Acemoglu Daron, and Robinson James A.. 2006. Economic Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
AidData. 2012. AidData Research Release 2.1. Available from aiddata.org/aiddata-research-releases. Accessed 1 June 2015.
Albertus Michael, and Menaldo Victor. 2012. Coercive Capacity and the Prospects for Democratization. Comparative Politics
Ambrosio Thomas. 2010. Constructing a Framework of Authoritarian Diffusion: Concepts, Dynamics, and Future Research. International Studies Perspectives
Bader Julia. 2015. China, Autocratic Patron? An Empirical Investigation of China as a Factor in Autocratic Survival. International Studies Quarterly
Banks Arthur S. 1976.
Cross-National Time Series, 1815–1973
. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research.
Barbieri Katherine, and Keshk Omar. 2012. Correlates of War Project Trade Data Set Codebook, Version 3.0. Available from www.correlatesofwar.org. Accessed 1 June 2015.
Barro Robert J., and Lee Jong-Wha. 2001. International Data on Educational Attainment: Updates and Implications. Oxford Economic Papers
Blaydes Lisa. 2011. Elections and Distributive Politics in Mubarak’s Egypt. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Boix Carles. 2003. Democracy and Redistribution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Boix Carles, Miller Michael K., and Rosato Sebastian. 2013. A Complete Data Set of Political Regimes, 1800–2007. Comparative Political Studies
Bratton Michael, and van de Walle Nicolas. 1997. Democratic Experiments in Africa: Regime Transitions in Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Brinks Daniel, and Coppedge Michael. 2006. Diffusion is No Illusion. Comparative Political Studies
Brown Stephen. 2001. Authoritarian Leaders and Multiparty Elections in Africa: How Foreign Donors Help to Keep Kenya’s Daniel Arap Moi in Power. Third World Quarterly
Brown Stephen. 2011. ‘Well, What Can You Expect?’: Donor Officials’ Apologetics for Hybrid Regimes in Africa. Democratization
Bueno de Mesquita Bruce, and Smith Alastair. 2007. Foreign Aid and Policy Concessions. Journal of Conflict Resolution
Bush Sarah Sunn. 2015. The Taming of Democracy Assistance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cao Xun, Greenhill Brian, and Prakash Aseem. 2013. Where is the Tipping Point? Bilateral Trade and the Diffusion of Human Rights. British Journal of Political Science
Carothers Thomas. 1999. Aiding Democracy Abroad: The Learning Curve. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
Carothers Thomas. 2002. The End of the Transition Paradigm. Journal of Democracy
Cheibub José Antonio, Gandhi Jennifer, and Vreeland James Raymond. 2010. Democracy and Dictatorship Revisited. Public Choice
Clottey Peter. 2015. Swaziland Pro-Democracy Group Rejects King’s Criticisms. Voice of America News, 21 February.
Correlates of War Project. 2010a. International Governmental Organization (IGO) Data, Version 2.3. Available from www.correlatesofwar.org. Accessed 1 June 2015.
Correlates of War Project. 2010b. National Material Capabilities Dataset, Version 4.0. Available from www.correlatesofwar.org. Accessed 1 June 2015.
Correlates of War Project. 2013. Formal Interstate Alliance Dataset, Version 4.1. Available from www.correlatesofwar.org. Accessed 1 June 2015.
Coulon Christian. 1988. Senegal: The Development and Fragility of Semidemocracy. In
Democracy in Developing Countries: Africa
, edited by Larry Diamond, Juan J. Linz and Seymour Martin Lipset, 141–178. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
Diamond Larry. 1999. Developing Democracy: Toward Consolidation. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Diamond Larry. 2002. Thinking About Hybrid Regimes. Journal of Democracy
Dietrich Simone, and Wright Joseph. 2015. Foreign Aid Allocation Tactics and Democratic Change in Africa. Journal of Politics
Dobson William J. 2012. The Dictator’s Learning Curve: Inside the Global Battle for Democracy. New York: Doubleday.
Donno Daniela. 2013. Elections and Democratization in Authoritarian Regimes. American Journal of Political Science
Dreher Axel, Gaston Noel, and Martens Pim. 2008.
Measuring Globalisation—Gauging its Consequences
. New York: Springer.
Epstein David L., Bates Robert, Goldstone Jack, Kristensen Ida, and O’Halloran Sharyn. 2006. Democratic Transitions. American Journal of Political Science
Ethier Diane. 2003. Is Democracy Promotion Effective? Comparing Conditionality and Incentives. Democratization
Finkel Steven E., Pérez-Liñán Aníbal, and Seligson Mitchell A.. 2007. The Effects of U.S. Foreign Assistance on Democracy Building, 1990–2003. World Politics
Flores-Macías Gustavo A., and Kreps Sarah E.. 2013. The Foreign Policy Consequences of Trade: China’s Commercial Relations with Africa and Latin America, 1992–2006. Journal of Politics
Freedom House. 2013. Freedom in the World 2013: The Annual Survey of Political Rights and Civil Liberties. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Galbraith James K., and Kum Hyunsub. 2003. Inequality and Economic Growth: A Global View Based on Measures of Pay. CESifo Economic Studies
Gandhi Jennifer. 2008. Political Institutions Under Dictatorship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gandhi Jennifer, and Lust-Okar Ellen. 2009. Elections Under Authoritarianism. Annual Review of Political Science
Geddes Barbara. 1999. What Do We Know About Democratization After Twenty Years?
Annual Review of Political Science
Geddes Barbara, and Zaller John. 1989. Sources of Popular Support for Authoritarian Regimes. American Journal of Political Science
Geddes Barbara, Wright Joseph, and Frantz Erica. 2014. Authoritarian Breakdown and Regime Transitions: A New Data Set. Perspectives on Politics
Geisler Gisela. 1993. Fair? What Has Fairness Got To Do With It? Vagaries of Election Observations and Democratic Standards. Journal of Modern African Studies
Gleditsch Kristian S., and Ward Michael D.. 2006. Diffusion and the International Context of Democratization. International Organization
Goemans Hein E., Gleditsch Kristian Skrede, and Chiozza Giacomo. 2016. Archigos: A Data Set on Leaders, 1875–2015, Version 4.1. Department of Political Science, University of Rochester. Accessed 1 June 2016.
Goldsmith Arthur A. 2008. Making the World Safe for Partial Democracy? Questioning the Premises of Democracy Promotion. International Security
Goodliffe Jay, and Hawkins Darren. 2017. Dependence Networks and the Diffusion of Domestic Political Institutions. Journal of Conflict Resolution
Greene Kenneth F. 2007. Why Dominant Parties Lose: Mexico’s Democratization in Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Haber Stephen, and Menaldo Victor. 2011. Do Natural Resources Fuel Authoritarianism? A Reappraisal of the Resource Curse. American Political Science Review
Hackenesch Christine. 2015. It’s Domestic Politics, Stupid! EU Democracy Promotion Strategies Meet African Dominant Party Regimes. World Development
Hadenius Axel. 1992. Democracy and Development. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hannan Michael T., and Carroll Glenn R.. 1981. Dynamics of Formal Political Structure: An Event-History Analysis. American Sociological Review
Hanson Jonathan K., and Sigman Rachel. 2013. Leviathan’s Latent Dimensions: Measuring State Capacity for Comparative Political Research. Working paper. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.
Hermet Guy. 1978. State-Controlled Elections: A Framework. In
Elections Without Choice, edited by Guy Hermet, Richard Rose and Alain Rouquié, 1–18. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Heston Alan, Summers Robert, and Aten Bettina. 2011. Penn World Table, Version 7.0. University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Available from pwt.econ.upenn.edu. Accessed 1 June 2015.
Hicken Allen. 2011. Clientelism. Annual Review of Political Science
Hoffman Barak, and Robinson Lindsay. 2009. Tanzania’s Missing Opposition. Journal of Democracy
Howard Marc M., and Roessler Philip G.. 2006. Liberalizing Electoral Outcomes in Competitive Authoritarian Regimes. American Journal of Political Science
Hyde Susan D., and Marinov Nikolay. 2012. Which Elections Can be Lost?
Inglehart Ronald, and Welzel Christian. 2005. Modernization, Cultural Change, and Democracy: The Human Development Sequence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Joseph Richard. 1999. The Reconfiguration of Power in Late Twentieth-Century Africa. In State, Conflict, and Democracy in Africa, edited by Richard Joseph, 57–80. Boulder, CO: Lynne Reiner.
Kinne Brandon J., and Marinov Nikolay. 2013. Electoral Authoritarianism and Credible Signaling in International Crises. Journal of Conflict Resolution
Kitschelt Herbert, and Wilkinson Steven I., eds. 2007. Patrons, Clients and Policies: Patterns of Democratic Accountability and Political Competition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Knack Stephen. 2004. Does Foreign Aid Promote Democracy?
International Studies Quarterly
Leong Ho Khai. 2000. The Politics of Policy-Making in Singapore. New York: Oxford University Press.
Levitsky Steven, and Way Lucan A.. 2010. Competitive Authoritarianism: Hybrid Regimes After the Cold War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lindberg Staffan I., ed. 2009. Democratization by Elections: A New Mode of Transition. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Lizzeri L., and Persico N.. 2004. Why Did the West Extend the Franchise? Democracy and the Scope of Government With an Application to Britain’s Age of Reform. Quarterly Journal of Economics
Lust-Okar Ellen. 2006. Elections Under Authoritarianism: Preliminary Lessons From Jordan. Democratization
McKoy Michael K., and Miller Michael K.. 2012. The Patron’s Dilemma: The Dynamics of Foreign-Supported Democratization. Journal of Conflict Resolution
Magaloni Beatriz. 2006. Voting for Autocracy: Hegemonic Party Survival and its Demise in Mexico. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mansfield Edward D., Milner Helen V., and Rosendorff B. Peter. 2000. Free to Trade: Democracies, Autocracies, and International Trade. American Political Science Review
Marinov Nikolay, and Goemans Hein. 2014. Coups and Democracy. British Journal of Political Science
Marshall Monty G. 2010. Major Episodes of Political Violence (MEPV) and Conflict Regions, 1946–2008. Center for Systemic Peace. Available from www.systemicpeace.org. Accessed 1 June 2015.
Marshall Monty G., and Jaggers Keith. 2010.
POLITY IV PROJECT: Political Regime Characteristics and Transitions, 1800–2009
. Fairfax, VA: George Mason University.
Miller Michael K. 2012. Economic Development, Violent Leader Removal, and Democratization. American Journal of Political Science
Miller Michael K. 2015a. Democratic Pieces: Autocratic Elections and Democratic Development Since 1815. British Journal of Political Science
Miller Michael K. 2015b. Electoral Authoritarianism and Human Development. Comparative Political Studies
Miller Michael K. 2017. Replication Data for: The Strategic Origins of Electoral Authoritarianism. doi: 10.7910/DVN/PTMJF0, Harvard Dataverse, V1, UNF:6:s8ukiAT2UYW61Fyrg2TD1w==.
Neumayer Eric, and Plümper Thomas. 2016. W. Political Science Research and Methods
Pevehouse Jon. 2002. Democracy From the Outside In? International Organizations and Democratization. International Organization
Pevehouse Jon C., Nordstrom Timothy, and Warnke Kevin. 2004. The COW-2 International Organizations Dataset, Version 2.0. Conflict Management and Peace Science
Pfutze Tobias. 2014. Clientelism Versus Social Learning: The Electoral Effects of International Migration. International Studies Quarterly
Przeworski Adam. 1991. Democracy and the Market: Political and Economic Reforms in Eastern Europe and Latin America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Przeworski Adam, Alvarez Michael E., Cheibub José A., and Limongi Fernando. 2000.
Democracy and Development: Political Institutions and Well-Being in the World, 1950–1990
. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Reilly Benjamin. 2013. Southeast Asia: In the shadow of China. Journal of Democracy
Roeder Philip G. 2001. Ethnolinguistic Fractionalization (ELF) Indices, 1961 and 1985. Available from weber.ucsd.edu/~proeder/elf.htm. Accessed 1 June 2015.
Sadiki Larbi. 2000. Popular Uprisings and Arab Democratization. International Journal of Middle East Studies
Sanborn Howard, and Thyne Clayton L.. 2014. Learning Democracy: Education and the Fall of Authoritarian Regimes. British Journal of Political Science
Schedler Andreas, ed. 2006. Electoral Authoritarianism: The Dynamics of Unfree Competition. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
Schedler Andreas. 2013. The Politics of Uncertainty: Sustaining and Subverting Electoral Authoritarianism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Simmons Beth A., Dobbin Frank, and Garrett Geoffrey. 2006. Introduction: The International Diffusion of Liberalism. International Organization
Starr Harvey. 1991. Democratic Dominoes: Diffusion Approaches to the Spread of Democracy in the International System. Journal of Conflict Resolution
Stokes Susan C. 2005. Perverse Accountability: A Formal Model of Machine Politics With Evidence From Argentina. American Political Science Review
Stokes Susan C., Dunning Thad, Nazareno Marcelo, and Brusco Valeria. 2013. Brokers, Voters, and Clientelism: The Puzzle of Distributive Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Svolik Milan. 2012. The Politics of Authoritarian Rule. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Tansey Oisín, Koehler Kevin, and Schmotz Alexander. Forthcoming. Ties to the Rest: Autocratic Linkages and Regime Survival. Comparative Political Studies.
Torfason Magnus Thor, and Ingram Paul. 2010. The Global Rise of Democracy: A Network Account. American Sociological Review
Treisman Daniel. 2015. Income, Democracy, and Leader Turnover. American Journal of Political Science
United Nations University–World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER). 2005. World Income Inequality Database, Version 2.0a. Available from www.wider.unu.edu. Accessed 1 June 2015.
Waisman Carlos H. 1989. Argentina: Autarkic Industrialization and Illegitimacy. In
Democracy in Developing Countries, Volume 4: Latin America
, edited by Larry Diamond, Juan J. Linz, and Seymour M. Lipset, 59–109. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
Wang Chin-Shou, and Kurzman Charles. 2007. Logistics: How to Buy Votes. In
Elections for Sale: The Causes and Consequences of Vote Buying, edited by Frederic Charles Schaffer, 61–79. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
Waterbury John. 1983. The Egypt of Nasser and Sadat: The Political Economy of Two Regimes. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Weghorst Keith R., and Lindberg Staffan I.. 2013. What Drives the Swing Voter in Africa?
American Journal of Political Science
Whitehead Laurence. 1996. Democratic Regions, Ostracism, and Pariahs. In The International Dimensions of Democratization, edited by Laurence Whitehead, 395–412. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
World Bank. 2014. World Development Indicators Online. Available from www.worldbank.org/data. Accessed 1 June 2015.
Wright Joseph, and Escribà-Folch Abel. 2012. Authoritarian Institutions and Regime Survival: Transitions to Democracy and Subsequent Autocracy. British Journal of Political Science
Young Crawford. 1999. The Third Wave of Democratization in Africa: Ambiguities and Contracitions. In State, Conflict, and Democracy in Africa, edited by Richard Joseph, 15–38. Boulder, CO: Lynne Reiner.