Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Population dynamics of Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): application of a biophysical model to understand phenological variation in an agricultural pest

  • E. Kleynhans (a1), M.G. Barton (a1), D.E. Conlong (a1) (a2) and J.S. Terblanche (a1)
Abstract
Abstract

Understanding pest population dynamics and seasonal phenology is a critical component of modern integrated pest-management programs. Accurate forecasting allows timely, cost-effective interventions, including maximum efficacy of, for example, biological control and/or sterile insect technique. Due to the variation in life stage-related sensitivity toward climate, insect pest population abundance models are often not easily interpreted or lack direct relevance to management strategies in the field. Here we apply a process-based (biophysical) model that incorporates climate data with life stage-dependent physiology and life history to attempt to predict Eldana saccharina life stage and generation turnover in sugarcane fields. Fitness traits are modelled at two agricultural locations in South Africa that differ in average temperature (hereafter a cold and a warm site). We test whether the life stage population structures in the field entering winter and local climate during winter directly affect development rates, and therefore interact to determine the population dynamics and phenological responses of E. saccharina in subsequent spring and summer seasons. The model predicts that: (1) E. saccharina can cycle through more generations at the warm site where fewer hours of cold and heat stress are endured, and (2) at the cold site, overwintering as pupae (rather than larvae) confer higher relative fitness and fecundity in the subsequent summer adult moths. The model predictions were compared with a large dataset of field observations from scouting records. Model predictions for larval presence (or absence) generally overlapped well with positive (or negative) scout records. These results are important for integrated pest management strategies by providing a useful foundation for future population dynamics models, and are applicable to a variety of agricultural landscapes, but especially the sugarcane industry of South Africa.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence: Tel: +27 (0) 79 517 2005 Fax: +27 (0) 15 307 6792 E-mail: elsje@subtrop.co.za
References
Hide All
AngillettaM.J.Jr., NiewiarowskiP.H. & NavasC.A. (2002) The evolution of thermal physiology in ectotherms. Journal of Thermal Biology 27, 249268.
AssefaY., MitchellA. & ConlongD.E. (2006) Phylogeography of Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 42, 331337.
AssefaY., ConlongD.E., van den BergJ. & Le RüB.P. (2008) The wider distribution of Eldana saccharina (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in South Africa and its potential risk to maize production. Proceedings of the South African Sugar Technologists’ Association 81, 290297.
AssefaY., ConlongD.E., van den BergJ. & MitchellA. (2010) Distribution of sugarcane stem borers and their natural enemies in small-scale farmers’ fields, adjacent margins and wetlands of Ethiopia. International Journal of Pest Management 56, 233241.
AtkinsonP.R. (1980) On the biology, distribution and natural host plants of Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 43, 171194.
AtkinsonP.R. (1982) Phenology of Eldana saccharina Walker in Natal and use of light traps to monitor distribution and abundance. Proceedings of the South African Sugar Technologists’ Association 56, 9094.
AtkinsonP.R., CarnegieA.J.M. & SmaillR.J. (1981) A history of the outbreaks of Eldana saccharina Walker, in Natal. Proceedings of the South African Sugar Technologists’ Association 55, 111115.
BartonM.G. & TerblancheJ.S. (2014) Predicting performance and survival across topographically heterogeneous landscapes: the global pest insect Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner, 1808) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Austral Entomology 53, 249258.
BriereJ.F., PracrosP., Le RouxA.Y. & PierreJ.S. (1999) A novel rate model for temperature-dependent development for arthropods. Environmental Entomology 28, 2229.
ButterfieldM.K. (2002) Genetic models to assess the development of counter-resistance in insect pests exposed to Bt-sugarcane. Proceedings of the South African Sugar Technologists’ Association 76, 329335.
CampbellG.S. & NormanJ.M. (1998) An Introduction of Environmental Biophysics. 2nd edn. New York, USA, Springer Science.
CardwellK.F., SchulthessF., NdemahR. & NgokoZ. (1997) A systems approach to assess crop health and maize yield losses due to pests and diseases in Cameroon. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 65, 3347.
CarnegieA.J.M. (1974) A recrudescence of the borer Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Proceedings of the South African Sugar Technologists Association 48, 107110.
CarnegieA.J.M. & LeslieG.W. (1990) Eldana saccharina (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): ten years of light trapping. Proceedings of the South African Sugar Technologists’ Association 64, 107110.
ChidawanyikaF. & TerblancheJ.S. (2011) Costs and benefits of thermal acclimation for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): implications for pest control and the sterile insect release programme. Evolutionary Applications 4, 534544.
ChownS.L., SlabberS., McGeoghM.A., JanionC. & LeinaasH.P. (2007) Phenotypic plasticity mediates climate change responses among invasive and indigenous arthropods. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 274, 26612667.
ConlongD.E. (1990) A study of pest-parasitoid relationships in natural habitats: an aid towards the biological control of Eldana saccharina (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in sugarcane. Proceedings of the South African Sugar Technologists’ Association 64, 111115.
ConlongD.E. (1994) A review and perspectives for the biological control of the African sugarcane stalk borer Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 48, 917.
ConlongD.E. (2001) Biological control of indigenous African stemborers: What do we know? Insect Science and its Application 21, 267274.
ConlongD.E. & RutherfordS.R. (2009) Conventional and new biological and habitat interventions for integrated pest management systems: review and case studies using Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). ch. 10, vol. 1, pp. 241261 in PeshinR. & DhawanA.K. (Eds). Integrated Pest Management: Innovation-Development Process. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Springer. ISBN 978-1-4020-8991-6 (Print); 978-1-4020-8992-3 (online). DOI 10.1007/978-1-4020-8992-3_10.
ConlongD.E., WebsterT.E. & WilkinsonD. (2016) Ten years of area-wide integrated pest management with a push-pull component against Eldana saccharina (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in sugarcane in the midlands north region of Kwazulu-Natal. Proceedings of the South African Sugar Technologists’ Association 89, 7084.
CrawleyM.J. (2007) The R Book. Chichester, John Wiley and Sons.
DavisP.M. & PedigoP. (1990) Yield responses of corn stands to stalk borer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) injury imposed during early development. Journal of Economic Entomology 83, 15821586.
DeutschC.A., TewksburyJ.J, HueyR.B., SheldonK.S., GhalamborC.K., HaakD.C. & MartinP.R. (2008) Impacts of climate warming on terrestrial ectotherms across latitude. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 105, 66686672.
DickJ. (1945) Some data on the biology of the sugarcane borer (Eldana saccharina Wlk). Proceedings of the South African Sugar Technologists’ Association 19, 7579.
FengH., GouldF., HuangY., JiangY. & WuK. (2010) Modeling the population dynamics of cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hüber) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) over a wide area in northern China. Ecological Modelling 221, 18191830.
GirlingD.J. (1972) Eldana saccharina Wlk. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a pest of sugarcane in East Africa. Proceedings of the International Society of Sugarcane Technologists 14, 429434.
GirlingD.J. (1978) The distribution and biology of Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and its relationship to other stem borers in Uganda. Bulletin of Entomological Research 68, 471488.
GoebelF-R. & WayM. (2006) Crop losses due to two sugarcane stem borers in Reunion and South African. Proceedings of the South African Sugar Technologists’ Association 26, 806812.
HijmansR.J., CameronS.E., ParraJ.L., JonesP.G. & JarvisA. (2005) Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas. International Journal of Climatology 25, 19651978.
KfirR. (1998) Maize and grain sorghum: Southern Africa. pp. 2937 in PolaszekA. (Ed.) African Cereal Stem Borers. Economic Importance, Taxonomy, Natural Enemies and Control. CAB International in association with ACP-EU Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Co-operation (CTA), Wallington, United Kingdom.
KingH., ConlongD.E. & MitchellA. (2002) Genetic differentiation in Eldana saccharina (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): evidence from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I and II genes. Proceedings of the South African Sugar Technologists Association 76, 321328.
KingsolverJ.G. & HueyR.B. (2008) Size, temperature and fitness: three rules. Evolutionary Ecology Research 10, 251268.
KingsolverJ.G. & MoffatR.J. (1982) Thermoregulation and the determinents of heat transfer in Colias butterflies. Oecologia 53, 2733.
KleynhansE., ConlongD.E. & TerblancheJ.S. (2014 a) Host plant-related variation in thermal tolerance of Eldana saccharina (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 150, 113122.
KleynhansE., MitchellK.A., ConlongD.E. & TerblancheJ.S. (2014 b) Evolved variation in cold tolerance among populations of Eldana saccharina (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in South Africa. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 27, 11491159.
LangeC.L., ScottK.D., GrahamG.C., SallamM.N. & AllsoppP.G. (2004) Sugarcane moth borers (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae and Pyraloidae): phylogenetics constructed using COII and 16S mitochondrial partial gene sequences. Bulletin of Entomological Research 94, 457464.
LeslieG. 2013. Carry-over cane & Eldana control. pp. 89 in LeslieG. (Ed.) The Link. South African Sugarcane Research Institute, Mount Edgecombe, South Africa. May edition.
LeslieG.W., StranackR.A. & De HaasO. (2006) Progress in the use of aerially applied fastac® (alpha-cypermethrin) for the control of the sugarcane borer Eldana saccharina (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), and an assessment of its commercial impact. Proceedings of the South African Sugar Technologists’ Association 80, 236244.
MaesK.V.N. (1998) Pyraloidea: crambidae, pyralidae. pp. 8798 in PolaszekA. (Ed.) African Cereal Stem Borers. Economic Importance, Taxonomy, Natural Enemies and Control. CAB International in Association with ACP-EU Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Co-operation (CTA), Wallington, United Kingdom.
MasonS.J. & GrahamN.E. (2002) Areas beneath the relative operating characteristics (ROC) and relative operating levels (ROL) curves: statistical significance and interpretation. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 128, 21452166.
PotgieterL., van VuurenJ.H. & ConlongD.E. (2012) Modelling the effects of the sterile insect technique applied to Eldana saccharina Walker in sugarcane. ORiON 28, 5984.
PotgieterL., van VuurenJ.H. & ConlongD.E. (2013) A reaction-diffusion model for the control of Eldana saccharina Walker in sugarcane using the sterile insect technique. Ecological Modelling 250, 319328.
PotgieterL., van VuurenJ.H. & ConlongD.E. (2016) Simulation modelling as a decision support in developing a sterile insect-inherited sterility release strategy for Eldana saccharina (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Florida Entomologist 99, 1322.
R Development Core Team (2010) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria, R Foundation for Statistical Computing. ISBN 3-900051-07-0, http://www.R-project.org/. Packages: MASS: Venables, W.N. & Ripley, B.D. (2002) Modern Applied Statistics with S. 4th edn. New York, Springer. ISBN: 0-387-95457-0; Car: John Fox and Sanford Weisberg (2011) An {R} Companion to Applied Regression. 2nd edn. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage. http://socserv.socsci.mcmaster.ca/jfox/Books/Companion; pROC: RobinX., TurckN., HainardA., TibertiN., LisacekF., SanchezJ.-C., MüllerM. (2011) An open-source package for R and S+ to analyze and compare ROC curves. BMC Bioinformatics 12, 77–84.
SinclairB.J., WilliamsC.M. & TerblancheJ.S. (2012) Variation in thermal performance among insect populations. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 85, 594606.
SørensenJ.G., AddisonM.F. & TerblancheJ.S. (2013) Mass-rearing of insects for pest management: challenges, synergies and advances from evolutionary physiology. Crop Protection 38, 8794.
TerblancheJ.S. (2014) Physiological performance of field-released insects. Current Opinion in Insect Science. 4, 6066.
TerblancheJ.S., KlokJ.C., KrafsurE.S. & ChownS.L. (2006) Phenotypic plasticity and geographic variation in thermal tolerance and water loss of the tsetse Glossina pallidipes (diptera: Glossinidae): implications for distribution modelling. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 74, 786794.
WaiyakiJ.N. (1968) The Biology and Control of the Principal Lepidopterous Borers Associated with Sugarcane at the Tanganyika Planting Company, Arusha-Chini. Miscellaneous report No. 653. Tropical Pesticides Research Institute, Arusha, Tanzania.
WaltonA.J. & ConlongD.E. (2016) General biology of Eldana saccharina (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): a target for the sterile insect technique. Special issue 1: factors and variables that affects quality of lepidopterans use din SIT programmes. Florida Entomologist 99, 3035.
WattW.B. (1968) Adaptive significance of pigment polymorphisms in Colias butterflies. I. Variation of melanin pigment in relation to thermoregulation. Evolution 69, 14861496.
WayM.J. (1994) A preliminary assessment of the effects of different constant temperatures on the reproduction of Eldana saccharina (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Proceedings of the South African Sugar Technologists’ Association 68, 1618.
WayM.J. (1995) Developmental biology of the immature stages of Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Proceedings of the South African Sugar Technologists’ Association 69, 8386.
WebsterT.M., MaherG.W. & ConlongD.E. (2006) An integrated pest management system for Eldana saccharina in the midlands north region of KwaZulu-Natal. Proceedings of the South African Sugar Technologists’ Association 79, 347358.
WebsterT.M., BrenchleyP.G. & ConlongD.E. (2009) Progress of the area-wide integrated pest management plan for Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in the midlands north region of KwaZulu-Natal. Proceedings of the South African Sugar Technologists’ Association 82, 471485.
ZhangL.J., JingY.P., LiX.H., LiC.W., BourquetD. & WuG. (2015) Temperature-sensitive fitness cost of insecticide resistance in Chinese populations of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella . Molecular ecology 24, 16111627.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Bulletin of Entomological Research
  • ISSN: 0007-4853
  • EISSN: 1475-2670
  • URL: /core/journals/bulletin-of-entomological-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary Materials

Kleynhans supplementary material
Kleynhans supplementary material 1

 Word (62 KB)
62 KB
PDF
Supplementary Materials

Kleynhans supplementary material
Kleynhans supplementary material 2

 PDF (105 KB)
105 KB

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 2
Total number of PDF views: 14 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 100 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 8th August 2017 - 22nd October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.