Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Cornicle secretions by Aphis fabae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) result in age-dependent costs and improved host suitability for Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

  • Y. Parvizi (a1), A. Rasekh (a1) and J.P. Michaud (a2)
Abstract
Abstract

We examined the life history consequences of cornicle secretion by Aphis fabae Scopoli in second and fourth instars, and its effects on host suitability for its parasitoid, Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall). Cornicle secretion did not affect aphid fecundity, but secretion in the second instar enhanced life table parameters, whereas secretion in the fourth instar affected them negatively, suggesting a higher cost of secretion in later instars. Secretion in either instar improved host suitability for L. fabarum. Although control and treated aphids were parasitized at similar rates, and with similar success, wasps developed faster and emerged as larger adults in aphids that had secreted, regardless of instar. Transgenerational effects were also evident. Progeny emergence was higher when parental wasps developed in fourth instars than in seconds, whether aphids secreted or not, and progeny were larger when parental hosts secreted in the second instar, but not in the fourth. Secreting fourth instars were preferred to controls by L. fabarum females in choice tests, but not secreting second instars, and fourth-instar secretion improved wasp emergence. When control aphids were attacked, second instars were more likely to secrete than fourth instars, whereas the latter were more likely to kick the parasitoid. Cornicle secretion reduced the probability of subsequent secretion events and the frequency of other aphid defensive behaviors, indicating energetic tradeoffs among defensive tactics. Overall, our results revealed that cornicle secretion by immature A. fabae exacts both physiological and behavioral costs and results in improved host suitability for its parasitoid.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence Phone: +98 91 2660 3166 Fax: +98 61 3333 0079 E-mail: a.rasekh@scu.ac.ir
References
Hide All
Acar E.B., Medina J.C., Lee M.L. & Booth G.M. (2001) Olfactory behavior of convergent lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to alarm pheromone of green peach aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Canadian Entomologist 133, 389397.
Alfaress S., Hijaz F. & Killiny N. (2016) Chemical composition of cornicle secretion of the brown citrus aphid Toxoptera citricida . Physiological Entomology 41, 48–37.
Ameri M., Rasekh A. & Michaud J.P. (2014) Body size affects host defensive behavior and progeny fitness in a parasitoid wasp, Lysiphlebus fabarum . Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 150, 259268.
Barry A. & Ohno K. (2016) Cornicle secretions of Uroleucon nigrotuberculatum (Homoptera: Aphididae) as the last bullet against lady beetle larvae. Entomological Science 19, 410415.
Battaglia D., Poppy G., Powell W., Romano A., Tranfaglia A. & Pennacchio F. (2000) Physical and chemical cues influencing the oviposition behaviour of Aphidius ervi . Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 94, 219227.
Bayoumy M.H., Ramaswamy P. & Michaud J.P. (2015) Comparative life histories of greenbugs and sugarcane aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) coinfesting susceptible and resistant sorghums. Journal of Economic Entomology 109, 385391.
Butler C.D. & O'Neil R.J. (2006) Defensive response of soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) to predation by insidious flower bug (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 99, 317320.
Callow R.K., Greenway A.R. & Griffiths D.C. (1973) Chemistry of the secretion from the cornicles of various species of aphids. Journal of Insect Physiology 19, 737748.
Carey J.R. (1993) Applied Demography for Biologists. New York, NY, Oxford University Press.
Carton Y., Poirié M. & Nappi A.J. (2008) Insect immune resistance to parasitoids. Insect Science 15, 6787.
Charnov E.L., Los-den Hartogh R.L., Jones W.T. & van den Assem J. (1981) Sex ratio evolution in a variable environment. Nature 289, 2733.
Chau A. & Mackauer M. (1997) Dropping of pea aphids from feeding site, a consequence of parasitism by the wasp Monoctonus paulensis . Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 83, 247252.
Crawley M.J. (1993) GLIM for Ecologists. Oxford, UK, Blackwell Scientific.
Dill L.M., Fraser A.H.D. & Roitberg B.D. (1990) The economics of escape behaviour in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum . Oecologia 83, 473478.
Eichele J.L., Dreyer J., Heinz R., Foster S.P., Prischmann-Voldseth D.A. & Harmon J.P. (2016) Soybean aphid response to their alarm pheromone e-beta-farnesene (EBF). Journal of Insect Behavior 29, 385394.
Godfray H.C.J. (1994) Parasitoids: Behavioral and Evolutionary Ecology. Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton University Press.
Harvey J.A. (2005) Factors affecting the evolution of development strategies in parasitoid wasps: the importance of functional constraints and incorporating complexity. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 117, 113.
Ingerslew K.S. & Finke D.L. (2017) Mechanisms underlying the nonconsumptive effects of parasitoid wasps on aphids. Environmental Entomology 46, 7583.
Joachim C., Hatano E., David A., Kunert M., Linse C. & Weisser W.W. (2013) Modulation of aphid alarm pheromone emission of pea aphid prey by predators. Journal of Chemical Ecology 39, 773782.
Mackauer M. (1983) Quantitative assessment of Aphidius smithi (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae): fecundity, intrinsic rate of increase, and functional response. Canadian Entomologist 115, 399415.
Micha S.G. & Wyss U. (1996) Aphid alarm pheromone (E)-ß-farnesene: a host finding kairomone for the aphid primary parasitoid Aphidius uzbekistanicus (Hymenoptera: Aphidiinae). Chemoecology 7, 132139.
Moayeri H.R.S., Mohandesi A.R. & Ashouri A. (2012) Fitness costs of cornicle secretions as a defense mechanism for cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii (Hem.: Aphididae). Journal of Entomological Society of Iran 31, 5161.
Moayeri H.R.S., Rasekh A. & Enkegaard A. (2014) Influence of cornicle droplet secretions of the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae, on parasitism behavior of naïve and experienced Diaeretiella rapae . Insect Science 21, 5664.
Mondor E. & Roitberg B. (2003) Aphid alarm signalling: direct effects on the emitter's development and reproduction. Canadian Journal of Zoology 81, 756762.
Mondor E.B., Baird D.S., Slessor K.N. & Roitberg B.D. (2000) Ontogeny of alarm pheromone secretion in pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum . Journal of Chemical Ecology 26, 28752882.
Rakhshani E., Talebi A.A., Kavallieratos N.G., Rezwani A., Manzari S. & Tomanović Z. (2005) Parasitoid complex (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) of Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea) in Iran. Journal of Pest Science 78, 193198.
Rasekh A., Michaud J.P., Kharazi-Pakdel A. & Allahyari H (2010 a) Ant mimicry by an aphid parasitoid, Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall) (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae). Journal of Insect Science 10, 126.
Rasekh A., Michaud J.P., Allahyari H. & Sabahi Q. (2010 b). The foraging behavior of Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall) a thelytokous parasitoid of the black bean aphid in Iran. Journal of Insect behavior 23, 165179.
Rasekh A., Kharazi-Pakdel A., Michaud J.P., Allahyari H. & Rakhshani E. (2011) Report of a thelytokous population of Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall) (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) from Iran. Journal of Entomological Society of Iran 30, 8384.
Salt G. (1941) The effects of hosts upon their insect parasites. Biological Reviews 16, 239264.
Sequeira R. & Mackauer M. (1992) Nutritional ecology of an insect host-parasitoid association: the pea aphid-Aphidius ervi system. Ecology 73, 183189.
Shonouda M.L., Bombosch S., Shalaby A.M. & Osman S.I. (1998) Biological and chemical characterization of a kairomone excreted by the bean aphids, Aphis fabae Scop. (Hom., Aphididae) and its effect on the predator Metasyrphus corollae Fabr. I. Isolation, identification and bioassay of aphid-kairomone. Journal of Applied Entomology 122, 1523.
Slansky F. Jr. (1986) Nutritional ecology of endoparasitic insects and their hosts: an overview. Journal of Insect Physiology 32, 255261.
Southwood T.R.E. & Henderson P.A. (2000) Ecological Methods. 3rd edn. Oxford, UK, Blackwell.
SPSS Inc. (1998) SPSS 8.0 for Windows. Prentice Hall, NJ, SPSS Inc.
Stary P. (1986) Specificity of parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) to the black bean aphid Aphis fabae complex in agrosystems. Acta Entomologica Bohemoslovaca 83, 2429.
Talebi A.A., Rakhshani E., Fathipour Y., Starý P. & Tomanović Ž. (2009) Aphids and their parasitoids (Hym., Braconidae: Aphidiinae) associated with medicinal plants in Iran. American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 3, 205219.
Verheggen F.J., Arnaud L., Bartram S., Gohy M. & Haubruge E. (2008) Aphid and plant volatiles induce oviposition in an aphidophagous hoverfly. Journal of Chemical Ecology 34, 301307.
Villagra C.A., Ramirez C.C. & Niemeyer H.M. (2002) Antipredator responses of aphids to parasitoids change as a function of aphid physiological state. Animal Behaviour 64, 677683.
Vinson S.B. & Iwantsch G. (1980) Host suitability for insect parasitoids. Annual Review of Entomology 25, 397419.
Völkl W. (1992) Aphids or their parasitoids: who actually benefits from ant-attendance? Journal of Animal Ecology 61, 273281.
Völkl W. & Mackauer M. (2000) Oviposition behavior of Aphidiine wasps: morphological adaptations and evolutionary trends. Canadian Entomologist 132, 197212.
Weisser W.W. (1994) Age-dependent foraging behaviour and host-instar preference of the aphid parasitoid Lysiphlebus cardui . Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 70, 110.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Bulletin of Entomological Research
  • ISSN: 0007-4853
  • EISSN: 1475-2670
  • URL: /core/journals/bulletin-of-entomological-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 1
Total number of PDF views: 12 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 41 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 4th December 2017 - 15th December 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.