This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
W.M. Arderon (1747) A supposition how the white matter is produced which floats about in the air in autumn. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 44, 428–429.
P.M. Barrett , K.J. Willis (2001) Did dinosaurs invent flowers? Dinosaur-angiosperm coevolution revisited. Biological Reviews 76, 411–447.
F.G. Barth , S. Komarek , J.A.C. Humphrey , B. Treidler (1991) Drop and swing dispersal behavior of a tropical wandering spider: experiments and numerical model. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 169, 313–322.
H.O. Batzer (1968) Hibernation site and dispersal of spruce budworm larvae as related to damage of sapling balsam fir. Economic Entomology 61, 216–220.
A. Berger (1989) Ballooning activity of Chilo partellus larvae in relation to size of mother, egg batches, eggs and larvae and age of mother. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 50, 125–132.
A. Berger (1994) Larval migration and pest-management of the spotted stem-borer Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae). International Journal of Pest Management 40, 6–12.
J.C. Bergh (2001) Ecology and aerobiology of dispersing citrus rust mites (Acari: Eriophyidae) in central Florida. Environmental Entomology 30, 318–326.
J.C. Bergh , C.W. McCoy (1997) Aerial dispersal of citrus rust mite (Acari: Eriophyidae) from Florida citrus groves. Environmental Entomology 26, 256–264.
L. Bishop , S.E. Riechert (1990) Spider colonization of agroecosystems: mode and source. Environmental Entomology 19, 1738–1745.
L. Bishop (1990) Meteorological aspects of spider ballooning. Environmental Entomology 19, 1382–1387.
J. Blackwall (1827) Observations and experiments made with a view to ascertain the means by which the spiders that produce gossamer effect their aerial excursions. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 15, 449–459.
D. Bonte , N. Vandenbroecke , L. Lens , J.-P. Maelfait (2003a) Low propensity for aerial dispersal in specialist spiders from fragmented landscapes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 270, 1601–1607.
D. Bonte , L. Lens , J.-P. Maelfait , M. Hoffman , E. Kuijken (2003b) Patch quality and connectivity influence spatial dynamics in a dune wolfspider. Oecologia 135, 227–223.
D. Bonte , I. Deblauwe , J.-P. Maelfait (2003c) Environmental and genetic background of tiptoe-initiating behaviour in the dwarfspider Erigone atra. Animal Behaviour 66, 169–174.
L.S. Boykin , W.V. Cambell (1984) Wind dispersal of the two-spotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) in North Carolina peanut fields. Environmental Entomology 13, 221–227.
R.L. Brandenburg , G.G. Kennedy (1982) Intercrop relationships and spider mite dispersal in a corn/peanut agro-ecosystem. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 32, 269–276.
J.B. Briggs (1957) Some features of the biology of the winter moth (Operophtera brumata (L.)) on top of fruits. Journal of Horticultural Science 32, 108–125.
J.L. Capinera & P. Barbosa (1976) Dispersal of first instar gypsy moth larvae in relation to population quality. Oecologia 26, 53–64.
Y. Carriere (1992) Larval dispersal from potential hosts within a population of a generalist herbivore, Choristoneura rosaceana. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 65, 11–19.
J.A. Coddington & H.W. Levi (1991) Systematics and evolution of spiders (Araneae). Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 22, 443–447.
M.B. Cohen , A.M Romena & F. Gould (2000) Dispersal by larvae of the stem borers Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in plots of transplanted rice. Environmental Entomology 29, 958–971.
C.W. Collins (1917) Methods used in determining wind dispersion of the gypsy moth and some other insects. Journal of Economic Entomology 27, 320–327.
H.N. Comins , W.D. Hamilton & R.M. May (1980) Evolutionary stable dispersal strategies. Journal of Theoretical Biology 82, 205–230.
P.R. Crane , E.M. Friis , K.R. Pedersen (1995) The origin and early diversification of angiosperms. Nature 374, 27–33.
C.L. Craig (1997) Evolution of arthropod silks. Annual Review of Entomology 42, 231–267.
A.E. Decae (1987) Dispersal: ballooning and other mechanisms. pp. 348–356 in W Nentwig . Ecophysiology of spiders. Berlin, Springer Verlag.
P.J. Den Boer (1990) The survival value of dispersal in terrestrial arthropods. Biological Conservation 54, 175–192.
A.L. Diss , J.G. Kunkel , M.E. Montgomery & D.E. Leonard (1996) Effects of maternal nutrition and egg provisioning on parameters of larval hatch, survival and dispersal in the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L. Oecologia 106, 470–477.
V.A. Drake , R.A. Farrow (1988) The influence of atmospheric structure and motions on insect migration. Annual Review of Entomology 33, 183–210.
E. Duffey (1956) Aerial dispersal in a known spider population. Journal of Animal Ecology 25, 85–111.
E. Duffey (1997) Spider adaptation to artificial biotopes: the fauna of percolating filter beds in a sewage treatment works. Journal of Applied Ecology 34, 1190–1202.
G. Dwyer , J.S. Elkinton (1995) Host dispersal and the spatial spread of insect pathogens. Ecology 76, 1262–1275.
D.G. Embree (1991) The winter moth Operopthera brumata in eastern Canada, 1962–1988. Forest Ecology and Management 39, 47–54.
J.H. Emerton (1871) Flying spiders. American Naturalist 5, 148–155.
J.H. Emerton (1908) Autumn flight of spiders. Pysche 15, 121.
C.A. Fleschener , M.E. Bagley , D.W. Richer & J.C. Hall (1956) Air drift of spider mites. Journal of Economic Entomology 49, 624–627.
M.A. Fosberg & M. Petersen (1986) Modeling airborne transport of gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) larvae. Agriculture and Forest Meterology 38, 1–8.
J.A. Freeman (1946) The distribution of spiders and mites up to 300 ft. in the air. Journal of Animal Ecology 15, 69–74.
A.W. Ghent (1999) Studies of ballooning and resulting patterns of locally contagious distribution of the bagworm Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Haworth) (Lepidoptera: Psychidae). American Midland Naturalist 142, 291–313.
M.H. Greenstone (1982) Ballooning frequency and habitat predictability in two wolf spider species (Lycosidae: Pardosa). Florida Entomologist 65, 83–89.
M.H. Greenstone (1990) Meteorological determinants of spider ballooning: the roles of thermals vs. the vertical windspeed gradient in becoming airborne. Oecologia 84, 164–168.
J.L. Gressitt (1965) Biogeography and ecology of land arthropods of Antarctica Biology and ecology of Anarctica. pp. 431–490 in J van Miegham . P van Oye . (Eds) Biology and ecology of Anarctica. Monographiae Biologicae 15.W.. Holland. Junk.
J.M. Halley , C.F.G. Thomas & P.C. Jepson (1996) A model for the spatial dynamics of linyphiid spiders in farmland. Journal of Applied Ecology 33, 471–492.
S.R. Hanna , R. Britter , P. Franzese (2003) A baseline urban dispersion model evaluated with Salt Lake City and Los Angeles tracer data. Atmospheric Environment 37, 5069–5082.
A.C. Hardy & P.S. Milne (1938) Studies in the distribution of insects by aerial currents. Journal of Animal Ecology 7, 199–229.
A.C. Hardy & L. Cheng (1986) Studies in the distribution of insects by aerial currents. III. Insect drift over the sea. Ecological Entomology 11, 283–290.
S. Harrison (1995) Lack of strong induced or maternal effects in tussock moths (Orgyia vetusta) on bush lupine (Lupinus arboreus). Oecologia 103, 343–348.
S. Harrison (1997) Persistent, localized outbreaks in the western tussock moth Orgyia vetusta: the roles of resource quality, predation and poor dispersal. Ecological Entomology 22, 158–166.
C. Heidger & W. Nentwig (1989) Augmentation of beneficial arthropods by strip management. 3. Artificial introduction of a spider species which preys on wheat pest insects. Entomophaga 34, 511–522.
C.E. Hoelscher (1967) Wind dispersal of brown soft scale crawlers Coccus hesperidum (Homoptera: Coccidae) and Texas citrus mites Eutetranychus banksi (Acarina, Tetranychidae) from Texas citrus. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 60, 673–678.
N.J. Holiday (1977) Population ecology of winter moth (Operophtera brumata) on apple in relation to larval dispersal and time of bud burst. Journal of Applied Ecology 14, 803–813.
K.R. Hopper (1999) Risk-spreading and bet-hedging in insect population biology. Annual Review of Entomology 44, 535–560.
J.A.C. Humphrey (1987) Fluid mechanical constraints on spider ballooning. Oecologia 73, 469–477.
A.F. Hunter (1995) The ecology and evolution of reduced wings in forest macrolepidoptera. Evolutionary Ecology 9, 275–287.
A.F. Hunter & J.S. Elkinton (2000) Effects of synchrony with host plant on populations of a spring-feeding lepidopteran. Ecology 81, 1248–1261.
N.W. Hussey & W.J. Parr (1963) Dispersal of the glasshouse red spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina, Tetranychidae). Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 6, 207–214.
H.A. Jaynes & C.F. Speers (1949) Biological and ecological studies of the spruce budworm. Journal of Economic Entomology 42, 221–225.
C.G. Johnson (1960) A basis for a general system of insect migration by flight. Nature 186, 348–350.
M.L. Johnson & M.L. Gaines (1990) Evolution of dispersal: theoretical models and empirical tests using birds and mammals. Annual Review of Ecological Systematics 21, 449–480.
E. Jongejans & P. Schippers (1999) Modeling seed dispersal by wind in herbaceous species. Oikos 87, 362–372.
C. Jung & B.A. Croft (2001a) Ambulatory and aerial dispersal among generalist and specialist predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Environmental Entomology 30, 1112–1118.
C. Jung & B.A. Croft (2001b) Aerial dispersal of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae): estimating falling speed and dispersal distance of adult females. Oikos 94, 182–190.
P.G. Kevan & C.F. Greco (2001) Contrasting patch choice behaviour by immature predators, a spider (Misumena vatia) and an insect (Phymata americana). Ecological Entomology 26, 148–153.
G.W. Krantz & E.E. Lindquist (1979) Evolution of phytophagous mites (Acari). Annual Reviews of Entomology 24, 121–158.
E. Kuno (1981) Dispersal and the perspective of populations in unstable habitats: a theoretical note. Oecologia 49, 123–126.
C.C. Labandeira & J.J. Sepkoski (1993) Insect diversity in the fossil record. Science 261, 310–315.
C.C. Labandeira , K.R. Johnson & P. Wilf (2002) Impact of the terminal Cretaceous event on plant–insect associations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 99, 2061–2066.
D. Lance & P. Barbosa (1981) Host tree influences on the dispersal of first instar gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.). Ecological Entomology 6, 411–416.
D.S. Lawson , J.P. Nyrop & T.J. Dennehy (1996) Aerial dispersal of European red mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) in commercial apple orchards. Experimental and Applied Acarology 20, 193–202.
D.E. Leonard (1971) Airborne dispersal of larvae of the gypsy moth and its influence on concepts of control. Journal of Economic Entomology 64, 638–641.
J. Li & D.C. Margolies (1993a) Effects of mite age, mite density, and host quality on aerial dispersal behavior in the two-spotted spider mite. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 68, 79–86.
J. Li & D.C. Margolies (1993b) Quantitative genetics of aerial dispersal behavior and life history traits in Tetranychus urticae. Heredity 70, 544–552.
J. Li & D.C. Margolies (1994b) responses to direct and indirect selection on aerial dispersal behaviour in Tetranychus urticae. Heredity 72, 10–22.
M. Lister (1684) On the projection of the threads of spiders; and on bees breeding in cases made of leaves, as also, a viviparous fly Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 14, 592–596.
J.A. Litsinger , V. Hasse , A.T. Barrion & H. Schmutterer (1991) Response of Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) to intercropping. Environmental Entomology 20, 988–1004.
B.Y. Main (1982) Some zoogeographic considerations of families of spiders occurring in New Guinea. Monographs in Biology 42, 583–602.
D.C. Margolies (1987) Conditions eliciting aerial dispersal behavior in Banks grass mite, Oligonychus pratensis (Banks) (Acari: Tetranychidae). Environmental Entomology 16, 928–932.
D.C. Margolies (1993) Genetic variation for aerial dispersal behavior in the Banks grass mite. Experimental and Applied Acarology 17, 461–471.
D.C. Margolies (1995) Evidence of selection on spider mite dispersal rates in relation to habitat persistence in agroecosystems. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 76, 105–108.
D.C. Margolies & G.G. Kennedy (1985) Movement of the two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, among hosts in a corn-peanut agroecosystem. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 37, 55–61.
D.C. Margolies & G.G. Kennedy (1988) Fenvalerate-induced aerial dispersal behavior of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 46, 233–240.
H.A. Mariath (1984) Factors affecting the dispersal behaviour of larvae of an Australian geometrid moth. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 35, 159–167.
G. McDonald (1991) Oviposition and larval dispersal of the common army worm, Mythimna convecta (Walker) Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Australian Journal of Ecology 16, 385–394.
R.S. McDonogh (1939) The habitat, distribution and dispersal of the psychid moth, Luffia ferchaultella, in England and Wales. Journal of Animal Ecology 8, 10–28.
M.L. McManus & C.J. Mason (1983) Determination of the settling velocity and its significance to larval dispersal of the gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Environmental Entomology 12, 270–272.
J. Meijer (1977) The immigration of spiders (Araneida) into a new polder. Ecological Entomology 2, 81–90.
J.A.J. Metz , T.J. de Jong & P.G.L. Klinkhamer (1983) What are the advantages of dispersing; a paper by Kuno explained and extended. Oecologia 57, 166–169.
G.L. Miller (1984) Ballooning in Geolycosa turricola (Treat) and Geolycosa patellonigra Wallace: high dispersal frequencies in stable habitats. Canadian Journal of Zoology 62, 2110–2111.
R.W. Miller , B.A. Croft & R.D. Nelson (1985) Effects of early season immigration on cyhexatin and formetanate resistance of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on strawberry in central California. Journal of Economic Entomology 78, 1379–1386.
A. Milzer (1935) Ballooning of an adult black-widow spider. Science 82, 570.
R. Mitchell (1970) An analysis of dispersal in mites. American Naturalist 104, 425.
R.G. Mitchell (1979) Dispersal of early instars of the Douglas-fir tussock moth. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 72, 291–297.
D.H. Morse (1993) Some determinants of dispersal by crab spiderlings. Ecology 74, 427–432.
K. Nakamura (1987) Hunger and starvation. pp. 287–295 in W Nentwig . (Ed.) Ecophysiology of spiders. Berlin, Springer-Verlag.
S. Nishiki (1966) On the aerial migration of spiders – a report on “gossamer” (so-called “Yukimukae”) in Japan. Acta Arachnologica 20, 24–34.
M. Nyffeler & K.D. Sunderland (2003) Composition, abundance and pest control potential of spider communities in agroecosystems: a comparison of European and US studies. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 95, 579–612.
T.R. Oke (1987) Boundary layer climates. London, Methuen.
C. Okuma & R. Kisimoto (1981) Air borne spiders collected over the East China Sea. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology 25, 296–298.
J.L. Osborne , S.J. Clark , R.J. Morris , I.H. Williams , J.R. Riley , A.D. Smith , D.R. Reynolds & A.S. Edwards (1999) A landscape-scale study of bumble bee foraging range and constancy, using harmonic radar. Journal of Applied Ecology 36, 519–533.
G.A. Parker & R.A. Stuart (1976) Animal behaviour as a strategy optimizer: evolution of resource assessment strategies and optimal emigration thresholds. American Naturalist 110, 1055–1076.
D. Penney , C.P. Wheater & P.A. Selden (2003) Resistance of spiders to Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction events. Evolution 57, 2599–2607.
M.J. Plagens (1986) Aerial dispersal of spiders (Araneae) in a Florida cornfield ecosystem. Environmental Entomology 15, 1225–1233.
N.I. Platnick (1976a) Concepts of dispersal in historical biogeography. Systematic Zoology 25, 294–295.
N.I. Platnick (1976b) Drifting spiders or continents?: vicariance biogeography of the spider subfamily Laroniiinae (Araneae: Gnaphosidae). Systematic Zoology 25, 101–109.
R. Ramachandran (1987a) Influence of host-plants on the wind dispersal and the survival of an Australian geometrid caterpillar. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 44, 289–294.
R. Ramachandran (1987b) Terminal velocity of the first instar Ectropis excursia (Guenee) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences (Animal Science) 96, 673–678.
M.G. Ramirez & K.E. Haakonsen (1999) Gene flow among habitat patches on a fragmented landscape in the spider Argiope trifasciata (Araneae: Araneidae). Heredity 83, 580–585.
M. Rhainds , G. Gries & C.T. Ho & P.S. Chew (2002) Dispersal by bagworm larvae, Metisa plana: effects of population density, larval sex, and host plant attributes. Ecological Entomology 27, 204–212.
C.J.J. Richter (1970b) Relation between habitat structure and development of the glandulae ampullaceae in eight wolf spider species (Pardosa, Araneae, Lycosidae). Oecologia 5, 185–199.
D.A. Roff (1990) The evolution of flightlessness in insects. Ecological Monographs 60, 389–421.
S.E. Ross & K.R. Ostlie (1990) Dispersal and survival of early instars of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in field corn. Journal of Economic Entomology 83, 831–836.
F. Samu , K.D. Sunderland , C.J. Topping & J.S. Fenlon (1996) A spider population in flux: selection and abandonment of artificial web-sites and the importance of intraspecific interactions in Lepthyphantes tenuis (Araneae: Linyphiidae) in wheat. Oecologia 106, 228–239.
J.M. Schneider , J. Roos , Y. Lubin & J.R. Henschel (2001) Dispersal of Stegodyphus dumicola (Araneae, Eresidae): they do balloon after all. Journal of Arachnology 29, 114–116.
J.B. Sigurdsson , C.W. Titman & P.A. Davies (1976) The dispersal of young post-larval bivalve molluscs by byssus threads. Nature 262, 386–387.
D.R Smitley & G.G. Kennedy (1985) Photo-orientated aerial-dispersal behavior of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) enhances escape from the leaf surface. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 78, 609–614.
D.R Smitley & G.G. Kennedy (1988) Aerial dispersal of the two spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) from field corn. Experimental and Applied Acarology 5, 33–46.
T.R.E. Southwood (1962) Migration of terrestrial arthropods in relation to habitat. Biological Review 37, 171–214.
C.S. Stephens (1962) Oiketicus kirbyi (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) a pest of bananas in Costa Rica. Journal of Economic Entomology 55, 381–386.
D. Stoner (1937) A method of dispersal of the black widow spider. Science 85, 219.
R.J. Stuart & S. Polavarapu (1998) Oviposition preferences of the polyphagous moth Choristoneura parallela (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): effects of plant species, leaf size, and experimental design. Environmental Entomology 27, 102–109.
R.B. Suter (1991) Ballooning in spiders: results of wind tunnel experiments. Ethology, Ecology and Evolution 3, 13–25.
H. Tashiro (1966) Intratree dispersal of the red citrus mite Panonychus citri (Acarina, Tetranychidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 59, 1206–1210.
L.R. Taylor (1960) Mortality and viability of insect migrants high in the air. Nature 186, 410–411.
R.A.J. Taylor , D. Reling (1986) Density/height prolfile and long range dispersal of first instar gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Environmental Entomology 15, 431–435.
C.F.G. Thomas , E.H.A. Hol & J.W. Everts (1990) Modelling the diffusion component of dispersal during recovery of a population of linyphiid spiders from exposure to an insecticide. Functional Ecology 4, 357–368.
C.F.G. Thomas , P. Brain & P.C. Jepson (2003) Aerial activity of linyphiid spiders: modelling dispersal distances from meteorology and behaviour. Journal of Applied Ecology 40, 912–927.
P. Thorbek , C.J. Topping & K.D. Sunderland (2002) Validation of a simple method for monitoring aerial activity of spiders. Journal of Arachnology 30, 57–64.
I.W.B. Thorton & T.R. New (1988) Krakatau invertebrates: the 1980s fauna in the context of a century of recolonization. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 322, 493–522.
O.-P. Tikkanen , T.G. Carr & H. Roininen (1999) Factors influencing the distribution of a generalist spring feeding moth Operopthera brumata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), on host plants. Environmental Entomology 28, 461–469.
W.W. Tolbert (1977) Aerial dispersal behavior of two orb-weaving spiders. Pysche 84, 13–27.
C.J. Topping & K.D. Sunderland (1998) Population dynamics and dispersal of Lepthyphantes tenuis in an ephemeral habitat. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 87, 29–41.
A. Tsagkarakou , M. Navajas , J. Lagnel & N. Pasteur (1997) Population structure in the spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) from Crete based on multiple allozymes. Heredity 78, 84–92.
C.E. Valerio (1975) A unique case of mutualism. American Naturalist 109, 235–238.
F. Vollrath (1982) Colony formation in a social spider. Zeitschrift für Tierpyschologie 60, 313–324.
F. Vollrath & D.P. Knight (2001) Liquid crystalline spinning of spider silk. Nature 410, 541–548.
H.F. Vugts , W.K.R.E. van Wingerden (1976) Meteorological aspects of aeronautic behaviour in spiders. Oikos 27, 433–444.
P.J. Walklate (1986) A Markov-chain particle dispersion model based on airflow data: extension to large water droplets. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 37, 312–318.
P.J. Walklate (1987) A random-walk model for dispersion of heavy particles in turbulent air flow. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 39, 175–190.
D.E. Walter (2001) Endemism and cryptogenesis in segmented mites: a review of the Australian Alicorhagiidae, Terpnacaridae, Oehserchestidae and Grandjeanicidae (Acari: Sarcoptiformes). Australian Journal of Entomology 40, 207–218.
K. Wanibuchi , Y. Saito (1983) The process of population increase and patterns of resource utilization of two spotted spider mites, Oligonychus ununguis (Jacobi) and Panonychus citri (McGregor), under experimental conditions (Acari: Tetranychidae). Research in Population Ecology 25, 116–129.
L.K. Ward , A. Hackshaw , R. Clarke (2003) Do food-plant preferences of modern families of phytophagous insects and mites reflect past evolution with plants. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 78, 51–83.
J.O. Washburn , L. Washburn (1984) Active aerial dispersal of minute wingless arthropods: exploitation of boundary-layer velocity gradients. Science 223, 1088–1089.
R.M. Weseloh (1997) Evidence for limited dispersal of larval gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Canadian Entomologist 129, 335–361.
G.S. Weyman (1993) A review of the possible causative factors and significance of ballooning in spiders. Ethology, Ecology and Evolution 5, 279–291.
G.S. Weyman & P.C. Jepson (1994) The effect of food supply on the colonisation of barley by aerially dispersing spiders (Araneae). Oecologia 100, 386–390.
G.S. Weyman , K.D. Sunderland & J.S. Fenlon (1994) The effect of food deprivation on aeronautic dispersal behaviour (ballooning) in Erigone spp. spiders. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 73, 121–126.
G.S. Weyman , P.C. Jepson & K.D. Sunderland (1995) Do seasonal changes in numbers of aerially dispersing spiders reflect population density on the ground or variation in ballooning motivation. Oecologia 101, 487–493.
G.S. Weyman , K.D. Sunderland & P.C. Jepson (2002) A review of the evolution and mechanisms of ballooning by spiders inhabiting arable farmland. Ethology, Ecology and Evolution 14, 307–326.
W. Wickler , U. Seibt (1986) Aerial dispersal by ballooning in adult Stegodyphus mimosarum. Naturwissenschaften 73, 628–629.
C.B. Williams , G.F. Cockbill , M.E. Gibbs & J.A. Downes (1942) Studies on the migration of Lepidoptera. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 92, 101–283.
R.S. Wilson (1969) Control of dragline spinning in certain spiders. American Zoologist 9, 103–111.
D.H. Wise (1993) Spiders in ecological webs. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
S. Yano , M. Kanaya , A. Takafuji (2003) A method for manipulating dispersal cost in microcosms. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 106, 67–70.
M. Zalucki , A.R. Clarke & S.B. Malcolm (2002) Ecology and behaviour of first-instar larval Lepidoptera. Annual Review of Entomology 47, 361–393.
E.A. Zein-Eldin (1956) Studies on the legume mite, Petrobia apicalis. Journal of Economic Entomology 49, 291–296.
M.A. Zlotina , V.C. Mastro , J.S. Elkinton & D.E. Leonard (1999) Dispersal tendencies of neonate larvae of Lymantria mathura and the Asian form of Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Environmental Entomology 28, 240–245.