Hu, Cheng Deng, Yunkai Wang, Rui Liu, Changjiang and Long, Teng 2016. High Accuracy Acquisition of 3-D Flight Trajectory of Individual Insect Based on Phase Measurement. Sensors, Vol. 16, Issue. 12, p. 2166.
Reynolds, Andy M. Reynolds, Don R. Sane, Sanjay P. Hu, Gao and Chapman, Jason W. 2016. Orientation in high-flying migrant insects in relation to flows: mechanisms and strategies. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 371, Issue. 1704, p. 20150392.
Rennie, Susan J. 2014. Common orientation and layering of migrating insects in southeastern Australia observed with a Doppler weather radar. Meteorological Applications, Vol. 21, Issue. 2, p. 218.
Bell, James R. Aralimarad, Prabhuraj Lim, Ka-Sing Chapman, Jason W. and Davies, Zoe G. 2013. Predicting Insect Migration Density and Speed in the Daytime Convective Boundary Layer. PLoS ONE, Vol. 8, Issue. 1, p. e54202.
Chilson, Phillip B. Frick, Winifred F. Kelly, Jeffrey F. Howard, Kenneth W. Larkin, Ronald P. Diehl, Robert H. Westbrook, John K. Kelly, T. Adam and Kunz, Thomas H. 2012. Partly Cloudy with a Chance of Migration: Weather, Radars, and Aeroecology. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 93, Issue. 5, p. 669.
Sanders, Christopher J. Shortall, Chris R. Gubbins, Simon Burgin, Laura Gloster, John Harrington, Richard Reynolds, Don R. Mellor, Phillip S. and Carpenter, Simon 2011. Influence of season and meteorological parameters on flight activity of Culicoides biting midges. Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 48, Issue. 6, p. 1355.
Chapman, Jason W. Drake, V. Alistair and Reynolds, Don R. 2011. Recent Insights from Radar Studies of Insect Flight. Annual Review of Entomology, Vol. 56, Issue. 1, p. 337.
Browning, K. A. Nicol, J. C. Marsham, J. H. Rogberg, P. and Norton, E. G. 2011. Layers of insect echoes near a thunderstorm and implications for the interpretation of radar data in terms of airflow. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 137, Issue. 656, p. 723.
Alerstam, T. Chapman, J. W. Backman, J. Smith, A. D. Karlsson, H. Nilsson, C. Reynolds, D. R. Klaassen, R. H. G. and Hill, J. K. 2011. Convergent patterns of long-distance nocturnal migration in noctuid moths and passerine birds. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 278, Issue. 1721, p. 3074.
Rydell, Jens Bach, Lothar Dubourg-Savage, Marie-Jo Green, Martin Rodrigues, Luísa and Hedenström, Anders 2010. Mortality of bats at wind turbines links to nocturnal insect migration?. European Journal of Wildlife Research, Vol. 56, Issue. 6, p. 823.
Reynolds, A. M. Reynolds, D. R. Smith, A. D. and Chapman, J. W. 2010. A single wind-mediated mechanism explains high-altitude 'non-goal oriented' headings and layering of nocturnally migrating insects. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 277, Issue. 1682, p. 765.
Reynolds, Andy M. Reynolds, Don R. Smith, Alan D. Chapman, Jason W. and Borst, Alexander 2010. Orientation Cues for High-Flying Nocturnal Insect Migrants: Do Turbulence-Induced Temperature and Velocity Fluctuations Indicate the Mean Wind Flow?. PLoS ONE, Vol. 5, Issue. 12, p. e15758.
Browning, K. A. Marsham, J. H. Nicol, J. C. Perry, F. M. White, B. A. Blyth, A. M. and Mobbs, S. D. 2010. Observations of dual slantwise circulations above a cool undercurrent in a mesoscale convective system. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, p. n/a.
Wood, C.R. Reynolds, D.R. Wells, P.M. Barlow, J.F. Woiwod, I.P. and Chapman, J.W. 2009. Flight periodicity and the vertical distribution of high-altitude moth migration over southern Britain. Bulletin of Entomological Research, Vol. 99, Issue. 05, p. 525.
Wood, Curtis R. O'Connor, Ewan J. Hurley, Rebecca A. Reynolds, Don R. and Illingworth, Anthony J. 2009. Cloud-radar observations of insects in the UK convective boundary layer. Meteorological Applications, Vol. 16, Issue. 4, p. 491.
Reynolds, A.M Reynolds, D.R and Riley, J.R 2009. Does a 'turbophoretic' effect account for layer concentrations of insects migrating in the stable night-time atmosphere?. Journal of The Royal Society Interface, Vol. 6, Issue. 30, p. 87.
Radar observations have consistently shown that high-altitude migratory flight in insects generally occurs after mass take-off at dusk or after take-off over a more extended period during the day (in association with the growth of atmospheric convection). In this paper, we focus on a less-studied third category of emigration – the ‘dawn take-off’ – as recorded by insect-monitoring radars during the summer months in southern England. In particular, we describe occasions when dawn emigrants formed notable layer concentrations centred at altitudes ranging from ca. 240 m to 700 m above ground, very probably due to the insects responding to local temperature maxima in the atmosphere, such as the tops of inversions. After persisting for several hours through the early morning, the layers eventually merged into the insect activity building up later in the morning (from 06.00–08.00 h onwards) in conjunction with the development of daytime convection. The species forming the dawn layers have not been positively identified, but their masses lay predominantly in the 16–32 mg range, and they evidently formed a fauna quite distinct from that in flight during the previous night. The displacement and common orientation (mutual alignment) characteristics of the migrants are described.
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