Skip to main content Accesibility Help

Analysis of spatial patterns at a geographical scale over north-western Europe from point-referenced aphid count data

  • N. Cocu (a1), K. Conrad (a2), R. Harrington (a2) and M.D.A. Rounsevell (a1)

The spatial analysis by distance indices (SADIE) technique was developed to evaluate the spatial pattern of point-referenced count data as well as the spatial association between two sets of data sharing the same point locations. This paper presents an analysis of spatial patterns in aphid count data and the association of these data with climate across north-west Europe. The paper tests the applicability of the technique to large geographical areas. Aggregation and cluster indices were calculated for the total annual abundance of the peach–potato aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and for the annual mean rainfall and temperature at aphid monitoring sites. Association indices demonstrated the stability in time of aphid spatial structures and the correlation between aphid density and climate patterns. Groups of relatively large numbers of aphids, termed patches, and groups of relatively small numbers of aphids, termed gaps, were located and their mean size estimated. The aphid patterns were quite stable in time and the spatial patterns of temperature and rainfall were weakly associated with M. persicae annual abundance. Similarities were observed between the results of SADIE and those from the more widely used technique of spatial autocorrelation (SAC). However, the SADIE association index has the advantage of quantifying the possible associations between aphid data and the factors that determine population distribution. Thus, high temperature and low rainfall were identified as environmental factors that were positively associated with aphid abundance across north-west Europe.

Corresponding author
*Fax: +32 (0)10 47 28 77 E-mail:
Hide All
Bailey, T.C. & Gatrell, A.C. (1995) Interactive spatial data analysis. Longman Scientific & Technical.
Black, W.R. & Thomas, I. (1998) Accidents on Belgium's motorways: a network autocorrelation analysis. Journal of Transport Geography 6, 2331.
Burra, T., Jerrett, M., Burnett, R.T. & Anderson, M. (2002) Conceptual and practical issues in the detection of local disease clusters: a study of mortality in Hamilton, Ontario. Canadian Geographer 46, 160171.
Cocu, N., Harrington, R., Hullé, M. & Rounsevell, M.D.A. (in press, a) Spatial autocorrelation as a tool for identifying the geographic patterns of aphid annual abundance. Agricultural and Forest Entomology.
Cocu, N., Harrington, R., Rounsevell, M.D.A., Worner, S.P. & Hullé, M. (in press, b) Geographic location, climate and land use influences on the phenology and numbers of the aphid, Myzus persicae in Europe. Journal of Biogeography.
Dale, M.R.T., Dixon, P., Fortin, M.-J., Legendre, P., Myers, D.E. & Rosenberg, M.S. (2002) Conceptual and mathematical relationships among methods for spatial analysis. Ecography 25, 558577.
Dutilleul, P. (1993) Modifying the t-test for assessing the correlation between two spatial processes. Biometrics 49, 305314.
Gömöry, D. & Paule, L. (2002) Spatial and microgeographical genetic differentiation of black alder (Alnus glutinosa Gaertn.) populations. Forest Ecology and Management 160, 39.
Harrington, R., Bale, J.S. & Tatchell, G.M. (1995) Aphids in a changing climate pp. 125155 in Harrington, R. & Stork, N.E. (Eds) Insects in a changing environment. London, Academic Press.
Harrington, R., Verrier, P., Denholm, C., Hullé, M., Maurice, D., Bell, N., Knight, J., Rounsevell, M., Cocu, N., Barbagallo, S., Basky, Z., Coceano, P.-G., Derron, J., Katis, N., Lukáŝová, H., Marrkula, I., Mohar, J., Pickup, J., Rolot, J.-L., Ruszkowska, M., Schliephake, E., Seco-Fernandez, M.-V., Sigvald, R., Tsitsipis, J. & Ulber, B. (2004) ‘EXAMINE’ (EXploitation of Aphid Monitoring in Europe): a EU thematic network for the study of global change impacts on aphids. pp. 4549 in Simon, J.C., Dedryver, C.A., Risp, C. & Hullé, M. (Eds) Aphids a new millennium. Versailles, INRA Editions.
Holland, J.M., Winder, L. & Perry, J.N. (1999) Arthropod prey of farmland birds: their spatial distribution within a sprayed field with and without buffer zones. Aspects of Applied Biology 54, 5360.
Holland, J.M., Winder, L. & Perry, J.N. (2000) The impact of dimethoate on the spatial distribution of beneficial arthropods in winter wheat. Annals of Applied Biology 136, 93105.
Hullé, M. & Gamon, A. (1990) Relations entre les captures des pièges à succion du reseau AGRAPHID pp. 165177 in Cavalloro, R(Ed.) Euraphid network: trapping and aphid prognosis. Luxembourg, Commission of the European Communities.
Judas, M., Dornieden, K. & Strothmann, U. (2002) Distribution patterns of carabid beetle species at the landscape-level. Journal of Biogeography 29, 491508.
Jumars, P.A., Thistle, D. & Jones, M.L. (1977) Detecting two-dimensional spatial structure in biological data. Oecologia 28, 109123.
Korie, S., Perry, J.N., Mugglestone, M.A., Clark, S.J., Thomas, C.F.G. & Mohamad Roff, M.N. (2000) Spatiotemporal associations in beetle and virus count data. Journal of Agricultural, Biological and Environmental Statistics 5, 214239.
Legendre, P., Legendre, L. (1998) Numerical ecology 2nd edn. Amsterdam, Elsevier Science B.V.
Liebhold, A.M., Zhang, X., Hohn, M.E., Elkinton, J.S., Ticehurst, M., Benzon, G.L. & Campbell, R.W. (1991) Geostatistical analysis of gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) egg mass populations. Environmental Entomology 20, 14071417.
Liebhold, A.M., Rossi, R.E. & Kemp, W.P. (1993) Geostatistics and geographic information systems in applied insect ecology. Annual Review of Entomology 38, 303327.
Mitchell, T.D., Carter, T.R., Jones, P.D., Hulme, M. & New, M. (2004) A comprehensive set of high-resolution grids of monthly climate for Europe and the globe: the observed record (1901–2000) and 16 scenarios (2001–2100). Working Paper, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, University of East Anglia, Norwich (in press).
Perry, J.N. (1995) Spatial analysis by distance indices. Journal of Animal Ecology 64, 303314.
Perry, J.N. (1998a) Measures of spatial pattern for counts. Ecology 79, 10081017.
Perry, J.N. (1998b) Measures of spatial pattern and spatial association for counts of insects pp. 2133 in Baumgartner, J., Brandmayr, P., Manly, B.F.J. (Eds) Population and community ecology for insect management and conservation Proceedings of the Ecology and Population Dynamics Section of the 20th International Congress of Entomology, Florence, Italy, 25–31 08 1996. Rotterdam Balkema.
Perry, J.N. & Dixon, P. (2002) A new method for measuring spatial association in ecological count data. Ecoscience 9, 133141.
Perry, J.N., Bell, E.D., Smith, R.H. & Woiwod, I.P (1996) SADIE: software to measure and model spatial pattern. Aspects of Applied Biology 46, 95102.
Perry, J.N. & Klukowski, Z. (1997) Spatial distributions of counts at the edges of sample areas 103–108 in Proceedings of the VI Conference of the Biometric Society (SpanishRegion),Cordoba,21–24. September 1997.
Perry, J.N., Winder, L., Holland, J.M. & Alston, R.D. (1999) Red-blue plots for detecting clusters in count data. Ecology Letters 2, 11061113.
Perry, J.N., Liebhold, A.M., Rosenberg, M.S., Dungan, J., Miriti, M., Jakomulska, A. & Citron-Pousty, S. (2002) Illustrations and guidelines for selecting statistical methods for quantifying spatial pattern in ecological data. Ecography 25, 578600.
Schotzko, D.J. & Knudsen, G.R. (1992) Use of geostatistics to evaluate a spatial simulation of Russian wheat aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) movement behavior on preferred and nonpreferred hosts. Environmental Entomology 21, 12711282.
Schotzko, D.J. & O'Keefe, L.E. (1989) Geostatistical description of the spatial distribution of Lygus hesperus (Heteroptera: Miridae) in lentils. Environmental Entomology 82, 12771288.
Sharov, A.A., Liebhold, A.M. & Roberts, E.A. (1996) Spatial variation among counts of gypsy moths (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) in pheromone-baited traps at expanding population fronts. Environmental Entomology 25, 13121320.
Sokal, R.R. (1978) Spatial autocorrelation in biology. 2. Some biological implications and four applications of evolutionary and ecological interest. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 10, 229249.
Sokal, R.R. & Oden, N.L. (1978) Spatial autocorrelation in biology. 1. Methodology. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 10, 199228.
Sokal, R.R., Oden, N.L. & Barker, J.S.F. (1987) Spatial structure in Drosophila buzzatii populations: simple and directional spatial autocorrelation. American Naturalist 129, 122142.
Thomas, C.F.G., Parkinson, L., Griffiths, G.J.K., Fernandez, Garcia A. & Marshall, E.J.P. (2001) Aggregation and temporal stability of carabid beetle distributions in field and hedgerow habitats. Journal of Applied Ecology 38, 100116.
Upton, G. & Fingleton, B. (1985) Spatial data analysis by example. Point pattern and quantitative data Volume 1. New York, John Wiley & Sons.
Winder, L., Perry, J.N. & Holland, J.M. (1999) The spatial and temporal distribution of the grain aphid Sitobion avenae in winter wheat. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 93, 277290.
Winder, L., Alexander, C., Holland, J.M., Woolley, C. & Perry, J.N. (2001) Modelling the dynamic spatio-temporal response of predators to transient prey patches in the field. Ecology Letters 4, 568576.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Bulletin of Entomological Research
  • ISSN: 0007-4853
  • EISSN: 1475-2670
  • URL: /core/journals/bulletin-of-entomological-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed