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  • Cited by 2
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    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Stone, Elizabeth C. 2012. Surface Survey and Satellite Reconnaissance: Reconstructing the Urban Layout of Mashkan-Shapir. Iraq, Vol. 74, p. 65.

    Stone, Elizabeth C. and Zimansky, Paul 1994. The Tell Abu Duwari Project, 1988–1990. Journal of Field Archaeology, Vol. 21, Issue. 4, p. 437.


Chariots of the Gods in Old Babylonian Mesopotamia (c. 2000–1600 BC)

  • Elizabeth C. Stone (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 22 December 2008

The distribution of designs on Mesopotamian terracottas can provide clues to the relationship between symbols and meaning at different localities. Unlike other Mesopotamian terracottas whose iconography reflects pan-Mesopotamian beliefs, the designs on model chariots are site-specific. While Mesopotamian religious symbols should probably be interpreted as representing aspects of divine power rather than individual deities, combinations of symbols serve to identify particular gods. When these are found on model chariots, they can be related to the titular deities of the specific city in which they were found. Examination of the findspots of these objects, especially those from Mashkanshapir, suggests a possible link between model chariots and the centralizing institutions of the city.

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P.R.S. Moorey , 1975. The terracotta plaques from Kish and Hursagkalama, c.1850 to 1650 BC. Iraq 37, 7999.

R. Opificius , 1961. Das Altbabylonische Terrakottarelief. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter & Co.

E.C. Stone , 1990. The Tell Abu Duwari Project, Iraq, 1987. Journal of Field Archaeology 17, 141–62.

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Cambridge Archaeological Journal
  • ISSN: 0959-7743
  • EISSN: 1474-0540
  • URL: /core/journals/cambridge-archaeological-journal
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