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Natural enemies of three mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) found on citrus and effects of some insecticides on the mealybug parasitoid Coccidoxenoides peregrinus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in South Africa

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 March 2007

W.M. Wakgari*
Affiliation:
Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa
J.H. Giliomee
Affiliation:
Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa
*
*Fax: +27 21 808 4807 E-mail: Wakgari@maties.sun.ac.za

Abstract

The population density of mealybug species in some South African citrus orchards has increased to pest status in recent years. The characterization of the natural enemy complex and quantification of their contribution to the control of Planococcus citri (Risso), Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni-Tozzetti) and Pseudococcus calceolariae (Maskell) on Citrus limon (L.) and Citrus reticulata (Blanco) was investigated through intensive sampling. Eight primary and four secondary parasitoids, and two predator species were identified from P. citri and P. calceolariae. Anagyrus pseudococci (Girault) and Coccidoxenoides peregrinus (Timberlake) were the most common species, accounting for 44% and 21% of the total. Of the five primary parasitoids reared from P. longispinus, A. pseudococci and Anagyrus sp. were predominant, comprising 41% and 30%. Nymphal and adult parasitism (range = 0–26% vs. 0–66%) and predation (range = 0–5.6% vs. 0–4.1%) varied significantly between host trees and mealybug species (P < 0.001). The numbers of nymphal instars and adult stages of P. calceolariae and P. longispinus and the nymphal stage of P. citri that were parasitized and killed by predators correlated significantly with the total number of hosts on which they acted (P < 0.01), suggesting a density-dependent association. Laboratory bioassay of nine contact insecticides (methidathion, methomyl, methyl-parathion, parathion, profenofos and prothiofos) against C. peregrinus indicated that all were highly toxic, causing 98–100% mortality in < 6 h of treatment. The IGRs fenoxycarb and triflumuron did not cause significant parasitoid mortality (P > 0.05). However, a mixture of pyriproxyfen and mineral oil caused a marginally significant mortality (P < 0.05).

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2003

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Natural enemies of three mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) found on citrus and effects of some insecticides on the mealybug parasitoid Coccidoxenoides peregrinus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in South Africa
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Natural enemies of three mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) found on citrus and effects of some insecticides on the mealybug parasitoid Coccidoxenoides peregrinus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in South Africa
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Natural enemies of three mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) found on citrus and effects of some insecticides on the mealybug parasitoid Coccidoxenoides peregrinus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in South Africa
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