Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Biological differences reflect host preference in two parasitoids attacking the bark beetle Ips typographus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in Belgium

  • E. Hougardy (a1) and J.-C. Grégoire (a1)

Abstract

The basic reproductive biology of two ectoparasitoids developing on the late larval instars of the scolytid Ips typographus Linnaeus, a pest of spruce forests in Eurasia, was studied with the purpose of explaining which biological features allow the two species to share the same host. The anautogenous braconid Coeloides bostrichorum Giraud had a longer pre-oviposition period (5.1 vs. 3.3 days), a greater egg load (8.1 vs. 6.1 eggs), survived longer and emerged later than the pteromalid Rhopalicus tutela (Walker). In contrast, R. tutela was autogenous and tended to be more fecund under constrained conditions (9.7 vs. 5.1 total offspring per female). The longer pre-oviposition period of the specialist C. bostrichorum, coupled with its greater longevity, afforded the opportunity of better synchronization of ovipositing females with late instar larvae of I. typographus. By contrast, the polyphagous R. tutela matured rapidly, allowing parasitism of both younger and older larval instars of I. typographus in addition to other species. These small differences favoured the co-occurrence of the two parasitoid species on the same attacked trees.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Present address: ESPM Insect Biology, Wellman Hall 201, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720–3112, USA Fax: (510) 642 7428 E-mail: ehougard@nature.berkeley.edu

References

Hide All
Abgrall, J.F. & Schvester, D. (1987) Observations sur le piégeage de Ips typographus L. après chablis. Revue Forestière Française 29, 359377.
Chararas, C. (1962) Etude biologique des scolytides des conifères Encyclopédie entomologique, Ser.A-38, 556 pp. Paris Lechevalier
Charnov, E.L., Los-den Hartogh, R.L., Jones, W.T., van den Assem, J. (1981) Sex ratio evolution in a variable environment. Nature 289, 2733.
Christiansen, E. & Bakke, A. (1988) The spruce bark beetle of Eurasia. Dynamics of forest insect populations: patterns, causes, implications pp. 479503Berryman, A.A. (eds) New York, Plenum Press.
Doutt, R.L. (1964) Biological characteristics of entomophagous adults. Biological control of insect pests and weeds pp. 145167Debach, P. (eds) London Chapman and Hall.
Drumtra, D.E.W. & Stephen, F.M. (1999) Incidence of wildflower visitation by hymenopterous parasitoids of southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Journal of Entomological Science 34, 484488.
Godfray, H.C.J. (1994) Parasitoids: behavioural and evolutionary ecology 473 pp. New Jersey, Princeton University Press.
Graham, M.W.R., de, V. (1969) The Pteromalidae of north-western Europe (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), London 16, 412427.
Grégoire, J.-C. & Evans, H.F. (2004) Damage and control of BAWBILT organisms–an overview. in Lieutier, F., Day, K., Battisti, A., Grégoire, J.-C., Evans, H. (eds) European bark and wood boring insects in living trees: a synthesis. Kluwer, in press.
Grégoire, J.-C., Raty, L., Drumont, A., De Windt, N. & De Proft, M. (1995) Ips typographus, natural enemies and the forester, Behavior, population dynamics and control of forest insects 202207.
Hain, F.P., Salom, S.M., Ravlin, W.F., Payne, T.L., Raffa, K.F. Proceedings of IUFRO Joint Conference, Maui Hawaii (1994)
Hedqvist, K.-J. (1998) Bark-beetle enemies in Sweden II. Braconidae (Hymenoptera). Entomologica Scandinavica Supplements 52, 187.
Hougardy, E., Grégoire, J.-C. (2000) Spruce stands provide natural food sources to adult hymenopteran parasitoids of bark-beetles. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 96, 253263.
Hougardy, E., Grégoire, J.-C. (2003) Cleptoparasitism increases the host finding abilities of a polyphagous species, Rhopalicus tutela (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 55, 184189.
Jervis, M.A., Copland, M.J.W. (1996) The life cycle. Insect natural enemies: practical approaches to their study and evaluation pp 376394Jervis, M.A., Kidd, N. (eds) LondonChapman and Hall.
Kenis, M. (1996) Factors affecting sex ratio in rearing of Coeloides sordidator (Hym. Braconidae). Entomophaga 41, 217224.
Kenis, M., Wermelinger, B., Grégoire, J.-C. (2004) Research on parasitoids and predators of Scolytidae in living trees in Europe–a review. in Lieutier, F., Day, K., Battisti, A., Grégoire, J.-C., Evans, H. (eds) European bark and wood boring insects in living trees: a synthesis. Kluwer, in press
King, P.H. (1963) The rate of egg resorption in Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) deprived of hosts. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (A) 38, 98100.
Krüger, K. & Mills, N.J. (1990) Observations on the biology of three parasitoids of the spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (Col., Scolytidae): Coeloides bostrichorum, Dendrosoter middendorffii (Hym., Braconidae) and Rhopalicus tutela (Hym., Pteromalidae). Journal of Applied Entomology 110, 281291.
Mendel, Z. (1988) Effects of food, temperature and breeding conditions on the life span of adults of three cohabiting bark beetle (Scolytidae) parasitoids (Hymenoptera). Environmental Entomology 17, 293295.
Mills, N.J. (1983) The natural enemies of scolytids infesting conifer bark in Europe in relation to the biological control of Dendroctonus spp. in Canada. Biocontrol News and Information 4, 305328.
Mills, N.J. (1986) A preliminary analysis of the dynamics of within tree populations of Ips typographus (L.). Journal of Applied Entomology 102, 402416.
Nuorteva, M. (1957) Zur kenntnis der parasitischen hymenopteren der borkenkäfer finnlands. Annales Entomologici Fennici 23, 4771.
Pimentel, D. (1963) Introducing parasites and predators to control native pests. Canadian Entomologist 95, 785792.
Price, P.W. (1997) Insect ecology. 873 pp. New York, John Wiley and Sons
Pschorn-Walcher, H. (1977) Biological control of forest insects. Annual Review of Entomology 22, 122.
Raty, L., Drumont, A., De Windt, N., Grégoire, J.-C. (1995) Mass trapping of the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus L.: trap or trap trees? Forest Ecology and Management 78, 191205.
Ryan, R.B. & Rudinsky, J.A. (1962) Biology and habits of the Douglas-fir beetle parasite, Coeloides brunneri Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), in western Oregon. Canadian Entomologist 94, 748763.
Siegel, S., Castellan, J. Jr. (1998) Non-parametric statistics for the behavioural sciences. 2nd edn. 385 pp. New York, McGraw-Hill International Editions.
SPSS (2001) SPSS 11.0 1 for Windows, SPSS Inc, Chicago, Illinois.
Stephen, F.M., Lih, M.P. & Brown, L.E. (1997) Augmentation of Dendroctonus frontalis parasitoid effectiveness by artificial diet. Integrating cultural tactics into the management of bark beetle and reforestation pests. 15–22 Grégoire, J.-C., Liebhold, A.M., Stephen, F.M., Day, K.R., Salom, S.M. (eds) U DA Forest Service General Technical Report NE-236
Visser, M.E. (1994) The importance of being large: the relationship between size and fitness in females of the parasitoid Aphaereta minuta (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Journal of Animal Ecology 63, 963978.
Wellings, P.W., Morton, R. & Hurt, P.J. (1986) Primary sex-ratio and differential progeny survivorship in solitary haplo-diploid parasitoids. Ecological Entomology 11, 341348.
Weslien, J. & Regnander, J. (1992) The influence of natural enemies on brood production in Ips typographus (Col. Scolytidae) with special reference to egg-laying and predation by Thanasimus formicarius (Col.: Cleridae). Entomophaga 37, 333342.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Biological differences reflect host preference in two parasitoids attacking the bark beetle Ips typographus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in Belgium

  • E. Hougardy (a1) and J.-C. Grégoire (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.