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Armored scale insect endosymbiont diversity at the species level: genealogical patterns of Uzinura diasipipdicola in the Chionaspis pinifoliaeChionaspis heterophyllae species complex (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Diaspididae)

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  26 November 2014

J.C. Andersen
Department of Environmental Science Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
R.A. Gwiazdowski
Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada
K. Gdanetz
Department of Plant Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
M.E. Gruwell*
Penn State Erie, The Behrend College, School of Science, Erie, PA 16563, USA
*Author for correspondence Phone: 814-898-6276 Fax: 814-898-6213 E-mail:


Armored scale insects and their primary bacterial endosymbionts show nearly identical patterns of co-diversification when viewed at the family level, though the persistence of these patterns at the species level has not been explored in this group. Therefore we investigated genealogical patterns of co-diversification near the species level between the primary endosymbiont Uzinura diaspidicola and its hosts in the Chionaspis pinifoliaeChionaspis heterophyllae species complex. To do this we generated DNA sequence data from three endosymbiont loci (rspB, GroEL, and 16S) and analyzed each locus independently using statistical parsimony network analyses and as a concatenated dataset using Bayesian phylogenetic reconstructions. We found that for two endosymbiont loci, 16S and GroEL, sequences from U. diaspidicola were broadly associated with host species designations, while for rspB this pattern was less clear as C. heterophyllae (species S1) shared haplotypes with several other Chionaspis species. We then compared the topological congruence of the phylogenetic reconstructions generated from a concatenated dataset of endosymbiont loci (including all three loci, above) to that from a concatenated dataset of armored scale hosts, using published data from two nuclear loci (28S and EF1α) and one mitochondrial locus (COI–COII) from the armored scale hosts. We calculated whether the two topologies were congruent using the Shimodaira–Hasegawa test. We found no significant differences (P = 0.4892) between the topologies suggesting that, at least at this level of resolution, co-diversification of U. diaspidicola with its armored scale hosts also occurs near the species level. This is the first such study of co-speciation at the species level between U. diaspidicola and a group of armored scale insects.

Research Papers
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2014 

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