson, Margaret. 2000. Practicing Democracy: Elections and Political Culture in Imperial Germany. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Angrist, Joshua D. Pischke, Jorn-Steffen. 2009. Mostly Harmless Econometrics: An Empiricist's Companion. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Arceneaux, Kevin. 2005. Using Cluster Randomized Field Experiments to Study Voting Behavior. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 601:169179.
Bramatti, Daniel Dualibbi, Julia. 2012. Filiados tucanos desconhecem partido. Estado de São Paulo 29 January, A12.
Campello, Daniela. 2012. What's Left of the Brazilian Left? Unpublished manuscript, Princeton University.
Cardoso, Fernando Henrique. 2011. O Papel da Oposição. Interesse Nacional 4 (13):1019.
Carmines, Edward G. Stimson, James A.. 1989. Issue Evolution: Race and the Transformation of American Politics. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Chhibber, Pradeep Torcal, Mariano. 1997. Elite Strategy, Social Cleavages, and Party Systems in a New Democracy Spain. Comparative Political Studies 30 (1):2754.
Dunning, Thad. 2008. Improving Causal Inference. Political Research Quarterly 61 (2):282293.
Dunning, Thad Harrison, Lauren. 2010. Cross-Cutting Cleavages and Ethnic Voting: An Experimental Study of Cousinage in Mali. American Political Science Review 104:2139.
Duverger, Maurice. 1954. Political Parties. New York: Wiley.
Frendreis, John P., Gibson, James L. Vertz, Laura L.. 1990. The Electoral Relevance of Local Party Organizations. American Political Science Review 84 (1):225235.
Fundação Perseu Abramo. 2006. . Cultura Política – BRASIL06.MAR-02483. Interviewed 2,379 people between on March 10–16, 2006. Banco de Dados do Centro de Estudos de Opinião Pública. Available from http://www.cesop.unicamp.br/site/htm/busca/php, accessed on 01/07/2014: CESOP-UNICAMP
Green, Donald P. Vavreck, Lynn. 2008. Analysis of Cluster-Randomized Experiments: A Comparison of Alternative Estimation Approaches. Political Analysis 16:138152.
Hagopian, Frances. 1996. Traditional Politics and Regime Change in Brazil. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hale, H.E. 2006. Why Not Parties in Russia? Democracy, Federalism, and the State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ho, Daniel E., Imai, Kosuke, King, Gary Stuart, Elizabeth A.. 2007. Matching as Nonparametric Preprocessing for Reducing Model Dependence in Parametric Causal Inference. Political Analysis 15 (3):199236.
Huber, John, Kernell, Georgia Leoni, Eduardo. 2005. Institutional Context, Cognitive Resources, and Party Attachments across Democracies. Political Analysis 13 (4):365386.
Hunter, Wendy. 2010. The Transformation of the Workers’ Party in Brazil, 1989–2009. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Iacus, Stefano M., King, Gary Porro, Giuseppe. 2012. Causal Inference without Balance Checking: Coarsened Exact Matching. Political Analysis 20 (1):124.
IBGE – Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. 2004. As Fundações Privadas e Associações sem Fins Lucrativos no Brasil, 2002. Estudos e Pesquisas: Informação Econômica 4. Rio de Janeiro.
Kalyvas, Stathis. 1996. The Rise of Christian Democracy in Europe. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.
Keck, Margaret. 1992. The Workers’ Party and Democratization in Brazil. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.
Kitschelt, Herbert, et al. 2010. Latin American Party Systems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Levitsky, Steven. 2003. Transforming Labor-Based Parties in Latin America: Argentine Peronism in Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lipset, Seymour M. Rokkan, Stein. 1967. Party Systems and Voter Alignments: Cross National Perspectives. New York: The Free Press.
Lupu, Noam. 2013. Party Brands and Partisanship: Theory with Evidence from a Survey Experiment in Argentina. American Journal of Political Science 57 (1):4964.
Mainwaring, Scott. 1999. Rethinking Party Systems in the Third Wave of Democratization: The Case of Brazil. Palo Alto, Calif.: Stanford University Press.
Mainwaring, Scott Scully, Timothy. 1995. Building Democratic Institutions: Party System in Latin America. Alto, Calif.: Stanford University Press.
McKibbin, Ross. 1990. The Ideologies of Class: Social Relations in Britain, 1880–1950. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Meneguello, Rachel. 1989. PT: A formação de um partido, 1979–1982. São Paulo: Paz e Terra.
Panebianco, Angelo. 1988. Organization and Power. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Partido dos Trabalhadores. 1998. Resoluções de encontros e congressos: 1979–1998. São Paulo: Partido dos Trabalhadores.
Partido dos Trabalhadores. 2007. Resuluções do 3° Congresso do Partido dos Trabalhadores. Porto Alegre: Partido dos Trabalhadores.
Posner, Daniel. 2004. The Political Salience of Cultural Difference: Why Chewas and Tumbukas are Allies in Zambia and Adversaries in Malawi. American Political Science Review 98 (4):529545.
Power, Timothy Zucco, Cesar Jr. 2012. Elite Preferences in a Consolidating Democracy: The Brazilian Legislative Surveys, 1990–2009. Latin American Politics and Society 54 (4):127.
Przeworski, Adam Sprague, John D.. 1986. Paper Stones: A History of Electoral Socialism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Ribeiro, Pedro. 2010. Dos sindicatos ao governo: a organização nacional do PT de 1980 a 2005. São Paulo: UFSCar/FAPESP.
Ribeiro, Pedro. 2012. Changing for Victory (and Government): Understanding the Transformation of the Workers’ Party via an Organizational Approach (1980–2010). Presented at the workshop ‘The PT from Lula to Dilma’, 27 January 2012, Brazil Studies Centre, University of Oxford.
Robinson, Gregory, McNulty, John E. Krasno, Jonathan S.. 2009. Observing the Counterfactual? The Search for Political Experiments in Nature. Political Analysis 17 (4):341357.
Roma, Celso. 2002. A Institucionalização do PSDB entre 1988 e 1999. Revista Brasileira de Ciências Sociais 17 (49):7192.
Roma, Celso. 2006. Organizaciones de Partido en Brasil: El PT y el PSDB Bajo Perspectiva Comparada. América Latina Hoy 44:153184.
Samuels, David. 1999. Incentives to Cultivate a Party Vote in Candidate-centric Electoral Systems: Evidence from Brazil. Comparative Political Studies 32 (4):487518.
Samuels, David. 2006. Sources of Mass Partisanship in Brazil. Latin American Politics and Society 48 (2):127.
Samuels, David Zucco, Cesar Jr. 2014. The Power of Partisanship in Brazil: Evidence from Survey Experiments. American Journal of Political Science 58 (1):212225.
Sperber, Jonathan. 1997. The Kaiser's Voters. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Tavits, Margit. 2012. Organizing for Success: Party Organizational Strength and Electoral Performance in Post-Communist Europ. Journal of Politics 74 (1):8397.
Torcal, Mariano Mainwaring, Scott. 2003. The Political Re-Crafting of Social Bases of Party Competition: The Case of Chile 1973–95. British Journal of Political Science 33 (1):5584.
van Biezen, Ingrid. 2000. On the Internal Balance of Party Power: Party Organizations in New Democracies. Party Politics 6 (4):395417.
Whiteley, P Seyd, P. 2003. How to Win a Landslide by Really Trying: The Effects of Local Campaigning on Voting in the 1997 British General Election. Electoral Studies 22 (2):301324.
Whiteley, Paul F., Seyd, Patrick, Richardson, Jeremy Bissell, Paul. 1994. Explaining Party Activism: The Case of the British Conservative Party. British Journal of Political Science 24 (1):7994.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Political Science
  • ISSN: 0007-1234
  • EISSN: 1469-2112
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-political-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×
Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary materials

Samuels and Zucco Supplementary Material
Supplementary Material

 PDF (176 KB)
176 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed