Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Obstacle to Peace? Ethnic Geography and Effectiveness of Peacekeeping

  • Jessica Di Salvatore (a1)
Abstract

Under what conditions does peacekeeping reduce one-sided violence in civil wars? This article argues that local sources of violence, particularly ethnic geography, affect peacekeeping effectiveness. Existing studies focus on the features of individual missions, yet curbing one-sided violence also depends on peacekeepers’ capacity to reduce the opportunities and incentives for violence. Moving from the idea that territorial control is a function of ethnic polarization, the article posits that peacekeepers are less effective against one-sided violence where power asymmetries are large (low polarization) because they (1) create incentives for escalation against civilians and (2) are less effective at separating/monitoring combatants. The UN mission in Sierra Leone from 1997 to 2001 is examined to show that UN troops reduce one-sided violence, but their effectiveness decreases as power asymmetries grow.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author. E-mail: jessica.di-salvatore@warwick.ac.uk
References
Hide All
Autesserre, S (2014) Going micro: emerging and future peacekeeping research. International Peacekeeping 21 (4):492500.
Balcells, L (2011) Continuation of politics by two means: direct and indirect violence in civil war. Journal of Conflict Resolution 55 (3):397422.
Balcells, L, Daniels, L-A Escriba-Folch, A (2016) The determinants of low-intensity intergroup violence. The case of Northern Ireland. Journal of Peace Research 53 (1):3348.
Bangura, Y (2004) The political and cultural dynamics of the Sierra Leone war: a critique of Paul Richards. In Abdullah I, (ed.), Between Democracy and Terror: The Sierra Leone Civil War. Dakar: Codesria, pp. 1340.
Bove, V Ruggeri, A (2015) Kinds of blue: diversity in UN peacekeeping missions and civilian protection. British Journal of Political Science 46 (3):681700.
Carment, D Rowlands, D (1998) Three’s company – evaluating third-party intervention in intrastate conflict. Journal of Conflict Resolution 42 (5):572599.
Cederman, L-E, Weidmann, NB Bormann, N-C (2015) Triangulating horizontal inequality: toward improved conflict analysis. Journal of Peace Research 52 (6):806821.
Cederman, L-E, Gleditsch, KS Buhaug, H (2013) Inequality, Grievances and Civil War. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Collier, P Hoeffler, A (1998) On economic causes of civil war. Oxford Economic Papers 50, 563573.
Costalli, S Moro, FN (2012) Ethnicity and strategy in the Bosnian Civil War: explanations for the severity of violence in Bosnian municipalities. Journal of Peace Research 49 (6):801815.
Costalli, S (2014) Does peacekeeping work? A disaggregated analysis of deployment and violence reduction in the Bosnian War. British Journal of Political Science 44 (2):357380.
Di, Salvatore J (2016) Inherently Vulnerable? Ethnic geography and the intensity of violence in Bosnian civil war. Political Geography 51, 114.
Di Salvatore, Jessica (2018) Replication data for: Obstacle to Peace? Ethnic geography and effectiveness of Peacekeeping, https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/HSELCA, Harvard Dataverse, V1, UNF:6:43H4Pa7bnI/P+fPtWvt4jg==.
Di, Salvatore J Ruggeri, A (2017) The effectiveness of peacekeeping operations. In Thompson WR, (ed.), The Oxford Encyclopedia of Empirical International Relations Theories. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Doyle, M Sambanis, N (2000) International peacebuilding: a theroretical and quantitative analysis. American Political Science Review 94 (4):779801.
Esteban, J Ray, D (1994) On the measurement of polarization. Econometrica 62 (4):819851.
Esteban, J Ray, D (2008) Polarization, fractionalization and conflict. Journal of Peace Research 45 (2):163182.
Esteban, J, Morelli, M Rohner, D (2010) Strategic mass killings. Institute for Empirical Research in Economics, University of Zurich Working Paper Series no. 486. Available from http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1615375.
Esteban, J Schneider, G (2008) Polarization and conflict: theoretical and empirical issues. Journal of Peace Research 45 (2):131141.
Fortna, VP (2004) Peace Time: Cease-Fire Agreements and the Durability of Peace. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Fortna, VP (2008) Does Peacekeeping Work? Shaping Belligerents” Choice After Civil War. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Gerring, J (2007) Case Study Research: Principles and Practices. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gilligan, M Stedman, S (2003) Where do peacekeepers go? International Studies Review 5 (4):3754.
Heldt, B (2010) Management of Civil Wars and Genocidal Violence: Lessons from Statistical Research. Paper presented at the June 2010 Meeting of the Genocide Prevention Advisory Network.
Horowitz, DL (1985) Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Hultman, L (2007) Battle losses and rebel violence: raising the costs for fighting. Terrorism and Political Violence 19 (2):205222.
Hultman, L (2010) Keeping peace or spurring violence? Unintended Effects of Peace Operations on Violence against Civilians. Civil Wars 12 (1–2):2946.
Hultman, L, Kathman, J Shannon, M (2013) United Nations peacekeeping and civilian protection in civil war. American Journal of Political Science 57 (4):875891.
Humphreys, M Weinstein, JM (2006) Handling and manhandling civilians in civil war. American Political Science Association Annual Meeting (Toronto) 100 (3):429447.
Iacus, SM, King, G Porro, G (2012) Causal inference without balance checking: coarsened exact matching. Political Analysis 20 (1):124.
Johnston, P (2008) The geography of insurgent organization and its consequences for civil wars: evidence from Liberia and Sierra Leone. Security Studies 17 (1):107137.
Kalyvas, SN (2001) “New” and “old” civil wars: a valid distinction? World Politics 54 (1):99118.
Kalyvas, SN (2006) The Logic of Violence in Civil War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kalyvas, SN Balcells, L (2010) International system and technologies of rebellion: how the end of the Cold War shaped internal conflict. American Political Science Review 104 (3):415429.
Kalyvas, SN Kocher, MA (2007) How ‘free’ is free riding in civil wars? violence, insurgency, and the collective action problem. World Politics 59 (2):177216.
Kalyvas, SN Kocher, MA (2009) The dynamics of violence in Vietnam: an analysis of the Hamlet Evaluation System (HES). Journal of Peace Research 46 (3):335355.
Kandeh, JD (1992) Politicization of ethnic identities in Sierra Leone. African Studies Review 35 (1):8199.
Kathman, JD Wood, RM (2011) Managing threat, cost, and incentive to kill: the short- and long-term effects of intervention in mass killings. Journal of Conflict Resolution 55 (5):735760.
Kathman, JD Wood, RM (2014) Stopping the killing during the ‘peace’: peacekeeping and the severity of postconflict civilian victimization. Foreign Policy Analysis 12 (2):149169.
Klasnja, M Novta, N (2016) Segregation, polarization, and ethnic conflict. Journal of Conflict Resolution 60 (5):927955.
Krain, M (2005) International intervention and the severity of genocides and politicides. International Studies Quarterly 49, 363387.
Kreps, S (2010) Why does peacekeeping succeed or fail? Peacekeeping in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Sierra Leone. Modern War and the Utility of Force: Challenges, Methods, and Strategy 2 (2):90118.
Kuperman, AJ (2008) The moral hazard of humanitarian intervention: lessons from the Balkans. International Studies Quarterly 52 (1):4980.
Lyon, AJ (2005) Beyond Rwanda and Kosovo: the interactive dynamics of international peacekeeping and ethnic mobilisation. Global Society 19 (3):267288.
McQueen, C (2005) Humanitarian Intervention and Safety Zones: Iraq, Bosnia and Rwanda. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Minnesota Population Center (2015) Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, International: Version 6.4 [Machine-Readable Database].
Montalvo, JG Reynal-Querol, M (2005a) Ethnic polarization, potential conflict and civil wars. The American Economic Review 95 (3):796816.
Montalvo, JG Reynal-Querol, M (2005b) Ethnic diversity and economic development. Journal of Development Economics 76 (2):293323.
Montalvo, JG Reynal-Querol, M (2008) Discrete polarisation with an application to the determinants of genocides. Economic Journal 118 (533):18351865.
Morelli, M Rohner, D (2014) Resource concentration and civil wars, Working Paper No. 20129. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Pushkina, D (2006) A recipe for success? Ingredients of a successful peacekeeping mission. International Peacekeeping 13 (2):133149.
Raleigh, C Hegre, H (2009) Population size, concentration, and civil war. A geographically disaggregated analysis. Political Geography 28, 224238.
Raleigh, C et al. (2010) Introducing Acled: an armed conflict location and event dataset special data feature. Journal of Peace Research 47 (5):651660.
Regan, PM (2002a) Civil Wars and Foreign Powers: Outside Intervention in Intrastate Conflict. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Regan, PM (2002b) Third-party interventions and the duration of intrastate conflicts. Journal of Conflict Resolution 46 (1):5573.
Rosen, DM (2015) Child Soldiers in the Western Imagination: From Patriots to Victims. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Ross, ML (2004) How do natural resources influence civil war? Evidence from Thirteen Cases. Source: International Organization 58 (1):3567.
Ruggeri, A, Dorussen, H Gizelis, T-I (2016) On the frontline every day? Subnational Deployment of United Nations Peacekeepers. British Journal of Political Science 121.
Schraml, C (2012) Introduction: the ‘dilemma of recognition’. On the ‘experienced reality’ of ethnicised politics in Rwanda and Burundi. In Schraml C, (ed.), The Dilemma of Recognition. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, pp. 1525.
Sundberg, R Melander, E (2013) Introducing the UCDP georeferenced event dataset. Journal of Peace Research 50 (4):523532.
Thyne, C (2009) How International Relations Affect Civil Conflict: Cheap Signals, Costly Consequences. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
Tilly, C (1985) War Making and State Making as Organized Crime. Pp. 169191 in Bringing the State Back, edited by P. Evans, D. Rueschemeyer and T. Skocpol. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Toft, MD (2002) Indivisible territory, geographic concentration, and ethnic war. Security Studies 12 (2):82119.
Tollefsen, AF, Strand, H Buhaug, H (2012) PRIO-GRID: a unified spatial data structure. Journal of Peace Research 49 (2):363374.
United Nations (2015) Report of the High-Level Independent Panel on Peace Operations on Uniting Our Strengths for Peace: Politics, Partnership and People.
United Nations Secretary-General (UNSG) (2000) S/2000/751 Eighteenth Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone.
United Nations Secretary-General (UNSG) (2014) Final Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Integrated Peacebuilding Office in Sierra Leone.
Weidmann, NB (2011) Violence ‘from above’ or ‘from below’? The role of ethnicity in Bosnia’s civil war. The Journal of Politics 73 (4):11781190.
Wood, RM (2010) Rebel capability and strategic violence against civilians. Journal of Peace Research 47 (5):601614.
Wood, RM (2014) From loss to looting? Battlefield costs and rebel incentives for violence. International Organization 68 (4):979999.
Wucherpfennig, J et al. (2012) Ethnicity, the state, and the duration of civil war. World Politics 64 (64):79115.
Zhukov, YM (2013) An Epidemic Model of Violence and Public Support in Civil War. Conflict Management and Peace Science 30 (1):2452.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Political Science
  • ISSN: 0007-1234
  • EISSN: 1469-2112
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-political-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Type Description Title
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Di Salvatore Dataset
Dataset

 Unknown
PDF
Supplementary materials

Di Salvatore supplementary material
Appendix

 PDF (148 KB)
148 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed