Achcar, G (2013) The People Want: A Radical Exploration of the Arab Uprising. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Beach, D and Pedersen, RB (2013) Process-Tracing Methods: Foundations and Guidelines. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Beinin, J (2011) A workers’ social movement on the margin of the global neoliberal order, Egypt 2004–2009. In Beinin J and Vairel F, (eds) Social Movements, Mobilization, and Contestation in the Middle East and North Africa. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, pp. 181–201.
Beissinger, MR (2013) The semblance of democratic revolution: coalitions in Ukraine’s Orange Revolution. The American Political Science Review 107, 574–592.
Beissinger, MR (2017) “Conventional” and “virtual” civil societies in autocratic regimes. Comparative Politics 49, 351–371.
Beissinger, MR, Jamal, AA and Mazur, K (2015) Explaining divergent revolutionary coalitions: regime strategies and the structuring of participation in the Tunisian and Egyptian revolutions. Comparative Politics 48, 1–24.
Bennett, A and Checkel, JT (2014) Process Tracing: From Metaphor to Analytic Tool. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bennett, WL and Segerberg, A (2012) The logic of connective action. Information, Communication & Society 15, 739–768.
Brym, R et al. (2014) Social media in the 2011 Egyptian Uprising. The British Journal of Sociology 65, 266–292.
Campante, FR and Chor, D (2012) Why was the Arab world poised for revolution? Schooling, economic opportunities, and the Arab Spring. Journal of Economic Perspectives 26, 167–188.
Castells, M (2015) Networks of Outrage and Hope: Social Movements in the Internet Age. London: John Wiley & Sons.
Chadwick, A (2006) Internet Politics: States, Citizens, and New Communication Technologies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Chalcraft, J (2012) Horizontalism in the Egyptian revolutionary process. Middle East Report 262, 6–11.
Clarke, K (2011) Saying “Enough”: Authoritarianism and Egypt’s Kefaya Movement. Mobilization: An International Quarterly 16, 397–416.
Clarke, K (2014) Unexpected brokers of mobilization: contingency and networks in the 2011 Egyptian Uprising. Comparative Politics 46, 379–397.
Dalacoura, K (2012) The 2011 uprisings in the Arab Middle East: political change and geopolitical implications. International Affairs 88, 63–79.
Deibert, R (2010) Access Controlled: The Shaping of Power, Rights, and Rule in Cyberspace. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Earl, J and Kimport, K (2011) Digitally Enabled Social Change: Activism in the Internet Age. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Earl, J et al. (2010) Changing the world one webpage at a time: conceptualizing and explaining internet activism. Mobilization: An International Quarterly 15, 425–446.
Elster, J (1998) A plea for mechanisms. In Hedström P and Swedberg R, (eds) Social Mechanisms: An Analytical Approach to Social Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 45–73.
Eltantawy, N and Wiest, JB (2011) Social media in the Egyptian Revolution: reconsidering resource mobilization theory. International Journal of Communication 5, 1207–1224.
Falleti, TG and Lynch, JF (2009) Context and causal mechanisms in political analysis. Comparative Political Studies 42, 1143–1166.
Faris, D (2013) Dissent and Revolution in a Digital Age: Social Media, Blogging and Activism in Egypt. London: I.B. Tauris.
Farrell, H (2012) The consequences of the internet for politics. Annual Review of Political Science 15, 35–52.
Filiu, J-P (2011) The Arab Revolution: Ten Lessons from the Democratic Uprising. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Garrett, RK (2006) Protest in an information society: a review of literature on social movements and new ICTs. Information, Communication & Society 9, 202–224.
Gerring, J (2010) Causal mechanisms: yes, but. … Comparative Political Studies 43, 1499–1526.
Ghonim, W (2012) Revolution 2.0: The Power of the People is Greater Than the People in Power: A Memoir. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Goodwin, J (2001) No Other Way Out: States and Revolutionary Movements 1945–1991. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Granovetter, M (1978) Threshold models of collective behavior. American Journal of Sociology 83, 1420–1443.
Grün, B and Hornik, K (2011) Topicmodels: an R Package for fitting topic models. Journal of Statistical Software 40, 1–30.
Gunitsky, S (2015) Corrupting the cyber-commons: social media as a tool of autocratic stability. Perspectives on Politics 13, 42–54.
Gunning, J and Baron, IZ (2014) Why Occupy a Square? People, Protests and Movements in the Egyptian Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hassanpour, N (2014) Media disruption and revolutionary unrest: evidence from Mubarak’s quasi-experiment. Political Communication 31, 1–24.
Hecht, B et al. (2011) Tweets from Justin Bieber’s heart: the dynamics of the location field in user profiles. Paper presented at the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Vancouver, http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1978976, .
Holmes, A (2012) There are weeks when decades happen: structure and strategy in the Egyptian Revolution. Mobilization: An International Quarterly 17, 391–410.
Howard, PN and Hussain, MM (2013) Democracy’s Fourth Wave? Digital Media and the Arab Spring. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kandil, H (2012) Why did the Egyptian middle class march to Tahrir Square? Mediterranean Politics 17, 197–215.
Ketchley, N (2017) Egypt in a Time of Revolution: Contentious Politics and the Arab Spring. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
King, G, Pan, J and Roberts, ME (2013) How censorship in China allows government criticism but silences collective expression. The American Political Science Review 107, 326–343.
Kuran, T (1997) Private Truths, Public Lies: The Social Consequences of Preference Falsification. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Lawrence, AK (2017) Repression and activism among the Arab Spring’s first movers: evidence from Morocco’s February 20th Movement. British Journal of Political Science 47, 699–718.
Leetaru, K et al. (2013) Mapping the global Twitter heartbeat: the geography of Twitter. First Monday 18, 290–307.
Little, AT (2016) Communication technology and protest. The Journal of Politics 78, 152–166.
Loader, BD (2008) Social movements and new media. Sociology Compass 2, 1920–1933.
Lotan, G et al. (2011) The revolutions were tweeted: information flows during the 2011 Tunisian and Egyptian revolutions. International Journal of Communication 5, 1375–1405.
Lynch, M (2011) After Egypt: the limits and promise of online challenges to the authoritarian Arab State. Perspectives on Politics 9, 301–310.
Lynch, M (2013) The Arab Uprising: The Unfinished Revolutions of the New Middle East. New York: Public Affairs.
McAdam, D (1982) Political Process and the Development of Black Insurgency, 1930-1970. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
McAdam, D (1989) The biographical consequences of activism. American Sociological Review 54, 744–760.
Morozov, E (2012) The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom, Reprint edition. New York: Public Affairs.
Oates, S (2013) Revolution Stalled: The Political Limits of the Internet in the Post-Soviet Sphere. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Patel, D, Bunce, V and Wolchik, S (2014) Diffusion and demonstration. In Lynch M, (ed.), The Arab Uprisings Explained: New Contentious Politics in the Middle East. New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 57–74.
Shirky, C (2009) Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organizations, Reprint edition. New York: Penguin Books.
Skocpol, T (1994) Social Revolutions in the Modern World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Soliman, S (2011) The Autumn of Dictatorship: Fiscal Crisis and Political Change in Egypt Under Mubarak. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.
Tilly, C (2001) Mechanisms in political processes. Annual Review of Political Science 4, 21–41.
Tufekci, Z and Wilson, C (2012) Social media and the decision to participate in political protest: observations from Tahrir Square. Journal of Communication 62, 363–379.
Van De Donk, W et al. (2004) Cyberprotest: New Media, Citizens and Social Movements. London: Routledge.
Waldner, D (2012) Process tracing and causal mechanisms. In Kincaid H, (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Social Science. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 65–84.
Weyland, K (2012) The Arab Spring: why the surprising similarities with the revolutionary wave of 1848? Perspectives on Politics 10, 917–934.