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Review Article: Political Accommodation and Consociational Democracy

  • Brian Barry
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1 Lijphart, Arend, The Politics of Accommodation: Pluralism and Democracy in the Netherlands (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1968), pp. 103–4.

2 Lijphart, A., ‘Consociational Democracy’, World Politics, XXI (1969), 207–25. Reprinted in Kenneth McRae, ed., Consociational Democracy: Political Accommodation in Segmented Societies (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, The Carleton Library, 1974), 70–106. I shall give page references for this and other articles in McRae’s convenient collection, citing it as ‘McRae’. The quotation in the text appears on p. 79.

3 Lijphart, , ‘Consociational Democracy’ in McRae, p. 79, my italics.

4 Val R. Lorwin, ‘Belgium: Conflict and Compromise’, printed for first time in McRae, 179–206; reference to p. 206.

5 Lijphart, , ‘Consociational Democracy’ in McRae, p. 75.Almond’s, article ‘Comparative Political Systemsappeared in the Journal of Politics, XVIII (1956), 391409.

6 McRae, p. 13; Lijphart in McRae, pp. 74–5; Lorwin, p. 36 in McRae.

7 Daalder, H., ‘The Consociational Democracy Theme’, World Politics, XXVI (1974), 604–21, p. 609.

8 Steiner, J., Amicable Agreement versus Majority Rule: Conflict Resolution in Switzerland (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, revised and enlarged edition [translated from German edition of 1970] 1974).

9 Dahl, R. A., ed., Political Oppositions in Western Democracies (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1966), p. 371.

10 Steiner, , Amicable Agreement, p. 3.

11 Steiner, , Amicable Agreement, p. 4.

12 Steiner, , Amicable Agreement, p. 6.

13 Steiner, , Amicable Agreement, pp. 45.

14 Steiner, , Amicable Agreement, p. 37.

15 Steiner, , Amicable Agreement, p. 199.

16 Barber, Benjamin R., The Death of Communal Liberty: A History of Freedom in a Swiss Mountain Canton (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1974), p. 252.

17 Barber, , Death of Communal Liberty, pp. 253–4.

18 Steiner, , Amicable Agreement, p. 19.

19 For this interpretation, see Barber, , Death of Communal Liberty, pp. 258–74.

20 Gerhard Lehmbruch, ‘A Non-Competitive Pattern of Conflict Management in Liberal Democracies: the Case of Switzerland, Austria and Lebanon’, printed for the first time in McRae, 90–106, p. 92.

21 Steiner, , Amicable Agreement, p. 4.

22 Keech, William R., ‘Linguistic Diversity and Political Conflict: Some Observations Based on Four Swiss Cantons’, Comparative Politics, IV (1972), 387404, p. 388.

23 Steiner, , Amicable Agreement, p. 49.

24 Steiner, , Amicable Agreement, p. 49.

25 Steiner, , Amicable Agreement, p. 49.

26 In Conflict Regulation in Divided Societies (Cambridge, Mass: Center for International Affairs, Harvard University, Occasional Papers in International Affairs, No. 29,1972).

27 Steiner, , Amicable Agreement, p. 257.

28 Steiner, , Amicable Agreement, p. 252.

29 Steiner, , Amicable Agreement, p. 33.

30 Steiner, , Amicable Agreement, p. 33.

31 Steiner, , Amicable Agreement, pp. 54–5.

32 Pulzer, P. G. J., ‘The Legitimizing Role of Political Parties: the Second Austrian Republic’, Government and Opposition, IV (1969), 3244. Reprinted in McRae under title ‘Austria: the Legitimizing Role of Political Parties’, 157–78, p. 158.

33 Lijphart, , ‘Consociational Democracy’, in McRae, p. 75.

34 Bluhm, William T., Building an Austrian Nation: the Political Integration of a Western State (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1973), p. 71.

35 Pulzer, , ‘Austria’, in McRae, pp. 173–4.

36 See Pulzer, , ‘Austria’, in McRae, pp. 168–9.

37 Lijphart, , ‘Consociational Democracy’, in McRae.p. 75.

38 Bluhm, , Building an Austrian Nation, p. 68, fn. 37.

39 Bluhm, , Building an Austrian Nation, p. 25.

40 Bluhm, , Building an Austrian Nation, p. 24.

41 Bluhm, , Building an Austrian Nation, p. 86.

42 Bluhm, , Building an Austrian Nation, p. 85.

43 Bluhm, , Building an Austrian Nation, p. 34.

44 See Lijphart, , ‘Consociational Democracy’, in McRae, p. 77.

45 See Lijphart, , ‘Consociational Democracy’, in Mcrae, , p. 76.

46 Dahrendorf, Ralf, Society and Democracy in Germany (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1968), p. 269.

47 Bluhm, , Building an Austrian Nation, p. 70.

48 Powell, G. Bingham Jr, Social Fragmentation and Political Hostility: an Austrian Case Study (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1970).

49 Calculated from Table 19, p. 61, of Powell, Social Fragmentation.

30 Powell, , Social Fragmentation, p. 71.

51 Lehmbruch, Gerhard, ‘The Ambiguous Coalition in West Germany’, Government and Opposition, III (1968), 181204, reprinted in abridged form in Dogan, Mattei and Rose, Richard, eds., European Politics: a Reader (London: Macmillan, 1971), 549–63, p. 553.

52 Quoted by Allison, Graham T. in the front of Essence of Decision (Boston: Little, Brown, 1971), no reference supplied.

53 Almond, G. A., Flanagan, S. C. and Mundt, R. J., eds., Crisis, Choice and Change: Historical Studies of Political Development (Boston: Little, Brown, 1973).

54 See Keech, , ‘Linguistic Diversity’, p. 387.

55 Keech, , ‘Linguistic Diversity’, pp. 400,401,402.

56 Lorwin, , ‘Belgium: Conflict and Compromise’, in McRae, p. 197.

* Nuffield College, Oxford. I am grateful to John Maguire, Jim Sharpe and Hans Daalder for comments on the draft of this paper.

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