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Furthering the Dialogue on Advance Directives and the Patient Self-Determination Act

  • Erich H. Loewy (a1), Lawrence P. Ulrich (a2), Miguel Bedolla (a3), Robin Terrell Tucker (a4) and Melvina McCabe (a5)...
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Notes

page 410 note 1. McCloskey EL. Hopes for the PSDA. Journal of Clinical Ethics 1991;2:172–3.

page 410 note 2. Cassel EJ. Life as a work of art. Hastings Center Report 1984;14:(5)35–7.

page 410 note 3. Edelstein L. The professional ethics of the Greek physician. Bulletin of Historical Medicine 1956;30:391419.

page 410 note 4. Amundsen DW. The physicians obligation to prolong life: a medical duty without classical roots. Journal of Historical Medicine 1977;32:403–21.

page 410 note 5. See note 4. Amundsen. 1977;32:403–21.

page 410 note 6. Ackerknecht EH. Rudolf Virchow. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1953.

page 410 note 7. Terris M. Concepts of social medicine. Social Services Review 1957;31:164–78.

page 410 note 8. Engelhardt HT. The Foundations of Bioethics. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

page 410 note 9. Engelhardt HT. Bioethics and Secular Humanism. Philadelphia: Trinity Press International, 1991.

page 410 note 10. Engelhardt HT. Morality for the medical industrial complex: a code of ethics for mass marketing of health care. New England Journal of Medicine 1988;319(16):1086–9.

page 410 note 11. See note 8. Engelhardt. 1986.

page 410 note 12. See note 10. Engelhardt. 1988;319(16):1086–9.

page 410 note 13. Relman AS. The new medical-industrial complex: a code of ethics for the mass marketing of health care. New England Journal of Medicine 1980;303(17):963–70.

page 410 note 14. Nozick R. Anarchy, State and Utopia. New York: Basic Books, 1974.

page 410 note 15. Cassel EJ. The function of medicine. Hastings Center Report 1977;7(6): 16–9.

page 410 note 16. Loewy EH. Families, communities and making medical decisions. Journal of Clinical Ethics 1991;2:150–3.

page 410 note 17. Davidson K, Hackler C, Caradine D, McCord R: Physicians attitudes on advanced directives. Journal of the American Medical Association 1989;262:1415–19.

page 410 note 18. Pellegrino ED, Thomasma DC. For the Patient's Good: The Restoration of Beneficence in Health Care. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

page 410 note 19. Loewy EH. Textbook of Medical Ethics. New York: Plenum, 1989.

page 410 note 20. See note 9. Engelhardt HT, 1991.

page 410 note 21. Kant I. Kritik derReinen Vernunft. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1984.

page 410 note 22. Loewy EH. The role of suffering and community in clinical ethics. Journal of Clinical Ethics 1991;2:83–9.

page 410 note 23. Loewy EH. Suffering and the Beneficent Community: Beyond Libertarianism. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press, 1991.

page 410 note 24. Loewy EH. Community, Communities and Suffering. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press, 1992.

page 410 note 25. See note 24. Loewy. 1992.

page 410 note 26. See note 24. Loewy. 1992.

page 410 note 27. Hardwig J. What about the family? Hastings Center Report. 1990;19(2):510.

page 410 note 28. Rousseau JJ. Du Contrat Social (Grimsley R., ed.). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1972.

page 410 note 29. Rousseau JJ. Discours sur l'Origine et les Fondaments de l'Inegalité parmi les Hommes. Paris: Gallimard, 1965.

page 416 note 1. Moreno RM. American therapists speak out on patient's rights. In: Andrade SJ, ed. Patient's Rights and Advocacy: For Hispanics? San Antonio, Texas: The Intercultural Development Research Association, 1981:5065.

page 416 note 2. Garza RT, Ames RE Jr. A comparison of Chicanes and Anglos on locus of control. In: Hernandez CA, Haug MJ, Wagner NN, eds. Chicanos: Social and Psychological Perspectives. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby Company, 1976:133–5.

page 417 note 3. Andrade SJ. The vulnerability of Hispanic mental health clients: Can “patient rights” expand to address their needs? In: Andrade SJ, ed. Patient's Rights and Advocacy: For Hispanics? San Antonio, Texas: The Intercultural Development Research Association, 1981:6673.

page 419 note 1. Gorman C. Why do blacks die young?. Time 1991 09 16:50;Kjellstrand C. Age, sex, and race inequality in renal transplantation. Archives of Internal Medicine 1988;148:1305;Kjellstrand C, Logan G. Racial, sexual, and age inequalities in chronic dialysis. Nephron 1987;45:257;Held P, Pauly M, Bovbjerg R et al. , Access to kidney transplantation: has the United States eliminated income and racial differences? Archives of Internal Medicine 1988;148:2594.

page 419 note 2. Byrd M, Clayton L. The “slave health deficit” racism and health outcomes. Health/PAC Bulletin 1991;25(Summer);Schwartz E, Kofie V, Rivo M et al. , Black/white comparisons of deaths preventable by medical intervention: United States and the District of Columbia 1980–1986. International Journal of Epidemiology 1990;591;Byrd M. Race, biology, and healthcare: reassessing a relationship. Journal of Healthcare for the Poor and Underserved 1990;(Winter):278.

page 419 note 3. Escarce J, Epstein K, Colby D et al. , Racial differences in the elderly's use of medical procedures and diagnostic tests. American Journal of Public Health 1993;(07):948.

page 421 note 1. Lombardi FG, Lombardi GS. Life and death, the circle is timeless. In: Circle without End, a Sourcebook of American Indian Ethics. Naturegraph, 1982:36–9.

page 421 note 2. Klein BT. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. 6th ed.West Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 1993.

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Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics
  • ISSN: 0963-1801
  • EISSN: 1469-2147
  • URL: /core/journals/cambridge-quarterly-of-healthcare-ethics
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