Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 29
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Killeen, Gerry F. Govella, Nicodem J. Lwetoijera, Dickson W. and Okumu, Fredros O. 2016. Most outdoor malaria transmission by behaviourally-resistant Anopheles arabiensis is mediated by mosquitoes that have previously been inside houses. Malaria Journal, Vol. 15, Issue. 1,

    Sinka, Marianne E. Golding, Nick Massey, N. Claire Wiebe, Antoinette Huang, Zhi Hay, Simon I. and Moyes, Catherine L. 2016. Modelling the relative abundance of the primary African vectors of malaria before and after the implementation of indoor, insecticide-based vector control. Malaria Journal, Vol. 15, Issue. 1,

    CHARLWOOD, J. D. TOMÁS, E. V. E. CUAMBA, N. and PINTO, J. 2015. Analysis of the sporozoite ELISA for estimating infection rates in Mozambican anophelines. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, Vol. 29, Issue. 1, p. 10.

    Tusting, Lucy S. Bousema, Teun Smith, David L. and Drakeley, Chris 2014.

    Mnyone, Ladslaus L Lyimo, Issa N Lwetoijera, Dickson W Mpingwa, Monica W Nchimbi, Nuru Hancock, Penelope A Russell, Tanya L Kirby, Matthew J Takken, Willem and Koenraadt, Constantianus JM 2012. Exploiting the behaviour of wild malaria vectors to achieve high infection with fungal biocontrol agents. Malaria Journal, Vol. 11, Issue. 1, p. 87.

    Padonou, Gil Gbedjissi, Ghelus Yadouleton, Anges Azondekon, Roseric Razack, Ossé Oussou, Olivier Gnanguenon, Virgile Rock, Aikpon Sezonlin, Michel and Akogbeto, Martin 2012. Decreased proportions of indoor feeding and endophily in Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations following the indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated net interventions in Benin (West Africa). Parasites & Vectors, Vol. 5, Issue. 1, p. 262.

    Parham, Paul E Pople, Diane Christiansen-Jucht, Céline Lindsay, Steve Hinsley, Wes and Michael, Edwin 2012. Modeling the role of environmental variables on the population dynamics of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto. Malaria Journal, Vol. 11, Issue. 1, p. 271.

    Charlwood, J.D. 2011. Studies on the bionomics of male Anopheles gambiae Giles and male Anopheles funestus Giles from southern Mozambique. Journal of Vector Ecology, Vol. 36, Issue. 2, p. 382.

    Killeen, Gerry F Chitnis, Nakul Moore, Sarah J and Okumu, Fredros O 2011. Target product profile choices for intra-domiciliary malaria vector control pesticide products: repel or kill?. Malaria Journal, Vol. 10, Issue. 1, p. 207.

    Russell, Tanya L Govella, Nicodem J Azizi, Salum Drakeley, Christopher J Kachur, S Patrick and Killeen, Gerry F 2011. Increased proportions of outdoor feeding among residual malaria vector populations following increased use of insecticide-treated nets in rural Tanzania. Malaria Journal, Vol. 10, Issue. 1, p. 80.

    Russell, T. L. Lwetoijera, D. W. Knols, B. G. J. Takken, W. Killeen, G. F. and Ferguson, H. M. 2011. Linking individual phenotype to density-dependent population growth: the influence of body size on the population dynamics of malaria vectors. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 278, Issue. 1721, p. 3142.

    White, Michael T Griffin, Jamie T Churcher, Thomas S Ferguson, Neil M Basáñez, María-Gloria and Ghani, Azra C 2011. Modelling the impact of vector control interventions on Anopheles gambiae population dynamics. Parasites & Vectors, Vol. 4, Issue. 1, p. 153.

    Killeen, GF Tami, A Kihonda, J Okumu, FO Kotas, ME Grundmann, H Kasigudi, N Ngonyani, H Mayagaya, V Nathan, R Abdulla, S Charlwood, JD Smith, TA and Lengeler, C 2007. Cost-sharing strategies combining targeted public subsidies with private-sector delivery achieve high bednet coverage and reduced malaria transmission in Kilombero Valley, southern Tanzania. BMC Infectious Diseases, Vol. 7, Issue. 1,

    Killeen, Gerry F. and Smith, Thomas A. 2007. Exploring the contributions of bed nets, cattle, insecticides and excitorepellency to malaria control: a deterministic model of mosquito host-seeking behaviour and mortality. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol. 101, Issue. 9, p. 867.

    Logan, James G and Birkett, Michael A 2007. Semiochemicals for biting fly control: their identification and exploitation. Pest Management Science, Vol. 63, Issue. 7, p. 647.

    Killeen, Gerry F Kihonda, Japhet Lyimo, Edith Oketch, Fred R Kotas, Maya E Mathenge, Evan Schellenberg, Joanna A Lengeler, Christian Smith, Thomas A and Drakeley, Chris J 2006. Quantifying behavioural interactions between humans and mosquitoes: Evaluating the protective efficacy of insecticidal nets against malaria transmission in rural Tanzania. BMC Infectious Diseases, Vol. 6, Issue. 1,

    Dolo, Guimogo Briët, Olivier J.T. Dao, Adama Traoré, Sékou F. Bouaré, Madama Sogoba, Nafomon Niaré, Oumou Bagayogo, Magaran Sangaré, Djibril Teuscher, Thomas and Touré, Yeya T. 2004. Malaria transmission in relation to rice cultivation in the irrigated Sahel of Mali. Acta Tropica, Vol. 89, Issue. 2, p. 147.

    Drakeley, C. Schellenberg, D. Kihonda, J. Sousa, C. A. Arez, A. P. Lopes, D. Lines, J. Mshinda, H. Lengeler, C. Schellenberg, J. Armstrong Tanner, M. and Alonso, P. 2003. An estimation of the entomological inoculation rate for Ifakara: a semi-urban area in a region of intense malaria transmission in Tanzania. Tropical Medicine and International Health, Vol. 8, Issue. 9, p. 767.

    Alto, Barry W. and Juliano, Steven A. 2001. Temperature Effects on the Dynamics ofAedes albopictus(Diptera: Culicidae) Populations in the Laboratory. Journal of Medical Entomology, Vol. 38, Issue. 4, p. 548.

    Charlwood, J.D Qassim, M Elnsur, E.I Donnelly, M Petrarca, V Billingsley, P.F Pinto, J and Smith, T 2001. The impact of indoor residual spraying with malathion on malaria in refugee camps in eastern Sudan. Acta Tropica, Vol. 80, Issue. 1, p. 1.


Density independent feeding success of malaria vectors (Diptera: Culicidae) in Tanzania

  • J.D. Charlwood (a1), T. Smith (a2), J. Kihonda (a1), B. Heiz (a3), P.F. Billingsley (a4) and W. Takken (a5)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 July 2009

The possibility of density dependent feeding success in the African malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae Giles (sensu lato) and A. funestus Giles was investigated by examining the gonotrophic status of mosquitoes from 423 collections made in a Tanzanian village. Up to 500 mosquitoes were caught in any single 35 minute indoor resting collection. Estimates of the total numbers of mosquitoes resting were made by removal sampling. These indicated that the efficiency of resting collections decreased with increasing mosquito population. Of 1904 mosquito blood meals tested by ELISA, 95% were of human origin. There was no decrease in the proportion of mosquitoes fully fed at high population densities and the only demonstrable avoiding action by hosts in response to high densities of mosquitoes was the increased use of bednets during the wet season. The late biting cycle of these mosquitoes precludes many other density-dependent host defence mechanisms because the hosts are asleep at the time of attack. African malaria vectors have evolved with man and perhaps their evasion of density-dependent host responses has reinforced their preference for human blood.

Corresponding author
Dr. T Smith, Dept. Public Health & Epidemiology, Swiss Tropical Institute, PO Box, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland.
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

J.C. Beier , P.V. Perkins , R.A. Wirtz , J. Koros , D. Diggs , T.P. Gargan & D.K. Koech (1988) Bloodmeal identification by direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), tested on Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in Kenya. Journal of Medical Entomology 25, 916.

M.H. Birley & J.D. Charlwood (1987) Sporozoite rate and malaria prevalence. Parasitology Today 3, 231232.

J.D. Charlwood , R. Paru , H. Dagaro & M. Lagog (1986b) The influence of moonlight and gonotrophic age on the biting activity of Anopheles farauti (Diptera: Culicidae) from Papua New Guinea. Journal of Medical Entomology 23, 313320.

J.D. Edman & H.W. Kale , II (1970) Host behaviour: its influence on the feeding success of mosquitoes. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 64, 513516.

J.D. Edman , L.A. Webber & A.A. Schmid (1984) Effect of host defenses on the feeding pattern of Culex nigripalpus when offered a choice of blood sources. Journal of Parasitology 60, 874883.

Kilombero Malaria Project (1992) The level of anti-sporozoite antibodies in a highly endemic malaria area and its relationship with exposure to mosquitoes. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 86, 499504.

M.J. Klowden & A.O. Lea (1979) Effect of defensive host behaviour on the blood meal size and feeding success of natural populations of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 15, 514517.

P. McCullagh & J.A. Nelder (1989) Generalized linear models. London, Chapman and Hall.

S.E. Randolf , B.G. Williams , D.J. Rogers & H. Connor (1992) Modelling the effect of feeding-related mortality on the feeding strategy of tsetse (Diptera: Glossinidae). Medical and Veterinary Entomology 6, 231240.

T. Smith , J.D. Charlwood , J. Kihonda , S. Mwankusye , P. Billingsley , J. Meuwissen , E. Lyimo , W. Takken , T. Teuscher & M. Tanner (1993) Absence of seasonal variation in malaria parasitaemia in an area of intense seasonal transmission. Acta Tropica 54, 5572.

T. Teuscher (1993) Household-based malaria control in a highly endemic area of Africa (Tanzania): determinants of transmission and disease and indicates for monitoring—Kilombero malaria project. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 87, Suppl. III, 121130.

E.D. Walker & J.D. Edman (1986) Influence of defensive behaviour of eastern chipmunks and grey squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae) on feeding success of Aedes triseriatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 23, 110.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Bulletin of Entomological Research
  • ISSN: 0007-4853
  • EISSN: 1475-2670
  • URL: /core/journals/bulletin-of-entomological-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *