Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Trap efficiency for Glossina pallidipes (Diptera: Glossinidae) at Nguruman, south-west Kenya

  • R.D. Dransfield (a1) and R. Brightwell (a1)
Abstract

An incomplete ring of electric nets was evaluated as a means of estimating trap efficiency for Glossina spp. This methodology assumes flies approach the trap directly, and then enter, or leave directly in random directions. These results showed that the ratio of the number of flies intercepted on the outside of the electric nets to the number on the inside was lower than predicted by this single-approach behavioural model. Moreover, an incomplete ring of nets around a trap reduced trap catch more than the model predicted. These inconsistencies were greater early in the day, and greater for females than for males. It is suggested that flies may make several approaches to a trap before entering or departing. This mixes arriving and departing flies on each side of the electric nets. Use of a complete ring of nets around a trap to estimate trap efficiency entails fewer behavioural assumptions. Catches at a complete ring around a trap were compared to catches in a trap without nets, replicated in a cross-over design. The efficiency of an odour baited NG2G trap was estimated to be 58% for males and 37% for females. Biconical traps were much less efficient. Both trap types were less efficient in the early morning, suggesting entry response is temperature dependent. The NG2G trap was more efficient for non-teneral nulliparous females than for other ages. For both trap types there was little difference between mean fat content of approaching and trapped males, but the mean fat content of trapped females was lower than that of approaching females.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*5 The Square Cottages, Burwash, East Sussex, TN19 7EF, UK E-mail: thebobs@mistral.co.uk
References
Hide All
Baylis, M. (1996) Effect of defensive behaviour by cattle on the feeding success and nutritional state of the tsetse fly, Glossina pallidipes (Diptera: Glossinidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research 86, 329336.
Baylis, M. and Nambiro, C.O. (1993) The nutritional state of male tsetse flies, Glossina pallidipes, at the time of feeding. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 7, 316322.
Baylis, M. and Nambiro, C.O. (1993) The responses of Glossina pallidipes and G. longipennis (Diptera: Glossinidae) to odour-baited traps and targets at Galana Ranch, South-eastern Kenya. Bulletin of Entomological Research 83, 145151.
Brightwell, R., Dransfield, R.D., Kyorku, C., Golder, T.K., Tarimo, S.A. and Mungai, D. (1987) A new trap for Glossina pallidipes. Tropical Pest Management 33, 151159.
Brightwell, R., Dransfield, R.D. and Kyorku, C. (1991) Development of a low-cost tsetse trap and odour baits for Glossina pallidipes and G. longipennis in Kenya. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 5, 153164.
Brightwell, R., Dransfield, R.D., Stevenson, P. and Williams, B. (1997) Changes over twelve years in populations of Glossina pallidipes and Glossina longipennis (Diptera: Glossinidae) subject to varying trapping pressure at Nguruman, south-west Kenya. Bulletin of Entomological Research 87, 349370.
Brightwell, R., Dransfield, R.D., Maudlin, I., Stevenson, P. and Shaw, A. (2001) Reality vs rhetoric – a survey and evaluation of tsetse control in East Africa. Agriculture and Human Values 18, 219233.
Bursell, E. (1984) Observations on the orientation of tsetse flies Glossina pallidipes to wind-borne odours. Physiological Entomology 9, 133137.
Challier, A. (1965) Amélioration de la méthode de détermination de l'age physiologique des glossines. Études faites sur Glossina palpalis Vanderplank, 1949. Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie exotique et de ses Filiales 58, 250259.
Challier, A., Eyraud, M., Lafaye, A. and Laveissière, C. (1977) Amélioration du rendement du piège biconique pour glossines (Diptera, Glossinidae) par l'emploi d'un cône inférieur bleu. Cahiers ORSTOM, série Entomologie médicale et Parasitologie 15, 283286.
Dransfield, R.D., Brightwell, R., Chaudhury, M.F., Golder, T.K. and Tarimo, S.A.R. (1986) The use of odour attractants for sampling Glossina pallidipes Austen (Diptera: Glossinidae) at Nguruman, Kenya. Bulletin of Entomological Research 76, 607619.
Ford, J., Maudlin, I. and Humphreys, K.C. (1972) Comparisons between three small collections of Glossina morsitans morsitans (Machado) (Diptera: Glossinidae) from the Kilombero River Valley, Tanzania. Part 1. Characteristics of flies exhibiting different patterns of behaviour. Acta Tropica 29, 231249.
Gibson, G. and Brady, J. (1985) 'Anemotactic' flight paths of tsetse flies in relation to host odour: a preliminary video study in nature of the response to loss of odour. Physiological Entomology 10, 395406.
Gibson, G. and Brady, J. (1988) Flight behaviour of tsetse flies in host odour plumes: the initial response to leaving or entering odour. Physiological Entomology 13, 2942.
Griffiths, N. and Brady, J. (1994) Analysis of the components of 'electric nets' that affect their sampling efficiency for tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research 84, 325330.
Griffiths, N., Paynter, Q. and Brady, J. (1995) Rates of progress up odour plumes by tsetse flies: a mark-release video study of the timing of odour source location by Glossina pallidipes. Physiological Entomology 20, 100108.
Hargrove, J.W. (1977) Some advances in the trapping of tsetse (Glossina spp.) and other flies. Ecological Entomology 2, 123128.
Hargrove, J.W. (1980) Improved estimates of the efficiency of traps for Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood and G. pallidipes Austen (Diptera: Glossinidae) with a note on the effect of the concentration of accompanying host odour on efficiency. Bulletin of Entomological Research 70, 579587.
Hargrove, J.W. (1988) Tsetse: the limits to population growth. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 2, 203217.
Hargrove, J.W. (1991) Ovarian ages of tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) caught from mobile and stationary baits in the presence and absence of humans. Bulletin of Entomological Research 81, 4350.
Hargrove, J.W., Holloway, M.T.P., Vale, G.A., Gough, A.J.E. and Hall, D.R. (1995) Catches of tsetse (Glossina spp.) (Diptera: Glossinidae) from traps and targets baited with large doses of natural and synthetic host odour. Bulletin of Entomological Research 85, 215227.
Langley, P.A. and Stafford, K. (1990) Feeding frequency in relation to reproduction in Glossina morsitans morsitans and G. pallidipes. Physiological Entomology 15, 415421.
Langley, P.A., Hargrove, J.W. and Wall, R.L. (1990) Maturation of the tsetse fly Glossina pallidipes (Diptera: Glossinidae) in relation to trap-orientated behaviour. Physiological Entomology 15, 179186.
Odulaja, A. and Mohamed-Ahmed, M. (1997) Estimation of the efficiency of the biconical trap for Glossina fuscipes fuscipes along the Lake Victoria shore. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 82, 1924.
Packer, M.J. and Brady, J. (1990) Efficiency of electric nets as sampling devices for tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research 80, 4347.
Randolph, S.E. and Rogers, D.J. (1978) Feeding cycles and flight activity in field populations of tsetse (Diptera, Glossinidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research 68, 655672.
Randolph, S.E., Dransfield, R.D. and Rogers, D.J. (1989) Effect of host odours on trap catch composition of Glossina pallidipes in Kenya. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 3, 297306.
Randolph, S.E., Rogers, D.J. and Kiilu, J. (1991) The feeding behaviour, activity and trappability of wild female Glossina pallidipes in relation to their pregnancy cycle. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 5, 335350.
Randolph, S.E., Williams, B.G., Rogers, D.J. and Connor, H. (1992) Modelling the effect of feeding-related mortality on the feeding strategy of tsetse (Diptera: Glossinidae). Medical and Veterinary Entomology 6, 231240.
Rogers, D.J. and Randolph, S.E. (1978) Metabolic strategies of male and female tsetse (Diptera: Glossinidae) in the field. Bulletin of Entomological Research 68, 639654.
Spath, J. (1995) Trap-orientated behaviour of tsetse fly species Glossina tachinoides (Diptera: Glossinidae). Entomologia Generalis 19, 209224.
Torr, S.J. (1988) Behaviour of tsetse flies (Glossina) in host odour plumes in the field. Physiological Entomology 13, 467478.
Torr, S.J. (1994) Responses of tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) to warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus Pallas). Bulletin of Entomological Research 84, 411419.
Torr, S.J. and Hargrove, J.W. (1998) Factors affecting the landing and feeding responses of the tsetse fly Glossina pallidipes Austen to a stationary ox. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 12, 196207.
Torr, S.J., Mangwiro, T.N.C. and Hall, D.R. (1996) Responses of Glossina pallidipes (Diptera: Glossinidae) to synthetic repellents in the field. Bulletin of Entomological Research 86, 609616.
Turner, D. (1987) The population ecology of Glossina pallidipes Austen (Diptera: Glossinidae) in the Lambwe Valley, Kenya. I. Feeding behaviour and activity patterns. Bulletin of Entomological Research 77, 317333.
Vale, G.A. (1974) The responses of tsetse flies (Diptera, Glossinidae) to mobile and stationary hosts. Bulletin of Entomological Research 64, 545588.
Vale, G.A. (1974) New field methods for studying the responses of tsetse flies (Diptera, Glossinidae) to hosts. Bulletin of Entomological Research 64, 199208.
Vale, G.A. (1977) Feeding responses of tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) to stationary hosts. Bulletin of Entomological Research 67, 635650.
Vale, G.A. (1982) The trap-orientated behaviour of tsetse flies (Glossinidae) and other Diptera. Bulletin of Entomological Research 72, 7193.
Vale, G.A. (1993) Visual responses of tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) to odour-baited targets. Bulletin of Entomological Research 83, 277289.
Vale, G.A. (1998) Responses of tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) to vegetation in Zimbabwe: implications for population distribution and bait siting. Bulletin of Entomological Research 88(Supplement 1), S1S59.
Vale, G.A. and Hargrove, J.W. (1979) A method for studying the efficiency of traps for tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) and other insects. Bulletin of Entomological Research 69, 183193.
Wall, R. (1989) Sexual responses of males of Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood and G. pallidipes Austen (Diptera: Glossinidae) to traps and targets in the field. Bulletin of Entomological Research 79, 335343.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Bulletin of Entomological Research
  • ISSN: 0007-4853
  • EISSN: 1475-2670
  • URL: /core/journals/bulletin-of-entomological-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 10 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 57 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 20th August 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.