Rosenthal, H (1995) Partisan Politics, Divided Government, and the Economy. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Andersen, K (1993) Gender as a factor in the attribution of leadership traits. Political Research Quarterly 46 (3):527–545.
Anderson, CJ (2007) The end of economic voting? Contingency dilemmas and the limits of democratic accountability. Annual Review of Political Science 10, 271–296.
Bakan, D (1966) The Duality of Human Existence: An Essay on Psychology and Religion. Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.
Banlaoi, RC (2007) ‘Radical Muslim Terrorism’ in the Philippines. In Tan ATH (ed.),
A Handbook of Terrorism and Insurgency in Southeast Asia
. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 194–223.
Beaulieu, E (2014) Gender stereotypes and corruption: how candidates affect perceptions of election fraud. Politics and Gender 10 (3):365–391.
Beaulieu, E (forthcoming) Women politicians, institutions, and perceptions of corruption. Comparative Political Studies.
Barnes, TD, Beaulieu, E
Saxton, GW (2018) Restoring trust in the police: why female officers reduce suspicions of corruption. Governance 31 (1):143–161.
Barnes, TD, Beaulieu, E
Saxton, GW (forthcoming) Sex and corruption: how sexism shapes voters’ responses to scandal. Politics, Groups, and Identities.
Berger, J et al. (1986) Status cues, expectations, and behavior. In Lawler EJ (ed.), Advances in Group Processes. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, pp. 1–22.
Borgida, E (1999) Who women are, who women should be: descriptive and prescriptive gender stereotyping in sex discrimination. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law 5 (3):665–692.
Calvo, E (2007) The responsive legislature: public opinion and law making in a highly disciplined legislature. British Journal of Political Science 37 (2):263–280.
Zucco, C (2016) Presidential success and the world economy. Journal of Politics 78 (2):589–602.
Carlin, RE, Carreras, M
Love, GJ (2018) Replication Data for: ‘Presidents’sex and popularity: baselines, dynamics and policy performance’, https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/QCGKV5, Harvard Dataverse, V1.
Carlin, RE et al. (2018) Public support for Latin American presidents: the cyclical model in comparative perspective. Research and Politics 5 (3):1–8.
Carlin, RE, Love, GJ
Martínez-Gallardo, C (2015a) Cushioning the fall: scandals, economic conditions, and executive approval. Political Behavior 37 (1):109–130.
Carlin, RE, Love, GJ
Martínez-Gallardo, C (2015b) Security, clarity of responsibility, and presidential approval. Comparative Political Studies 48 (4):438–463.
Carreras, M (2012) The rise of outsiders in Latin America, 1980–2010: an institutionalist perspective. Comparative Political Studies 45 (12):1451–1482.
Carreras, M (2017) High-profile female executive candidates and the political engagement of women: a multilevel analysis. Political Research Quarterly 70 (1):172–183.
Carroll, SJ (2009) Reflections on gender and Hillary Clinton’s presidential campaign: the good, the bad, and the misogynic. Politics and Gender 5 (1):1–20.
Coppedge, M et al. (2016) V-Dem Codebook v6. Varieties of Democracy (VDem) Project.
Corrales, J (2016) Can anyone stop the president? Power asymmetries and term limits in Latin America, 1984–2016. Latin American Politics and Society 58 (2):3–25.
Bundrick, CM (1997) Presidential popularity in Central America: parallels with the United States. Political Research Quarterly 50 (4):833–849.
Emswiller, T (1974) Explanations of successful performance on sex-linked tasks: what is skill for the male is luck for the female. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 29 (1):80–85.
Kite, ME (1993) Gender stereotypes. In Denmark F and Paludi MA (eds), Handbook on the Psychology of Women. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, pp. 205–236.
Norrander, B (2009) The gender gap in Latin America: contextual and individual influences on gender and political participation. British Journal of Political Science 39 (1):141–162.
Lynch, T (2016) The impact of gender stereotypes on voting for women candidates by level and type of office. Politics Gender 12 (3):573–595.
Dos Santos, PG
Jalalzai, F (2014) The mother of Brazil: gender roles, campaign strategy, and the election of Brazil’s first female president. In Raicheva-Stover M and Ibroscheva E (eds), Women in Politics and Media Perspectives from Nations in Transition. New York: Bloomsbury, pp. 167–180.
Duch, RM (2007) Comparative studies of the economy and the vote. In Boix C and Stokes S (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Politics. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 805–844.
Stevenson, RT (2008) The Economic Vote: How Political and Economic Institutions Condition Election Results. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Duerst-Lahti, G (1997) Reconceiving theories of power: consequences of masculinism in the executive branch. In Borrelli ME and Martin JM (eds), The Other Elites: Women, Politics, and Power in the Executive Branch. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, pp. 11–32.
Dulani, B et al. (forthcoming) Do women face a different standard? The gender and corruption factors in the 2014 presidential elections in Malawi. Malawi Journal of Social Science.
Eagly, AH (1987) Sex Differences in Social Behavior: A Social-Role Interpretation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Carli, LL (2007) Women and the labyrinth of leadership. Harvard Business Review 85 (9):63–71.
Karau, SJ (2002) Role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders. Psychological Review 109 (3):573–598.
Eggers, AC, Vivyan, N
Wagner, M (2018) Corruption, accountability, and gender: Do female politicians face higher standards in public life? Journal of Politics 80 (1):321–326.
Erikson, RS, MacKuen, MB
Stimson, JA (2002) The Macro Polity. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Taylor-Robinson, MM (eds) (2014) Representation: The Case of Women. New York: Oxford University Press.
Taylor-Robinson, MM (2016) Women in Presidential Cabinets: Power Players or Abundant Tokens? New York: Oxford University Press.
Fearon, JD (1999) Electoral accountability and the control of politicians: selecting good types versus sanctioning poor performance. In Przeworski A, Stokes SC and Manin B (eds), Democracy, Accountability, and Representation. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 55–97.
Fernández-Vázquez, P (2007) Volatilidad en la popularidad de los jefes del ejecutivo: los sistemas presidenciales ¿Promueven una popularidad más inestable que los parlamentarios? Paper presented at VIII Congreso Español de Ciencia Política y de la Administración Política, Valencia, 17–20 September.
Ferrer, MC (2007) The communist insurgency in the Philippines. In Han ATH (ed.), A Handbook of Terrorism and Insurgency in Southeast Asia. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 405–435.
Fiske, ST (2017) Prejudices in cultural contexts: shared stereotypes (gender, age) versus variable stereotypes (race, ethnicity, religion). Perspectives on Psychological Science 12 (5):791–799.
Fitzpatrick, E (2016) The Highest Glass Ceiling: Women’s Quest for the American Presidency. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Foschi, M (1996) Double standards in the evaluation of men and women. Social Psychology Quarterly 59 (3):237–254.
Foschi, M (2000) Double standards for competence: theory and research. Annual Review of Sociology 26, 21–42.
Fulton, SA (2014) When gender matters: macro-dynamics and micro-mechanisms. Political Behavior 36 (3):605–630.
Funk, KD, Hinojosa, M
Piscopo, JM (2017) Still left behind: gender, political parties, and Latin America’s pink tide. Social Politics 24 (4):399–424.
Singer, MM (2015) The economy and incumbent support in Latin America. In Carlin RE, Singer MM and Zechmeister EJ (eds), The Latin American Voter: Pursuing Representation and Accountability in Challenging Contexts. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, pp. 281–299.
Global Terrorism Database
(2017) National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START). Available at https://www.start.umd.edu/gtd
Goetz, AM (2007) Political cleaners: women as the new anti-corruption force? Development and Change 38 (1):87–105.
Goodyear-Grant, E (2013) Gendered News: Media Coverage and Electoral Politics in Canada. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press.
Hartmann, HI (ed.) (2006) Gendering Politics and Policy: Recent Developments in Europe, Latin America, and the United States. New York: Routledge.
Heilman, ME (1995) Sex stereotypes and their effects in the workplace: what we know and what we don’t know. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 10 (6):3–26.
Heilman, ME (2001) Description and prescription: how gender stereotypes prevent women’s ascent up the organizational ladder. Journal of Social Issues 57 (1):657–674.
Hinojosa, M (2012) Selecting Women, Electing Women: Political Representation and Candidate Selection in Latin America. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
Samuels, D (2011) Crisis and rapid reequilibration: the consequences of presidential challenge and failure in Latin America. Comparative Politics 43 (2):127–145.
Holman, MR, Merolla, JL
Zechmeister, EJ (2011) Sex, stereotypes, and security: a study of the effects of terrorist threat on assessments of female leadership. Journal of Women, Politics and Policy 32 (3):173–192.
Holman, MR, Merolla, JL
Zechmeister, EJ (2016) Terrorist threat, male stereotypes, and candidate evaluations. Political Research Quarterly 69 (1):134–147.
Piscopo, J (2014) Women in politics and policy in Latin America and the Caribbean. New York: Social Science Research Council.
Capelos, T (2002) Gender stereotyping and candidate evaluation: good news and bad news for women politicians In Ottati V et al. (eds) The Social Psychology of Politics: Research, Policy, Theory, Practice. New York: Kluwer Academic, pp. 29–53.
Terkildsen, N (1993) Gender stereotypes and the perception of male and female candidates. American Journal of Political Science 37 (1):119–147.
Norris, P (2003) Rising Tide: Gender Equality and Cultural Change around the World. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Jalalzai, F (2013) Shattered, Cracked, or Firmly Intact? Women and the Executive Glass Ceiling Worldwide. New York: Oxford University Press.
Jalalzai, F (2016) Women Presidents in Latin America: Beyond Family Ties? New York: Routledge.
Krook, ML (2010) Beyond Hillary and Benazir: Women’s political leadership worldwide. International Political Science Review 31 (1):5–21.
Jamieson, KH (1995) Beyond the Double Bind: Women and Leadership. New York: Oxford University Press.
Schwindt-Bayer, LA (2009) Economic accountability in Central America. Journal of Politics in Latin America 1 (3):33–56.
Kahn, KF (1996) The Political Consequences of Being a Woman. New York: Columbia University Press.
Kanter, RM (1977) Some effects of proportions on group life: skewed sex ratios and responses to token women. American Journal of Sociology 82 (5):965–990.
Lawless, JL (2004) Women, war, and winning elections: gender stereotyping in the post-September 11th era. Political Research Quarterly 57 (3):479–490.
Leeper, MS (1991) The impact of prejudice on female candidates: an experimental look at voter inference. American Politics Quarterly 19 (2):248–261.
Way, LA (2005) International linkage and democratization. Journal of Democracy 16 (3):20–34.
Stegmaier, M (2008) The economic vote in transitional democracies. Journal of Elections, Public Opinion and Parties 18 (3):303–323.
Liswood, LA (1995) Women World Leaders: Fifteen Great Politicians Tell Their Stories. San Francisco, CA: Pandora.
Kalilombe Shame, E (2016) A different yardstick: gender and leadership in the political discourse. In Amundsen I and Kayuni H (eds), Women in Politics in Malawi. Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute, pp. 57–70.
MacKuen, MB, Erikson, RS
Stimson, JA (1989) Macropartisanship. American Political Science Review 83 (4):1125–1142.
Rosas, G (2015) Corruption and the Latin American voter. In Carlin RE, Singer MM and Zechmeister EJ (eds), The Latin American Voter: Pursuing Representation and Accountability in Challenging Contexts. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, pp. 300–323.
Borrelli, M (eds) (2016) The Gendered Executive: A Comparative Analysis of Presidents, Prime Ministers, and Chief Executives. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Martínez-Gallardo, C (2012) Out of the cabinet: what drives defections from the government in presidential systems? Comparative Political Studies 45 (1):62–90.
Morgan, J (2015) Gender and the Latin American voter. In Carlin RE, Singer MM and Zechmeister EJ (eds), The Latin American Voter: Pursuing Representation and Accountability in Challenging Contexts. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, pp. 143–167.
Buice, M (2013) Latin American attitudes toward women in politics: the influence of elite cues, female advancement, and individual characteristics. American Political Science Review 107 (4):644–662.
Mueller, JE (1970) Presidential popularity from Truman to Johnson. American Political Science Review 64 (1):18–34.
Mueller, JE (1973) War, Presidents, and Public Opinion. New York: Wiley.
Murray, R (ed.) (2010) Cracking the Highest Glass Ceiling: A Global Comparison of Women’s Campaigns for Executive Office. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.
Neustadt, RE (1960) Presidential Power: The Politics of Leadership. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Gutek, BA (1980) Sex effects on evaluation. Academy of Management Review 5 (2):267–276.
Barnes, TD (2018) Defending the realm: the appointment of female defense ministers worldwide. American Journal of Political Science 62 (2):355–368.
Pereira, C, Power, TJ
Raile, ED (2008)
Coalitional Presidentialism and Side Payments: Explaining the Mensalão Scandal in Brazil (Occasional Paper BSP-03-08). Oxford: Brazilian Studies Programme (University of Oxford).
Pérez-Liñán, A (2007) Presidential Impeachment and the New Political Instability in Latin America. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Pérez, OJ (2015) The impact of crime on voter choice in Latin America. In Carlin RE, Singer MM and Zechmeister EJ (eds), The Latin American Voter: Pursuing Representation and Accountability in Challenging Contexts. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, pp. 324–345.
Reyes-Housholder, C (2016) Presidentas rise: consequences for women in cabinets? Latin American Politics and Society 58 (3):3–25.
Reyes-Housholder, C (2018) Presidents’ gender, corruption scandals and approval ratings. Documento de trabajo 28. Santiago: Centro de Estudios de Conflicto y Cohesión Social.
Reyes-Housholder, C (forthcoming) A constituency theory of the conditional impact of female presidents. Comparative Politics
Thomas, G (2018) Latin America’s Presidentas: challenging old patterns, forging new pathways. In Schwindt-Bayer LA (ed.), Gender and Representation in Latin America. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 19–38.
Reynolds, A (1999) Women in the legislatures and executives of the world: knocking at the highest glass ceiling. World Politics 51 (4):547–572.
Romero, V, Magaloni, B
Díaz-Cayeros, A (2016) Presidential approval and public security in Mexico’s war on crime. Latin American Politics and Society 58 (2):100–123.
Glick, P (2001) Prescriptive gender stereotypes and backlash toward agentic women. Journal of Social Issues 57 (4):743–762.
Dolan, K (2009) Do gender stereotypes transcend party? Political Research Quarterly 62 (3):485–494.
Santos Mundim, P (n.d.) Os impactos dos efeitos de priming na popularidade presidencial: o caso do segundo mandato de Lula. Universidade Federal de Goiás, Unpublished manuscript.
Sapiro, V (1981) When are interests interesting? The problem of political representation of women. American Political Science Review 75 (3):701–716.
Sapiro, V (1983) The Political Integration of Women: Roles, Socialization, and Politics. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.
Bos, AL (2014) Measuring stereotypes of female politicians. Political Psychology 35 (2):245–266.
Schwindt-Bayer, LA (2010) Political Power and Women’s Representation in Latin America. New York: Oxford University Press.
Schwindt-Bayer, LA (ed.) (2018) Gender and Representation in Latin America. New York: Oxford University Press.
Reyes-Housholder, C (2017) Citizen responses to female executives: is it sex, novelty or both? Politics, Groups, and Identities 5 (3):373–398.
Stoyan, AT (2018) Gendered opportunities and constraints: how executive sex and approval influence executive decree issuance. Political Research Quarterly 71 (3):586–599.
Shair-Rosenfield, S, Stoyan, AT
Sagarzazu, I (n.d.) Popular presidents versus Unified opponents: the effects of executive approval and legislative opposition unity on executive decrees in Latin America. Unpublished working paper, Arizona State University.
Siaroff, A (2003) Comparative presidencies: the inadequacy of the presidential, semi‐presidential and parliamentary distinction. European Journal of Political Research 42 (3):287–312.
Sims, S (2016) Brazil’s new president Michel Temer fills cabinet with only white men. Forbes, 12 May.
Sjoberg, L (2014) Feminism. In Rhodes RAW and ‘t Hart P (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Political Leadership. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 72–86.
Skard, T (2015) Women of Power: Half a Century of Female Presidents and Prime Ministers Worldwide. Bristol: Policy Press.
Lewis-Beck, MS (2013) Economic voting. In Valelly R (ed.), Oxford Bibliographies in Political Science. New York: Oxford University Press.
Wängnerud, L (eds) (2018) Gender and Corruption: Historical Roots and New Avenues for Research. New York: Routledge.
Stensöta, H, Wängnerud, L
Svensson, R (2015) Gender and corruption: the mediating power of institutional logics. Governance 28 (4):475–496.
Stimson, JA (1976) Public support for American presidents: a cyclical model. Public Opinion Quarterly 40 (1):1–21.
Stimson, JA (1991) Public Opinion in America: Moods, Cycles, and Swings. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Stimson, JA (2018) The Dyad ratios algorithm for estimating latent public opinion: estimation, testing, and comparison to other approaches. Bulletin of Methodological Sociology 137–138, 201–218.
Sanna, LJ (1996) He’s skilled, She’s lucky: a meta-analysis of observers’ attributions for women’s and men’s successes and failures. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 22 (5):507–519.
Tickner, JA (1992) Gender in International Relations: Feminist Perspectives on Achieving Global Security. New York: Columbia University Press.
Valenzuela, A (2004) Latin American presidencies interrupted. Journal of Democracy 15 (4):5–19.
Waylen, G (ed) (2016) Gender, Institutions, and Change in Bachelet’s Chile. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Best, DL (1990) Measuring Sex Stereotypes: A Multination Study. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Wlezien, C (1995) The public as thermostat: dynamics of preferences for spending. American Journal of Political Science 39 (4):981–1000.