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Guest Editorial: Reassessing Animal Research Ethics

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Notes

1. Qiu X, Wong G, Audet J, Bello A, Fernando L, Alimonti JB, et al. Reversion of advanced Ebola virus disease in nonhuman primates with ZMapp. Nature 2014 Aug 29; available at http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vnfv/ncurrent/abs/nature13777.html (last accessed 22 Mar 2015).

2. Bernstein L, Ohlheiser A, Philip A. Drug found to cure Ebola in monkeys raises hope as outbreak spreads to Senegal. Washington Post 2014 Aug 30; available at http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/drug-found-to-cure-ebola-in-monkeys-raises-hope-as-outbreak-spreads-to-senegal/2014/08/29/2e9693ca-2f9f-11e4-bb9b-997ae96fad33_story.html (last accessed 22 March 2015).

3. Neergaard L. Monkey study: Ebola vaccine works, needs booster. Washington Post 2014 Sept 8: A12.

4. Firger J. Questions raised about mental health studies on baby monkeys at NIH labs. CBS News 2014 Sept 8; available at http://www.cbsnews.com/news/mental-health-experiments-on-baby-monkeys-at-federal-nih-labs (last accessed 1 Jan 2015).

5. Garrett JR. The ethics of animal research: An overview of the debate. In: Garrett JR, ed. The Ethics of Animal Research: Exploring the Controversy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press; 2012:115, at 2.

6. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, “The Nuremberg Code,” Principle 3. Available at http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/archive/nurcode.html (last accessed 3 July 2015). The original statement appears in “Judgment.” In: Trials of War Criminals before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals under Control Council Law No. 10. Vols. 1 and 2. Military Tribunal. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1948–49.

7. World Medical Association. Declaration of Helsinki, 1964. Reprinted in British Medical Journal 1996;313 Dec 7:1448–9; available at http://irb.wayne.edu/policies/2-3_declaration_of_helsinki.pdf (last accessed 21 Mar 2015).

8. Beecher HK. Ethics and clinical research. New England Journal of Medicine 1966;274:1354–60.

9. Thomas RS, Black MB, Li L, Healy E, Chu TM, Bao W, et al. A comprehensive statistical analysis of predicting in vivo hazard using high-throughput in vitro screening. Toxicological Sciences 2012;128:398417.

10. He cites the work of an expert panel of toxicologists: Olson H, Betton G, Robinson D, Thomas K, Monro A, Kolaja G, et al. Concordance of the toxicity of pharmaceuticals in humans and in animals. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 2000;32:5667.

11. See the Environmental Protection Agency’s ToxCastTM program; available at http://www.epa.gov/ncct/toxcast (last accessed 17 Mar 2015).

12. Committee on the Use of Chimpanzees in Biomedical and Behavioral Research, Institute of Medicine. Chimpanzees in Biomedical and Behavioral Research: Assessing the Necessity. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2011; available at http://iom.edu/∼/media/Files/Report%20Files/2011/Chimpanzees/chimpanzeereportbrief.pdf (last accessed 25 Dec 2014).

Disclaimer: DeGrazia’s work on this introduction was supported, in part, by intramural funds from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Clinical Center. The views expressed are those of the two authors. They do not represent the position or policy of the NIH Department of Bioethics, the NIH, the U.S. Public Health Service, or the Department of Health and Human Services.

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Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics
  • ISSN: 0963-1801
  • EISSN: 1469-2147
  • URL: /core/journals/cambridge-quarterly-of-healthcare-ethics
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