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III John Benet's Chronicle for the years 1400 to 1462


MS. E.5.10 in Trinity College, Dublin, is a volume measuring approximately 8½ × 6 inches, consisting of 224 leaves of vellum and paper written in English and Latin.1 The greater part is in one clear, regular fifteenth-century cursive hand, but the volume also includes sections of thirteenth- and fourteenth-century date and has flyleaves of fragments of similar date. Throughout the volume additions have been made in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries by a dozen or more different hands. On fo. 2v an inscription in the hand of the greater part of the book reads: ‘Iste liber est Domini Johannis Benet de harlyngdon. Quisquis istum elongaverit de custodia sua absque suo consensu anathema sit maranatha’, and at not less than twelve other places throughout the volume Benet signs his name, usually in the form ‘quod Benet’2. Three of these are dated: on fo. 75v ‘Quod Benet apud Harlyngdon Anno Domini M1CCCColxjo DominicalilitteraC’; on fo. 12Ir ‘quod Benet apud Harlyngdon Anno Domini M1CCCC1XViijo littera dominicali B’; on fo. 189v ‘M1CCCClxxj 13 die Novembris quod Benet’. John Benet was vicar of Harlington in Bedfordshire throughout the period covered by these dates, during which he wrote and assembled his book. The paper he used shows a variety of watermarks of the mid-fifteenth century, such as might be expected of a compiler in the provinces buying paper in small packets or using what happened to be at hand. After it was bound several of the remaining blank leaves were used by others for additional notes. The volume was foliated by one of these later hands, and on ff. 191–2 a table of contents with the folio references was made in the late fifteenth century. All the items in the table are present in the book as it survives today.

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1 Described briefly by Abbott T. K., Catalogue of the Manuscripts in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin, (Dublin, 1900), pp. 78–9 under its former number, 516. The references there are to the original foliation, now superseded by the modern foliation by which all references in the following description are made.

2 On ff. 26r, 27r, 29v, 39v, 75v, 112r, 118r, 118v, 121r, 189v, 195v, 204r.

3 Some lines in Benet's hand appear in the tractate on fo. 107v and his marginal notes in the section ff. 208–19.

4 The Historical Collections of a Citizen of London, ed. James Gairdner (Camden Society, 1876), p. ii; Six Town Chronicles of England, ed. Flenley R. (Oxford, 1911), p. 67.

5 Formerly Phillipps MS. no. 12086, described in Sotheby's Auction Catalogue for 28 November 1967, lot no. 107. I am indebted to Dr. A. I. Doyle for bringing this to my notice.

6 These are: ff. 3–14, 15–20, 21–30, 31–9, 40–55, 56–75.

7 Lydgate's verses were also included in William Gregory's collection, and are printed in Historical Poems of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries, ed. R. H. Robbins (New York, 1959), pp. 1–6. ‘Stere welle the good shype’ was printed by F. Madden in Archaeologia, xxix (1842), pp. 326–30. ‘The five dogs of London’ is in Historical Poems, pp. 189–90 and John Lydgate's ‘Dietary’ (on fo. 27v–28v) is in his Minor Poems, ed. H. N. MacCracken (E.E.T.S., Old Series, vol. 192, 1934), pp. 203–7. Some of the devotional poems in these folios have not been printed.

8 On fo. 16v Benet has added a note relating to the attempt to found a university at Drogheda in 1465; cf. Rashdall H., The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages, new edition by F. M. Powicke and A. B. Emden (Oxford, 1936), ii, p. 327. On fo. 23r Benet has added to a list of English Kings up to Henry VI, written by another hand, the number of the years of his reign (forty) and a note on Edward IV. A similar note on Henry VI and Edward IV, added later, occurs at the foot of fo. 27v. An item on the church of St. Gregory at Northampton in a different hand has been inserted at fo. 54, and a sixteenth-century hand occurs on fo. 75r.

9 The ink shows clearly that this was a later addition.

10 See Supplement to the Index of Middle English Verse, ed. Robbins R. H. and Cutler J. L. (Lexington, 1965), nos. 4029, 4030.5; also Historical Poems of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries, nos. 46, 47 and 76. To the final line of no. 47 is added in this manuscript, the couplet:

‘Anno M'CCCCLX and on

Few lordes or ellys noone’

11 This is appended to an extravaganza of biblical extracts containing the word Nemo. In this section there is also a discourse on ‘Galaunts’, some fictitious articles of St. Thomas Becket against Henry II and a short treatise on ‘Proporciones discantis in lingua materna’. All are in Benet's hand.

12 This is printed at the conclusion of the chronicle in the present edition.

13 The differences between the two copies of Pecock's confession are discussed below, p. 163. The poem of 1452 is printed by Robbins R. H., ‘Victory at Whitby, A.D. 1451’, Studies in Philology, lxvii (1970), pp. 495504. Scrope's articles are as printed by H. Wharton in Anglia Sacra, ii (London, 1691), pp. 362–8. For John Greenwell see Emden A. B., Biographical Register of Oxford University, ii (Oxford, 1958), p. 817.

14 Lincoln Record Office, Register XVIII (Alnwick), fo. 183.

15 Register XX (Chedworth), fo. 275.

16 Register XXI (Rotherham), fo. 97v.

17 Emden A. B., Biographical Register, i, p. 165 gives a Benet as chaplain of New College between 1433 and 1435, and informs me that there is no other of that name in his list of magistri not assigned to either university.

18 Register XVII (Gray), fi. 212v, 215, 217v, 219v, 220v, 221.

19 Register XVII (Alnwick), ff. 182v, 184v. For John Benet of Northcotes, see Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1436–1441, p. 221.

20 Hennessy G., Novum Repertorium Ecclesiasticum Parochiale Londoniense (London, 1898), pp. 97, 317. His petition in Calendar of Papal Letters, x, 1447–1453, p. 29, states that he was in the embassy of Robert Botyll, the prior of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem in England, to Geneva, Lyons and Rome, undertaken in August 1447 (Cal. Pat. Rolls., 1446–1432, p. 284). Botyll was a member of the council under Henry VI (Proc. & Ord., vi, 380) and according to Giles Chronicle, p. 47, was one of the mediators sent by Henry VI to the Duke of York before the battle of St. Albans. He was also one of the arbitrators in the dispute between Lord Cromwell and the duke of Exeter to which this chronicle preserves a unique reference (infra, p. 210). He is also mentioned in this chronicle as one of the embassy to Calais in 1458 and he died in 1469. Had not John Benet expressly identified his cure as Harlington, it would have seemed natural to attribute the book and chronicle to this London priest so closely associated through his patron with the political life of the court and capital. Could a relationship between the two John Benets be established, there would be some ground for suggesting the rector of St. Mary Woolchurch as the author of the contemporary part of the chronicle.

21 Kingsford C. L., English Historical Literature in the Fifteenth Century (Oxford, 1913), pp. 21, 40–3, 46, 106; The St. Albans Chronicle, 1406–1420, ed. Galbraith V. H. (Oxford, 1937), pp. xvixvii; Taylor F., ‘The Chronicle of John Strecche for the Reign of Henry V’, Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, xvi (1932), pp. 137–87.

22 Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden, monachi Cestrensis, ed. C. Babington (Rolls Series, 18651886), i. pp. 20–6. The classical and medieval sources of the Polychronicon are discussed by Taylor John, The Universal Chronicle of Ranulph Higden (Oxford, 1966), ch. v.

23 Including the payment of Peter's Pence, the mutilation of Pope Leo III, the rebuilding of Ramsey, Thorney and other abbeys by St. Dunstan and the story of Cnut and the waves, none of which is in Florence of Worcester.

24 Citations are made from Josephus (fo. 132r), Orosius (fo. 137v) and Bode (fo. 142v), the first two from the Polychronicon.

25 Namely, notes on the foundation of the kingdoms of the Heptarchy (fo. 141r), on the foundation of the abbeys of Peterborough and Evesham (fo. 142r) and the removal of the see of Dorchester to Lincoln (fo. 145v).

26 These are a statement under the year 1105 of the appearance of two moons and some verses on the martyrdom of St. Thomas; neither comes from the Polychronicon.

27 Thus he records the duel at Reading in 1162 between Henry of Essex and Robert de Munford, the siege of Leicester in 1173, the visit of Louis VII to Canterbury in 1179 and the foundation of the Dominicans in 1198.

28 See Cam H. M. and Jacob E. F., ‘Notes on an English Cluniac Chronicle’, E.H.R., xliv (1929), p. 96. I am indebted to Mrs. A. Gransden for this reference.

29 These incidents are: (i) the story of John of Powderham, the impostor who claimed to be Edward II at Oxford in 1316, treated in detail in the Chronicon ae Lanercost, ed. J. Stevenson (Bannatyne Club, 1839), p. 236, and mentioned in the group of chronicles printed by Stubbs as Chronicles of Edward J and Edward II (Rolls Series, 18821883), i, pp. 55, 235, ii, pp. 282–3; (ii) The Itinerary of Edward III's army in Scotland in 1336, reported in Chron. Lanercost, p. 286 and in the Anonimalle Chronicle, ed. Galbraith V. H. (Manchester, 1927), p. 7, but here more fully than in either of these; cf. the fairly full diary of Edward III's movements in 1336 in Brit. Mus., Cotton MS. Vespasian F vii, fo. 12, printed in Ferrerii Historia Abbatum de Kynlos (Bannatyne Club, 1839), p. xixxxi; (iii) The epidemic of mental disorders in 1355 mentioned in the Anonimalle Chronicle, p. 33 and Chronicon Henrici Knighton, ed. J. R. Lumby, ii (Rolls Series, 1895), p. 81. I am indebted to Mr. John Taylor for these references. For the relationship of the Lanercost and Anonimalle chronicles see Little A. G., ‘The authorship of the Laner cost Chronicle’, Eng. Hist, Rev., xxxi (1916), pp. 269–79, and Galbraith's introduction, op. cit., pp. xxiv–xxx.

30 Full references to the incidents alluded to in the following pages will be found in the Historical Notes at the foot of the text.

31 The best versions are in The Repressor, ed. C. Babington (Rolls Series) i (1860), pp. xlviixlix and Cal. Papal Letters, xi, pp. 77–8. A Latin version containing the six points is in Registrum Abbatiae Johannis Whetehamstede, ed. H. T. Riley (Rolls Series) i (1872), pp. 285–6. An English Chronicle, pp. 75–6, followed by Stow, Annales, p. 402, gives only four of the six points.

32 The context of this dispute is discussed by R. I. Jack (ed.), The Grey of Ruthin Valor (Sydney, 1965), pp. 34–5 and by Griffiths Ralph, ‘Local Rivalries and National Politics: the Percies, the Nevilles and the Duke of Exeter, 1452–1455’, Speculum, xliii (1968), pp. 606–7. See also Hastings Margaret, The Court of Common Pleas in Fifteenth Century England (New York, 1947), pp. 222–3.

33 This undoubtedly reflected Yorkist propaganda in the capital, and was the tenor of Edward IV's justification of his usurpation to the Pope. See Corpus Christi College, Cambridge MS. 170, fo. 218.

34 These occur at ff. 159r, 161r, 164v, 167v, 175r, 175v, 176r, 177r, 180v.

35 It is quite likely that John Benet made use of two copies of the Polychronicon, one of which was the short version formerly in the possession of Dunstable priory and now Magdalen College, Oxford MS. 181. The short version was sometimes referred to in the sixteenth century as Polycratica (Taylor John, The Universal Chronicle of Ranulf Higden, (Oxford, 1966), ch. vii), but Mr. Taylor informs me that this was an unusual designation at an earlier date. However, Magdalen College MS. 181 concludes with the following note in the same fourteenth-century hand as the text: ‘Expliciunt cronice venerabills Ranulphi Monachi cestrensis in septem libelles distincte dicteque historia policratica’. Although Benet most frequently cites the work as ‘Policron’’, on fo. 65v he cites it as ‘policraticon’, and on fo. 118 he has written: ‘Historia policratica in septem libris descripta per Ranulphum monachum cestrensem Anglice Chester. Notetur quod iste liber vocatus policratica abreviatur in multis dictis. Quod Benet.’ Amongst his extracts Benet includes the apparition of the cross in the street at Dunstable (lib. vii, cap. 25) to which attention is directed by a marginal in the Magdalen College copy, although this incident would probably have attracted his attention whichever copy he was using.

36 See Dean R. J., ‘An Essay in Anglo-Norman Palaeography’ in Studies in French Language and Medieval Literature Presented to M. K. Pope (Manchester, 1939). PP. 84–5, and the discussion by Doyle A. I., ‘A New Chaucer Manuscript’, Publications of the Modern Language Association, lxxxiii (1968), p. 25, note 26.

37 The Victoria County History of Bedfordshire, i (London, 1904), pp. 402–3.

page 175 note a ricardus cancelled.

page 175 note b MS. Baueneshere.

page 175 note c Sic.

page 175 note d Henricus quartus at head of folio.

page 175 note e Anno Henrici iiijtl iiijoand bellum Solopie in margin.

page 175 note f Anno … scilicet Marchall is underlined.

1 Northampton is mentioned in only one other source, the Historia Vitae et Regni Ricardi II (The Monk of Evesham), ed. Hearne T. (Oxford, 1729), p. 156, which preserves the most complete itinerary.

2 Richard was certainly dead by the middle of February when payment was made for transporting his body from Pontefract. Chronicon Adae de Usk, ed. Thompson E. M. (London, 1904), p. 200 n.

page 176 note a Sic.

page 176 note b MS. decolare.

page 176 note c decollacio sancti Ricardi Scrope in margin.

page 176 note d MS. cometem.

page 176 note e anno … Henricus quartus is underlined.

3 Prince Henry undoubtedly did follow his father north into Yorkshire (Wylie J. H., History of England under Henry IV, ii (London, 1894), p. 173), but the only chronicle references to this appear to be in Polydore Vergil, Anglica Historia (Leyden, 1651), p. 435, followed by Hall's Chronicle [ed. H. Ellis] (London, 1809), p. 35.

4 Sir William Plumpton's participation in the rising is recorded in the Latin Brut in E.H.L., p. 314; Giles , Chronicon Angliae, p. 47 and Davies , English Chronicle, p. 31, in addition to the inscription on his tomb in Spofforth Church (Plumpton Correspondence, ed. T. Stapleton, Camden Society, 1839, p. xxv).

5 8 June.

6 Walsingham in Historia Anglicana, ed. H. T. Riley, ii (Rolls Series, 1864), p. 278, and The St Albans Chronicle, 1406–1420, ed. Galbraith V. H. (Oxford, 1937), p. 28, give ‘undecimo Kalendas Marcii’ (19 February) which is the correct date. The only other source to mention the Feast of St Matthias (24 February) is the Anonymi Chronicon Godstovianum, ed. Hearne T. (Oxford, 1716), p. 240.

7 This recoinage is noted by The Brut, p. 372; Julius B.ii. in Chron. Lond. p. 68; Giles , Chronicon Angliae, p. 63; Gregory's Chronicle, p. 106.

8 20 March.

9 9 April.

page 177 note a A broken line in text indicates that this date refers to the preceding sentence.

page 177 note b le lo, de lollardis, and dominus Cobham' in margin.

page 177 note c Anno … apud Sowthampton is underlined.

page 177 note d Henricus quintus in margin.

page 177 note e Kaw in Kyth Kaw inserted perhaps by another hand.

page 177 note f MS. Asumpcionis.

page 177 note g Bellum Agyncort in margin.

page 177 note h MS. Cometes.

page 177 note i MS. pungnauit.

page 177 note j MS. Lundoniiis, followed by S cancelled.

page 177 note k Anno … Imper underlined; date in MS. reads MlCCCVIo.

10 Oldcastle was not captured until December 1417.

11 22 September.

page 178 note a imperator … Imperator is underlined.

page 178 note b MS. priuus.

page 178 note c Anno … obsessit is underlined.

page 178 note d Cadamu with cancellation through abbreviation for m, but genitive probably intended.

page 178 note e MS. septimas.

page 178 note f MS. Sabati.

page 178 note g Et … dux Glowcestere is underlined.

page 178 note h MS. Pasca.

page 178 note i MS. cometes.

page 178 note j anno … civitatem Rotomagi is underlined.

page 178 note k Anno … Karoli voca is underlined.

page 178 note l II erased.

12 Although a French embassy did come to Calais to treat for peace, the main negotiations were between Henry, Sigismund and John the Fearless. The chronicler's account broadly follows The Brut, p. 381.

13 4 September. Caen had been invested on 18 August 1417.

14 19 January.

page 179 note a MS. Hiberne.

page 179 note b MS. horifice.

page 179 note c MS. disposavit.

page 179 note d MS. Kallendas.

page 179 note e Anno … capitulum is underlined.

page 179 note f Sic.

page 179 note g le lo in margin.

page 179 note h MS. anniis.

page 179 note i Henricus sextus in margin.

page 179 note j Et … de Francis duo is underlined.

page 179 note k Sic. These words referring to Johannes dux Bedfordie were probably interlineated in the exemplar and misplaced during transcription.

15 25 March. The battle of Beauge was in fact fought on 21 March 1421.

16 Apart from Walsingham, Historia Anglicana, ii, p. 337, and The Brut, fragment G., p. 495, no other chronicle refers to this assembly.

17 6 December.

18 1 September.

19 i.e. Verneuil in Perche (dép. Eure).

page 180 note a R cancelled.

page 180 note b MS. cappti.

page 180 note c MS. Nyurray.

page 180 note d initial cap. B altered in MS. to l.c.

page 180 note e set noluit fieri added in margin.

20 Compare the lists given in The Brut, pp. 566–7 and A Brief Latin Chronicle, ed. J. Gairdner (Camden Society, 2nd Series, 1880), p. 164. Amongst French sources the lengthiest lists are given by J. de Waurin, Chroniques, ed. W. Hardy, ii (Rolls Series, 1879), pp. 116–17 and La Chronique d'Enguerrand de Monstrelet, ed. L. Douet d'Arcq, iv (Société de l'histoire de France, Paris 1860), pp. 195–6.

21 Bedford's dispositions are not noticed by any other chronicler. They differ from those described by Stevenson J., Wars of the English in France, i (Rolls Series, 1861), p. lx, note 3.

22 25 February. In fact the parliament opened in Quinquagesima, 18 February, but the business of the session did not begin until 28 February. Beaufort and Gloucester were formally reconciled on 12 March, and parliament was prorogued on 20 March.

23 Easter Day was 8 April. The second session of parliament opened on 29 April, the grant of tunnage and poundage being made on 1 June on which day parliament ended.

page 181 note a nota Eo tempore reg' Willelmus Wawe exul' generos' in margin.

page 181 note b Et … insignivit is underlined.

page 181 note c MS. Sabati.

page 181 note d MS. Archargeli.

page 181 note e terre motus in margin, underlined.

page 181 note f tu cancelled.

page 181 note g Anno … Henricus is underlined.

24 This mention of the plague does not appear in other sources.

25 19 May.

26 28 September.

27 A meeting of the council at Reading on 24 November approved an ordinance for the conduct of business (Proc. & Ord., iii, pp. 213–21). Although both Gloucester and Beaufort were present, no other source notes an agreement between them at this meeting, and this may be a confusion with the reconciliation effected in March.

28 In fact not until 19 March 1427.

29 This parliament was in session from 13 October to 8 December 1427 and from 29 January to 25 March 1428.

30 The earl of Warwick had been appointed guardian on 1 June 1426.

31 Vide Rot. Parl., iv, p. 318.

32 8 September.

page 182 note a hoc … Clementis is underlined.

page 182 note b e cancelled.

page 182 note c blank in MS.

page 182 note d MS. tennuerunt.

page 182 note e MS. Anno Domini M CCCC XIX.

page 182 note f MS. transfetavit, and transfretavit … cruciatorum is underlined.

page 182 note g te cancelled.

page 182 note h in cancelled.

33 23 November. Convocation met from 12 November to 7 December 1428.

34 Battles were fought at Jargeau on 12 June and at Patay on 18 June 1429.

35 Parliament assembled on 22 September 1429, having been originally summoned to meet on 13 October.

36 6 November.

37 The second session of this parliament lasted from 16 January to 23 February 1430. Two lay subsidies had been granted in the December session, one of which was to be levied at Hilary.

page 183 note a Et … M1CCCoXXXIois underlined.

page 183 note b MS. Parisiam.

page 183 note c Et … regi is underlined.

page 183 note d Anno … martiris is underlined.

38 The only other English source to mention this incident is the Northern Chronicle in E.H.L., p. 291, which records ‘submersus est Dominus le Roos et Dominus Johannes Butteler occisus’. Lord Roos was drowned attempting to ford the Marne on 18 August 1430, an incident described in the Journal d'un Bourgeois de Paris, ed. A. Tuetey (Paris, 1881), p. 257. Although the Complete Peerage, ii, p. 248, says that Lewis Robessart, lord Bourchier, was killed at Amiens on 26 November 1431, a writ of diem clausit extremum was issued in respect of him on 26 January 1431 (Cal. Fine Rolls, xvi, 1430–1437, p. 2), and La Chronique de Jean le Févre, Seigneur de Saint Rémy, ed. F. Morand, ii (Société de l'histoire de France, 1881), p. 195, records his death at Conty, near Amiens in 1430. A similar writ for John Botiller Kt., was issued on 14 October 1430 (ibid.).

39 Parliament was in session from 12 January to 20 March 1431 when a full subsidy and one third of a subsidy were granted.

40 23 February. Martin V in fact died on 20 February 1431.

41 The parliament of 1432 was in session from 12 May to 17 July and granted a half lay subsidy without reduction. The reference in the text may be a confusion with the parliament of 1433 which is noticed under the following year.

42 Anne, widow of Edmund Mortimer, earl of March and daughter of Edward earl of Stafford, died 20 or 24 September 1432. John Mowbray, duke of Norfolk, died 19 October 1432.

43 7 July.

page 184 note a exoner follows in text, probably an error in copying.

page 184 note b Sic.

page 184 note c que repeated in MS.

page 184 note d Et … MlCCCCoXXXIIIIois underlined.

page 184 note e ymes cancelled.

page 184 note f Et Anno Domini MlCCCoXXXVois underlined.

page 184 note g a reads et in MS.

44 The parliament was still in session on 18 December 1433 when the Duke of Bedford's articles were still under discussion and the grant of taxation had still to be made (Rot. Parl., iv, p. 423); if it continued until 2 February there would need to have been a third session after Christmas. The grant was made in four parts payable at half yearly intervals, with the deduction of £4,000 (Rot. Parl., iv, p. 425).

45 That is, 24 June 1434 to 17 April 1435. Henry had probably been present at the Westminster council early in June 1434 which settled much business before Bedford's departure (Proc. & Ord., iv, pp. 222–47), and he was with the council at Cirencester on 12 and 17 November 1434 (ibid., iv, pp. 288–9).

48 25 November 1434 to 10 February 1435. The dates correspond with those given in The Brut, p. 503.

47 18 October. Parliament in fact opened on 10 October 1435. The lay subsidy and the graduated income tax were granted on 23 December (Rot. Parl., iv, pp. 486–7).

48 Dieppe was taken on 29 October, Harfleur on 26 December.

page 185 note a MS. regii.

page 185 note b Anno … hominum underlined.

page 185 note c MS. Burgunde.

page 185 note d MS. absidione.

page 185 note e cometes altered to comites in MS.

page 185 note f per XI dies spo … is underlined.

page 185 note g villa Poperying' in margin, underlined.

page 185 note h Sic.

page 185 note i Et … fuisset is underlined.

page 185 note j petrum cancelled.

49 Although the clergy made a grant of a tenth and a half tenth in the December convocation, as stated in the text (Wilkins , Concilia, iii, p. 525), the half tenth was converted into a graduated income tax in conformity with the grant of the commons. See Cal. Fine Rolls, xvi, pp. 269–71.

50 37 May 1436. The duke's muster was taken on 24 May; Ramsay J. H., Lancaster and York, i (Oxford, 1892), p. 484.

51 Saturday, 28 July. This was the assault of the earl of Mortain and Lord Camoys, which precipitated the duke of Burgundy's retreat on 29 July.

52 10 August.

53 24 February. King James I was murdered on 20–1 February.

54 The earl of Warwick's commission was sealed on 16 July 1437 (Rymer , Foedera, x, p. 674); according to Brit. Mus., Cotton MS. Cleopatra C iv in Chron. London, p. 143, he crossed the channel on 6 November, and a council minute implies that he was in Normandy by the 9th (Proc. & Ord., v, p. 70). For the incident of the storm, see The Brut, p. 472.

page 186 note a Et … comes is underlined.

page 186 note b Et … Ricardus is underlined.

page 186 note c Et … transierunt is underlined.

page 186 note d MS. universitate.

page 186 note e blank in MS.

page 186 note f sil cancelled.

55 Edmund Beaufort sailed to Cherbourg about 19 June 1438 having indented to serve for six months (Ramsay J. H., Lancaster and York, ii, p. 7; Proc. & Ord., v, p. 94). Although he advanced southwards to the Loire there is no evidence that he reached Gascony where the French attack penetrated to Bordeaux in the summer of 1438 (G. du Fresne de Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, iii (Paris, 1885), pp. 1415).

56 Cf. The Brut, p. 472. The evidence is discussed by Thomson J. A. F., The Later Lollards (Oxford, 1965), p. 178.

57 Cleopatra C iv in Chron. Land., p. 145, agrees that the earl sailed at the end of July. His principal success seems to have been the capture of La Roquette; cf. Vale M. G., English Gascony, 1399–1453 (Oxford, 1970), p. 115.

58 The indenture, listing 120 books, is dated 25 November 1439, and in a memorial to the House of Commons the university described the value of the gift as being more than one thousand pounds. Epistolae Academicae, ed. H. Anstey (Oxford Historical Society, 1898), pp. 177–9, 184.

59 The parliament opened on 12 November 1439. The tax on aliens is in Rot. Parl.. v, p. 6.

page 187 note a blank in MS.

page 187 note b Interfui ibidem illo tempore in margin.

page 187 note c The scribe appears to have begun the word Anglie and corrected it to Aule.

page 187 note d scottis dogges cancelled in MS.

page 187 note e MS. videlet.

60 Richard Wyche, burnt on 17 June 1440. See Thomson J. A. F., op. cit., pp. 148–50. No other chronicle records any of Wyche's teaching; if it was as radical and reformist as this suggests, this may account for his popularity.

61 Saturday, 3 December 1440; that is, a week later than the date given in The Brut, p. 477 and Cleopatra C iv in Chron. Land., p. 148.

62 The duke of Orléans was set at liberty on 3 November 1440 and left London two days later. He married Marie of Clèves, daughter of Duke Adolph of Clèves.

63 A number of sources (Gregory's Chronicle, p. 183; W. Worcester, Annales, p. 763; Cleopatra C iv in Chron. Land., p. 147) give 16 May as the date of York's passage. Nevertheless the date given here, 25 June, seems to be correct: see Ramsay J. H., Lancaster and York, ii (Oxford, 1892), p. 37.

64 William Wytham had been Principal of Broadgates Hall in 1436 and had become Principal of White Hall (on the site of Jesus College) by September 1438. For details of his subsequent career, see Emden A. B., A Biographical Register of the University of Oxford to 1500, iii (Oxford, 1959), p. 2065.

page 188 note a eis cancelled in MS.

page 188 note b MS. exultates.

page 188 note c ad … lesionem is underlined.

page 188 note d MS. propantibus.

page 188 note e Is pingit lionem in margin.

page 188 note f MS. curiles.

page 188 note g le lo in margin.

65 The Chancellor of the university at the time of this riot was William Gray who held office between February 1441 and February 1442. The riot took place on the night of 29 August 1441 and on the following day, but no notice of it appears in the Chancellor's Register where there is a gap in the business recorded between 28 April 1440 and 20 November 1442, Registrum Cancellarii, ed. H. E. Salter (Oxford Historical Society, 1932), p. xxxvi.

66 This was probably the Broadgates Hall which adjoined All Saints church, not that in St Aldates which subsequently became Pembroke College. Alternatively, it may conceivably be the tenement on the south side of the High Street (now number 90) which lay near Lion Hall to which the marginal note in the MS Is pingit lionem very likely refers. See H. E. Salter, Survey of Oxford ed. W. A. Pantin and W. T. Mitchell, i (Oxford Historical Society, 1969), pp. 122, 187, 202 and maps N.E. II and S.E. IV; Pantin W. A., ‘The Halls and Schools of Medieval Oxford: an Attempt at Reconstruction’, in Oxford Studies Presented to Daniel Callus (Oxford Hist. Soc., xvi, 19591960), pp. 4751.

67 Brit. Mus., Cotton MS. Vitellius A. xvi in Chron. Land., pp. 154–5, records ‘a grete debate by the nyght tyme bitwene men of Courte and men of London’ and names William Herbottell, ‘a man of Courte’, as ‘principall cause of all that mysgovernaunce’. The reference in the text to ‘litigaciones’ may refer to the dispute between the earl of Devon and Sir William Bonville which started this year.

page 189 note a Rogerus … nomine is underlined.

page 189 note b MS. clicis.

page 189 note c mari altered to mare in MS.

page 189 note d MS. Somersetete.

page 189 note e Anno … civile is underlined.

page 189 note f cuius anime propicietur deus in margin.

page 189 note g Ang cancelled.

68 For a discussion of the chronology of these arrests, see Vickers K. H., Humphrey Duke of Gloucester (London, 1907), p. 271. According to Davies, English Chronicle, p. 58, following her appearance before the bishops on 22 July, ‘Alienore was lothe to go out of the sayntwary’ and attempted to flee secretly but was apprehended. She was imprisoned first in Leeds castle and early in 1442 in Chester.

69 The parliament sat from 25 January to 25 March 1442. The grants are in Rot. Parl., v, p. 37 and Wilkins , Concilia, iii, p. 536.

70 The English bastille at Dieppe was captured on 14 August 1443 and marked the collapse of the siege which had lasted since 1 November 1442.

page 190 note a et ilio cancelled.

page 190 note b MS. Circumsicionis.

page 190 note c MS. ido.

page 190 note d Adam … Magister is underlined.

page 190 note e re cancelled.

page 190 note f Et … Leonardi is underlined.

page 190 note g domina … vel is underlined.

page 190 note h MS. propter.

71 Sir John Cornwall, Lord Fanhope, died on 10 December 1443 (Complete Peerage, v, p. 200, note d.). His place of burial is also noted in Bale's Chronicle in S.T.C., p. 117.

72 1 March 1444. For the appointment of the embassy on 11 February 1444, see Rymer , Foedera, xi, pp. 53, 5967.

73 This is incorrect; the true date is given above.

74 6 November 1444. The appointment of this embassy is given in Rymer , Foedera, xi, p. 74.

75 Buckingham's creation was 14 September 1444, Warwick's on 5 April 1445 (Complete Peerage, ii, p. 388, xii, p. 383).

76 4 April. Margaret landed on 9 April.

77 Thursday, 22 April.

page 191 note a Anno … la Ware is underlined.

page 191 note b Anno … Rodys is underlined.

78 Whitsun was on 16 May 1445.

79 Friday, 28 May.

80 The relation of this embassy is printed in The Wars of the English in France, ed. J. Stevenson, i, pp. 87148. For a parallel spelling of the bishop of Nantes, see The Brut, p. 379.

81 These were Guillaume Cousinot, Master of Requests, and Jean Havart, a king's carver (Wars of the English in France, ii, p. 647).

82 6 December. The duke of York had been specifically summoned to return from Normandy to attend the session of parliament which lasted from 20 October to 15 December 1445. The exact date of his return appears uncertain, but on 21 December 1445 he wrote to Charles VII that he had recently arrived (ibid., i, pp. 160, 169).

83 4 April. The parliament ended on 9 April 1446.

84 11 June. This is correct in respect of the duke of Warwick, but Reynold West, lord de la Warr, did not die until 27 August 1450 (Complete Peerage, iv, p. 154).

85 22 June. See Wilkins , Concilia, iii, p. 554.

86 On the general pardon of 1446, see Storey R. L., The End of the House of Lancaster (London, 1966), pp. 213–16.

page 192 note a MS. hospio.

page 192 note b Sic.

page 192 note c Et … Natale is underlined.

page 192 note d le lo in margin.

page 192 note e Arestari … vixit is underlined.

87 The quarrel between Thomas Fitzgerald, prior of Kilmainham, and the earl of Ormond is discussed by Otway-Ruthven J., A History of Medieval Ireland (London, 1968), p. 374.

88 Lyndwood's will directing his body to be buried in St. Stephen's chapel is in Archaeologia, xxxiv (1852), pp. 418–20.

89 The court was at Windsor from 24 December to 9 January (P.R.O., E 101/409/16). Stow, Annales, p. 386 says, incorrectly, that Henry spent Christmas at Bury St Edmunds. For Duke Humphrey's movements, see Vickers K. H., op. cit., p. 291, n. 8, and cf. Gregory's Chronicle, p. 187.

90 Saturday, 18 February 1447.

91 This appears to be the most specific reference to the existence of actual charges, though Davies, English Chronicle, p. 62, refers to ‘points of treason’ and Hatfield MS. 281, edited by C. L. Kingsford in E.H.R., xxix (1914), p. 513, to the ‘diverse points upon him putte’.

page 193 note a Obitus ducis Glowcestere in margin.

page 193 note b Et … apud is underlined.

page 193 note c Obitus cardinalis in margin.

page 193 note d Magister Johannes is underlined.

page 193 note e MS. Meuensis.

page 193 note f MS. ordinantur.

page 193 note g MS. castino.

92 11 April.

93 12 June. This appears to be too late. From various references John Stopyndon had died before 15 May 1447 (J. Le Neve, Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae, New Edition, London: iii (compiled J. M. Horn, 1962), p. 8; vi (compiled B. Jones, 1963), p. 43; viii (compiled B. Jones, 1964), p. 48).

94 11 June 1447. Bale's Chronicle in S.T.C., p. 122, also gives these names. The Comte de Dunois headed the embassy which included Cousinot and Havart and the Sire de Précigny (G. du Fresne de Beaucourt, Histoire de Charles VII, iv (1888), pp. 291–3). The English negotiators were named on 1 July (Rymer , Foedera, xi, p. 175), and Henry's commission for the delivery of Maine was issued from Westminster on 27–8 July (Wars of the English in France, ii, pp. 638, 696–8).

95 12 July. Gregory's Chronicle, p. 188, likewise mentions the judgment of these men at Westminster, but the official pardon, dated 14 July, speaks of them having been indicted at Deptford on 8 July (Rymer , Foedera, xi, p. 178).

page 194 note a MS. Katrinie.

page 194 note b Et … Kaer is underlined.

page 194 note c borialibus cancelled in MS.

page 194 note d nih deleted in MS.

page 194 note e duas … al is underlined, and in margin 1aand 2a.

96 26 July. Emden A. B., A Biographical Register of Cambridge. University to 1500 (Cambridge, 1963), p. 352, gives 22 May for Langton's death.

97 Complete Peerage, xii, p. 51, gives the date of the duke of Somerset's creation as 31 March 1448.

98 12 May 1448. Complete Peerage xii, p. 446, gives the date of the duke of Suffolk's creation as 2 June 1448.

99 8 September. On this day the king was at Cambridge on the first stage of his journey to York which he had reached by 20 September. He had returned to Cambridge by 26 October. (P.R.O., E 101/410/1, fo. 21; E 101/410/3, fo. 2).

100 xhe only other English sources which mention the battle of the Sark, near Solway, in October 1448, are Bale's Chronicle in S.T.C., pp. 123–4 and Giles , Chronicon Angliae, p. 35.

101 Friday, 7 March 1449. Reference to this is made in Short English Chronicle, p. 66, and Chronicle of London, ed. Nicolas N. H. (London, 1827), p. 135, but neither names the Lollard nor reports his beliefs.

page 195 note a MS. de d (cancelled) Vonie.

page 195 note b Et … videlicet is underlined; terre motus underlined in margin.

page 195 note c R cancelled.

page 195 note d iniqus cancelled, Iniqus underlined in margin to supply caret in MS.

page 195 note f cometis altered to comitis; for scribal confusion in this sentence see note.

102 The sessions of this parliament were 12 February to 4 April; 7 May to 30 May; 16 June to 16 July. All three peers were held to have been created by writ of summons to the first session (Complete Peerage, ii, p. 218; v, p. 508; xii, p. 286).

103 Richard duke of York landed in Ireland on 6 July (Otway-Ruthven J., op. cit., p. 378). He had thus been in England throughout the session of parliament.

104 This confusion of names is evidently a mistake by the copyist. Richard Neville was confirmed in the title of earl of Warwick on 23 July 1449, and James Butler was created earl of Wiltshire on 8 July 1449 (Complete Peerage, xii, pp. 385, 734).

105 Convocation met in St Paul's Cathedral from 1 to 28 July 1449 (Wilkins , Concilia, iii, pp. 556–67).

page 196 note a pro … pro lon underlined.

page 196 note b insultum cancelled.

page 196 note c MS. parlimentum.

page 196 note d MS. Westneonasterium.

page 196 note e MS. pro regatum.

page 196 note f MS. iniqus.

106 The aid given was probably in the form of loans, promises for which were given by Archbishop Stafford, the earl of Suffolk and Adam Moleyns on 18 August at Braynsford (Proc. & Ord., vi, p. 86; P.R.O., E 404/65/223). Towards the end of August numerous loans are recorded on the receipt roll. I have found no other reference to a council at Sheen, but W. Worcester, Annales, p. 765, says that the council authorised the despatch of the relief force under Kyriali, and Bale's Chronicle in S.T.C., p. 126, refers to ‘many other taskes and loones leveed of the peple be sotcll and straunge meanes’.

107 As late as 20 December jewels were still being pledged in an attempt to raise money for the wages of this force (Wars of the English in France, i, pp. 503–8).

108 The treaty of surrender for Rouen was signed on 29 October 1449; the city was evacuated on 4 November. The earl of Shrewsbury had been one of the hostages for its surrender; cf. Bale's Chronicle in S.T.C., p. 126.

109 22 January. The first session of this parliament, following the adjournment on 6 November, lasted until 4 December.

110 Friday, 9 January 1450.

page 197 note a MS. iniqus.

page 197 note b est repeated in MS.

page 197 note c Sic.

page 197 note d francie cancelled in MS.

111 For this attempt by the duke of Suffolk to evade imprisonment by seeking permission to retire to Wallingford, see likewise Bale's Chronicle in S.T.C., p. 127, and Rot. Parl., v, pp. 176–7.

112 29 January 1450.

113 31 January 1450.

114 This victim is referred to in Bale's Chronicle, in S.T.C., p. 128, and in Hatfield MS. 281 (E.H.R., xxix, p. 514) where the name is given as Nicholas Jakes. For popular remarks about Henry VI which were accounted seditious in these years, see Storey R. L., End of the House of Lancaster, pp. 34–5.

115 James Fenys had been created Lord Say probably in February 1447; he was the younger brother of Sir Roger Fenys (Complete Peerage, xi, p. 480 and App. I).

116 This is the only source to associate Thomas Cheyne/Bluebeard with the ‘Queen of the feyre’, mentioned in Bale's Chronicle in S.T.C. p. 127. Bale also notes (p. 128) that Bluebeard was executed at Tyburn on 9 February, while Stow, Annales, p. 387, also identifies Bluebeard as Thomas Cheyne and says he was ‘taken beside Canterbury’. See also Hatfield MS. 281 (E.H.R., xxix, pp. 514–15).

117 Friday, 27 February 1450.

118 Bale's Chronicle in S.T.C., p. 128, gives the date of this fire at Eltham as 25 February 1450.

page 198 note a Anno … Maii is underlined, n[ota] in margin.

page 198 note b CCCC inserted over caret in different hand.

page 198 note c cum ducentis hominibus inserted over caret in margin.

page 198 note d MS. ultime.

page 198 note e n[ota]obitus ducis Suffolchie in margin.

page 198 note f Et … Junii is underlined.

page 198 note g Insurrectio Cancie in margin.

page 198 note h Et … usque annotated le lo in margin.

119 xhe session at Leicester opened on 29 April, 1450.

120 27 April.

121 2 May.

122 The resting of the duke's body at Dover before his final interment at Wingfield is also mentioned in Giles , Chronicon Angliae, p. 38.

123 Thursday, 11 June 1450.

page 199 note a Sevenoke … homines annotated le lo in margin.

page 199 note b occisi cancelled.

page 199 note c MS. invenierentur.

page 199 note d Episcopus Sarum in margin.

124 Thursday, 18 June.

125 Saturday, 20 June. Cf. Bale's Chronicle in S.T.C., p. 132.

126 Monday, 29 June. This date is confirmed by the Sherborne Annals in E.H.L., p. 347.

127 This date is confirmed by the Great Chronicle, p. 182, although Bale's Chronicle in S.T.C., p. 132, and Gregory's Chronicle, p. 191, place Cade's return in the following days.

page 200 note a Tune … Capitaneus annotated le lo in margin.

page 200 note b MS. preteriti.

page 200 note c MS. audiendites.

128 Thursday, 2 July, as in Bale's Chronicle in S.T.C., p. 132.

129 The Mayor of London was Thomas Chalton; the Chief Baron of the Exchequer was Peter Ardern; Nicholas Assheton was a justice of the Common Bench. W. Worcester, Annales, p. 768, mentions Robert Danvers as one of the commissioners.

130 Saturday, 4 July.

131 He is named in W. Worcester, Annales, p. 768, as John Bailey, and is referred to anonymously in Short English Chronicle, p. 67, and Bodleian Library, Rawlinson MS. B.355 in S.T.C., p. 106.

page 201 note a Word missing in MS.

page 201 note b ic G03' heu rapitur bonus Armiger ccce Matheus

Dormit non inoritur Annus testis Jubeleus

above text in different (late fifteenth-century) hand.

page 201 note c MS. ceteriis.

page 201 note d Obitus M Go3h and le lo in margin.

page 201 note e Sic.

page 201 note f Obitus capitani in margin.

132 There appears to have been some error in copying at this point, but it is clear that two executions are referred to. Although in W. Worcester, Annales, p. 768, Hawarden is said to have been executed at Smithfield, Gregory's Chronicle, p. 193, places this at Southwark and Rawlinson B. 355 in S.T.C., p. 106, adds ‘ad tabardum in Suthwerk’. Both these latter sources notice also the execution of Thomas Mayne ‘de Essex’ whom Bale's Chronicle in S.T.C., p. 133, refers to as ‘a gentilman’ ‘of Colchester’. The present chronicle identifies him as the keeper of Colchester castle, the Constable and Steward of which were, respectively, John Hampton and Robert Manfield, both members of the hated court group.

133 John Sutton, goldsmith (sheriff 1441).

134 Alexander Iden.

page 202 note a MS. insurgererent.

page 202 note b MS. Angiliam.

page 202 note c Marginal line draws attention to this paragraph.

page 202 note d MS. Eboracii.

page 202 note e MS. vigilila.

135 Friday, 24 July.

136 Tuesday, 28 July.

137 The commission, issued on 1 August 1450, is in Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1446–1452, p. 388. The newly created judge was probably Robert Danvers, appointed Judge of the Common Pleas on 14 August (Foss E., A Biographical Dictionary of the Judges of England (London, 1870), p. 213).

138 15 August. Cherbourg surrendered on 12 August.

139 8 September. According to Otway-Ruthven J., A History of Medieval Ireland, (London, 1968), p. 383, the duke was at Trim on 26 August and soon afterwards landed at Beaumaris. On 23 September he passed through Stony Stratford on his way to London (John Piggot's Memoranda in E.H.L., p. 372).

140 Sunday, 27 September 1450.

page 203 note a A cipher at the head of this page in the same sixteenth-century hand as Robert Burdon on fo. 184r, reads:

God that is in heuen a boue ieue me

grace sine to remoue and this uice to fle.

page 203 note b MS. preteriti.

page 203 note c MS. de venie.

page 203 note d MS. iterim.

page 203 note e MS. duxit.

page 203 note f MS. devenie.

141 9 October.

142 The campaign in Gascony opened on 10 October with the siege of Bergerac. Ramsay J. H., Lancaster and York, ii, p. 142.

143 6 November 1450. Gregory's Chronicle, p. 195, also remarks on the numerous retainers.

144 30 November. This disturbance in Westminster Hall is also referred to in Bale's Chronicle in S.T.C., p. 137.

page 204 note a Et … regina is underlined.

page 204 note b MS. fuerint.

page 204 note c Et … parliamentum is underlined.

page 204 note d anno … evangeliste is underlined.

145 18 December.

146 28 January 1451. The wardrobe accounts confirm that after spending Christmas at Westminster the royal household left on this date (P.R.O., E 101/410/6).

147 The commission of oyer and terminer for Kent, issued on 27 January 1451, is in Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1446–1452, p. 442.

148 23 February 1451. The date is confirmed by P.R.O., E 101/410/6.

149 Tuesday, 20 April 1451. In the parliament roll (P.R.O., C 65/101, m. 3) the date of the prorogation is given as ‘die lune vicesimo nono die Aprilis’, but since the 29th fell on a Thursday and the roll speaks of Easter (25 April) as ‘tune quasi in proximo existens’, this is clearly a mistake. H.B.C. p. 532, following Wedgwood J. C., History of Parliament, Register, (London, 1938) p. 145, n. 1, prefers 29 March, but clearly the parliament roll should read ‘decimo nono Aprilis’.

150 3 May 1451.

151 5 May 1451.

152 25 April 1451. Easter had last fallen on this day in 1204 and the next occasion was in 1546.

153 13 June. H.B.C. p. 562, following Wedgwood, History of Parliament, Register, p. 145, n. 2, dates the dissolution between 24 and 31 May, though the reference to Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1446–1452, p. 472, is not decisive.

page 205 note a proventus cancelled.

page 205 note b Or provententium, in either case unexplained.

page 205 note c Et … homines is underlined.

page 205 note d MS. proosuit.

154 Reginald Boulers, formerly abbot of Gloucester, was consecrated bishop of Hereford on 14 February 1451.

155 22 June 1451. The date is confirmed in P.R.O., E 101/410/6. The commission for these shires, dated 20 May 1451 and headed by the duke of Somerset, is in Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1446–1452, p. 477.

156 The French entered Bordeaux on 30 June 1451, a week after its surrender had been negotiated.

157 The levy of a tax in London for the relief of Calais is also noted by Bale's Chronicle in S.T.C., p. 138.

158 17 September.

159 The court was at Eltham between 16 December 1451 and 11 January 1452. (P.R.O., E 101/410/9).

160 Friday, 28 January 1452. The extraction of Sir William Oldhall from St Martin's sanctuary and his restoration on Sunday, 30 January, are referred to in Bale's Chronicle in S.T.C., p. 139.

page 206 note a MS. extratxerunt.

page 206 note b MS. insurreret.

page 206 note c MS. insurrgeret.

page 206 note d MS. reciperet.

page 206 note e MS. fome'is.

page 206 note f MS. appropiet.

161 16 February 1452. The date of the king's departure for Barnet is confirmed in P.R.O., E 101/410/9, and the fire at St Mary le Pewe took place the same day. See E.H.L., pp. 372–3; Kingsford C. L., ‘Our Lady of the Pew’, Archaeologia, lxviii (1917), pp. 1011.

162 The court was at Northampton on 22–3 February 1452. (P.R.O., E 101/410/9).

163 29 February 1452.

164 27 February. This is confirmed in P.R.O., E 101/410/9, which shows the royal household resident at the Tower and St. Mary Overy.

page 207 note a le lo underlined, Nigrum Bruarium in margin, ana underlined below text: Hac locus incipiebat et eo tempore labor et dolor.

page 207 note b nota in margin.

page 207 note c MS. illis.

165 1 March. P.R.O., E 101/410/9, confirms the movement of the royal household to Welling, near Crayford, on this date.

166 2 March.

167 York's articles against Somerset are printed from Brit. Mus., Cotton MS. Vespasian C xiv in The Paston Letters, ed. Gairdner J., i (London, 1904), pp. 103–8.

168 York's oath is in Rot. Parl., v, p. 346.

169 A Commission of oyer and terminer for Kent was issued on n May 1452 (Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1446–1452, p. 577).

170 17 May. A commission to arrest those who had despoiled the college was issued on 16 July 1452 (ibid., p. 585).

171 Thursday, 25 May 1452.

page 208 note a hy cancelled.

page 208 note b h cancelled.

page 208 note c Et … dominum is underlined; le lo in margin.

172 The commission of oyer and terminer for the western shires was issued on 6 July 1452, Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1446–1452, p. 580. The court was at Ludlow on 12–13 August (P.R.O., E 101/410/9).

173 The oyer and terminer commission for the eastern shires was issued on 28 September (ibid., 1452–1461, p. 54). The king left London on 13 October; the itinerary of the household for these two commissions is illustrated in Storey R. L., End of the House of Lancaster, pp. 96–7.

174 21 October 1452.

175 Friday, 5 January 1453. W. Worcester, Annales, p. 770 gives the names of some of the newly created knights but his chronology is unreliable at this point. Cf. Complete Peerage, x, p. 398.

176 The Epiphany date for the creation as earls of the two half-brothers of Henry VI is given in Brit. Mus. Cotton MS. Vitellius A. xvi in Chron. Lond., p. 163; Fabyan R., New Chronicles of England and France, ed. Ellis H. (London, 1811), p. 627, and Great Chronicle, p. 186. The patent of creation is, however, dated 23 November 1452 as in Cal. Charter Rolls, vi, p. 122; Lords Report on the Dignity of a Peer, v (London, 1829), p. 293. Cf. Complete Peerage, xi, pp. 398, 826. According to W. Worcester, Annales, p. 770, both knighthood and earldom were conferred before Christmas at Greenwich.

page 209 note a Et … causa is underlined, followed by blank line in MS., and in margin queritur divorcium quare celeur [? celetur],

page 209 note b nota in margin,

page 209 note c MS. dominus.

page 209 note d MS. Matiniani.

177 The commission to raise the loan is given in Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1452–1461, p. 52. Payments of large numbers of loans and gifts are recorded on the receipt rolls for the Michaelmas term (Steel A., The Receipt of the Exchequer, 1377–1485 (Cambridge, 1956), p. 272).

178 Convocation met on 7 February 1453.

179 This commission of oyer and terminer for East Anglia was issued on 8 January 1453 (Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1452–1461, p. 60).

180 The divorce of John de la Pole and Margaret Beaufort at about this time has been assumed from evidence on the patent roll. See Complete Peerage, xii, p. 450; Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1452–1461, p. 78. The marriage had taken place between 28 January and 7 February 1450 when, in their attack on the duke of Suffolk, the Commons complained that ‘sith the tyme of his areste, he hath doo the seid Margarete to be maried to his said sonne’ (Rot. Parl., v, p. 177). Both were beneath the age of 14 and, since they were within the prohibited degrees, a papal dispensation was obtained in August 1450 (Cal. Papal Letters, x, p. 472).

181 Easter Day was 1 April 1453. Parliament had been prorogued on 28 March.

182 10 August. The battle of Castillon took place on 17 July.

183 Bordeaux fell on 19 October 1453.

184 2 July. Parliament was adjourned until 12 November.

page 210 note a Anno … erga is underlined; nota in margin.

page 210 note b MS. erga’.

page 210 note c le lo in margin.

page 210 note d magna cancelled.

185 H.B.C., p. 532, gives 14 February; but parliament seems in fact to have been prorogued first to the tith and then to the 14th (Ramsay , Lancaster and York, ii, pp. 167, 169).

186 4 July, 1453. For a discussion of this dispute, see the Introduction.

187 Monday, 23 July. This appears to be the only notice of the combat.

188 1 August. The only other source to give a date for Henry's illness is Giles, Chronicon Angliae, p. 44, which places it about 7 July, which is certainly too early. See Lander J. R., ‘Henry VI and the Duke of York's Second Protectorate, 1455 to 1456’, Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, xliii (1960), p. 46.

189 13 October.

190 Giles , Chronicon Angliae, p. 44, also notes the role of the nobility in choosing Richard, duke of York as Protector.

191 12 November 1453. This was the day of the re-assembly of parliament which was immediately prorogued until February 1454.

192 The duke of Norfolk's articles against the duke of Somerset are printed in The Pastan Letters, ed. J. Gairdner, ii, 290–2.

page 211 note a MS. devenie.

page 211 note b MS. adjuratum.

page 211 note c MS. locumtens.

page 211 note d MS. Canturar.

page 211 note e Jo cancelled in MS.

page 211 note f MS. episcopas.

page 211 note g nota in margin, and Anno … provectam is underlined.

193 23 November 1453. In March 1455 the duke of Somerset complained that he had been detained for ten weeks prior to 7 February 1454 (Rymer , Foedera, xi, p. 361).

194 Articles were subsequently presented against him in parliament on 14 March 1454, when the duke of York spoke in his defence (Rot. Parl., v, P. 249).

195 Xhis was the authority conferred on York by letters patent on 13 February for the opening of parliament (Rot. Parl., v, p. 239).

196 This fire is recorded also in Rawlinson MS. B. 355 in S.T.C., p. 108.

197 19 February. Archbishop Kemp in fact died on 22 March, i.e. xi kal. April, so that the copyist is probably at fault. Giles , Chronicon Angliae, p. 45, has an eulogy of Kemp.

198 The earl of Salisbury became Chancellor on 2 April 1454.

199 The duke of York's patent as Protector is dated 3 April 1454 although the Lords had agreed on his appointment on 27 March (Rot. Parl., v, pp. 242–3).

200 19 May 1454. Griffiths R., ‘Local Rivalries and National Politics: The Percies, the Nevilles and the Duke of Kxeter, 1452–1455’, Speculum, xliii (1968), p. 612, suggests 16 May for York's departure. The Council had written to the duke of Exeter on 11 May ordering him to appear before it on 16th, and again later ordering him to appear on 25th (Proc. & Ord., vi, pp. 180, 189).

page 212 note a MS. Eborcum.

page 212 note b MS. fe fbruarii.

page 212 note c apud cancelled.

page 212 note d Cum … rigore is underlined.

page 212 note e MS. Nobilisime.

page 212 note f Tune … Bukynghamie is underlined.

201 Wednesday, 23 July. The duke of Exeter had taken sanctuary at Westminster earlier in the month. See Griffiths R., art. cit., p. 620; Storey R. L., End of the House of Lancaster, p. 147.

202 This was the battle of Stamford Bridge, for which see Storey R. L., op. cit., p. 149; Griffiths R., art. cit., pp. 621–4.

203 The king's recovery on Christmas Day is reported in The Pastan Letters, ii, p. 13.

204 Cf. Bale's Chronicle in S.T.C., p. 141. Somerset was released on bail on 5 February to answer charges against him (Cal. Close Rolls, 1454–1461, p. 44).

205 The exact date of the duke of York's resignation of the Protectorship is not known. See Armstrong C. A. J., ‘Politics and the Battle of St Albans’, Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research, xxxiii (1960), p. 8.

206 Cf. Giles , Chronicon Angliae, p. 47. On 4 March 1455 York and Somerset entered into recognisances for good behaviour to each other (Cal. Close Rolls, 1454–1461, p. 49).

page 213 note a MS. mala.

page 213 note b Et … Bukynghamie is underlined.

page 213 note c audiens dux Somersetie cancelled.

page 213 note d MS. Somertie.

page 213 note e MS. reads misit rex dux …

page 213 note f Bellum sancti Albani in margin.

207 The presence on the Yorkist side of Richard Grey, lord of Powis, is not mentioned in any other source. It is inherently probable, for although only nineteen he was a neighbour of the duke of York's and was to support him in arms at Ludford. Moreover he was summoned to the parliament immediately following the battle of St Albans and there took the oath of allegiance to Henry VI. (Complete Peerage, vi, p. 139).

208 A mistake for ‘xij kal. Junii’, i.e. 21 May.

209 This reference to the appeal of the duke of Norfolk must be read in the light of the use of Mowbray Herald in the negotiations. See Armstrong C. A. J., op. cit., pp. 2939.

page 214 note a MS. suuis.

page 214 note b cum suis proceribus et fortiter cancelled.

page 214 note c Northumbrie … vulneratus is underlined.

page 214 note d MS. cast cancelled.

210 This account of the battle of St Albans has much in common with the ‘Stow relation’ printed in The Pastan Letters, iii, 28.

211 For this detail, see also Registrum Abbaus Johannis Whetehamstede, ed. H. T. Riley, i (Rolls Series, 1872), p. 169.

212 The precise meaning of burram in this context is not clear. It commonly had the meaning of wool or wool stuffing (Souter A., A Glossary of Later Latin, Oxford, 1949; Du Gange , Glossarium Mediae et Infimae Latinitatis, Paris, 1883), but it could also be used of a woollen garment (Godefroy F., Dictionnaire de l'ancienne langue française, Paris, 1937; Thesaurus Linguae Latinae, Leipzig, 1900), and could be translated as ‘burrel’. In this passage it is associated with the cap of honour and estate and one of the ceremonial swords in what was a symbolic re-affirmation of the validity of Henry VI's coronation, but it can hardly refer to the burrel or ray cloth which was laid by the king's almoner for the monarch to process from Westminster Hall to the abbey (cf. Medieval Latin Word-List, Oxford, 1934, and Wickham Legg L. G., English Coronation Records, London, 1901, passini). What is meant here may be the great mantle of estate which figures in the coronation records of the late fifteenth century, forming along with the cap the ‘regalia of the secular enthronement which preceded the coronation’ (Armstrong C. A. J., ‘The Coronation Ceremonies of the Yorkist Kings’, Trans. Roy. Hist. Soc., 4th Series, xxx (1948), p. 59; for the cap see St John Hope W. H., ‘The Cap of Maintenance’, in Legg L. G. Wickham, op. cit., pp. lxxxiilxxxviii).

page 215 note a ab … Martini episcopi is underlined.

page 215 note b fuga cancelled.

page 215 note c Sic.

213 Bale's Chronicle in S.T.C., p. 142, records that the Yorkist earls ‘all the Witsonwyke kept the roialte and sport’, but it was also during this time that the outlines of a political settlement were reached: see Armstrong C. A. J., ‘Politics and the Battle of St Albans’, Bull. Inst. Hist. Res., xxiii (1960), pp. 54–5.

214 Henry, viscount Bourchier was appointed treasurer on 29 May, and Richard, earl of Warwick captain of Calais, on 4 August. See Harriss G. L., ‘The Struggle for Calais: an Aspect of the Rivalry between Lancaster and York’, E.H.R., lxxv (1960), p. 41.

215 The duke of York's patent as Protector was issued on 19 November 1455, in the second session of parliament (Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1452–1461, p. 273).

216 22 July 1455. In fact the pardon was for offences committed before 9 July; it was issued on 30 July (Rot. Parl., v, pp. 283–4).

217 11 November. Parliament was prorogued from 31 July to 12 November 1455.

218 21 September. The only other contemporary reference to this riot is in Rawlinson MS. B. 355 in S.T.C., p. 109, although Fabyan R., Chronicles, p. 629, preserves a still different version. On the Counter, the city prison, see Pugh R. B., Imprisonment in Medieval England (Cambridge, 1968), pp. 109–11.

219 7 November. Rawlinson MS. B. 355 and Bale's Chronicle in S.T.C., pp. 109, 143, agree in placing their appearance before the justices in London and subsequent committal to Newgate after the battle of St Albans, in November 1455; but cf. Storey R. L., End of the House of Lancaster, p. 149. The fine imposed on the Percys before the justices in Yorkshire was in fact 16,800 marks. See Bean J. M. W., The Estates of the Percy Family, 1416–1537 (Oxford, 1958), p. 99, n. 3.

page 216 note a xvi … Wes … is underlined.

page 216 note b contra cancelled.

page 216 note c et ex utra cancelled.

220 13 December.

221 13 January 1456.

222 16 December 1455. This was the fight at Clyst, on which see Storey R. L.op. cit., pp. 165–75; J. R. Lander, ‘Henry VI and the Duke of York's Second Protectorate’, Bull. John Rylands Library, xliii, pp. 5967.

223 The imprisonment of Lord Bonville in the Fleet is not recorded elsewhere and seems doubtful, although lie may have been placed in protective custody by the duke of York to whom he had fled in December. See Vitellius A. xvi in Chron. Lond., p. 166 and Rawlinson B. 355 in S.T.C., p. 109. The commons' petition for the imprisonment of Bonville and Devon had been refused (Rot. Parl., v, p. 332).

224 This struggle over the resumption is discussed by Wolffe B. P., ‘Acts of Resumption in Lancastrian Parliaments’, E.H.R., lxxiii (1958), pp. 583613. The king came to parliament on 25 February 1456 and relieved the duke of York of his office as Protector (Rot. Parl., v, p. 321; Rymer , Foedera, xi, p. 373). The parliament was dissolved on 12 March.

225 23 February 1456. This is the first recorded instance of the allegation of Prince Edward's bastardy, which was widespread by 1459. See Davies , English Chronicle, p. 79.

page 217 note a Anno … London’ is underlined.

page 217 note b Sic.

page 217 note c anli cancelled.

page 217 note d MS. illas.

page 217 note e MS. quator.

page 217 note f terre motus and le lo in margin.

226 For this dispute between citizens and curates over oblations, which continued throughout the decade, see Calendar of Letter Books of the City of London, Letter Book K, ed. Sharpe R. R. (London, 1911), pp. 350, 360, 402.

227 The appearance of these comets is also noted in Davies , English Chronicle, p. 72, and Vitettius A. xvi in Chron. Land., p. 166.

228 8 September 1456.

229 13 October. William Waynflete became Chancellor on 11 October and the earl of Shrewsbury Treasurer on 5 October 1456.

230 Cf. Vitellius A. xvi in Chron. Lond., p. 167: ‘the Duke of York, and the said erle, wt therle of Warwyk, wer sent for by preve seale to Coventre, where they were all nere entrappid’; and The Brut, p. 523.

231 For this see Ramsay , Lancaster and York, ii, pp. 194–5.

232 20 September. Noted also in Bale's Chronicle in S.T.C., p. 144.

233 Saturday, 13 November 1456.

234 Noted also in The Brut, p. 524.

page 218 note a This sentence appears to be unfinished.

page 218 note b nota translacio sancti Osmundi in margin.

page 218 note c MS. destruexerunt.

page 218 note d MS. despoliverunt.

235 I can find no other reference to this incident. There is no extant episcopal register of St David's for this period.

235 a sir William Herbert's submission is discussed by Evans H. T., Wales and the Wars of the Roses (Cambridge, 1915), pp. 98–9 and Storey R. L., End of the House of Lancaster, pp. 180–1. Neither mentions the appeals against him or his imprisonment at the Tower and Windsor. This could have been brief, for he received a pardon on 7 June (Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1452–1461, p. 360).

236 On 20 July 1456 a commission had been issued for the arrest of Nicholas Philip and others of Tiverton, ‘attainted of certain felonies by authority of the parliament last held at Westminster’ (Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1452–1461, p. 310). These were evidently Sir Thomas Courtenay's followers in the attack on Nicholas Radford and in the ensuing disturbances. See R. L. Storey, op. et loc. cit. Thomas Courtenay and his brother Henry were pardoned in November 1457. ibid., p. 393.

237 16 July 1457. Cf. Bale's Chronicle in S.T.C., p. 144 and n. 3.

238 Sunday, 24 August 1457.

239 Bishop Robert Neville died on 28 July 1457.

240 The great council met on 28 November 1457. This chronicle follows Whetehamstede in locating its meeting at Westminster. See Jacob E. F., ‘Reynold Pecock, Bishop of Chichester’, Proceedings of the British Academy, xxxvii (1951), p. 137, n. 3; Green V. H. H., Bishop Reginald Pecock (Cambridge, 1945), p. 54.

page 219 note a nota Pekok episcopus in margin, and ubi … credo is underlined.

page 219 note b iterrum cancelled.

page 219 note c Et … confessio is underlined, and abjuracio episcopi in materna lingua in margin.

page 219 note d perly cancelled.

page 219 note e All other versions read Wrytyngys conteynynge yn hem heresyes.

page 219 note f MS. contratrary.

page 219 note g All other versions read the fayth catholices.

241 On this see Jacob E. F., op. cit., p. 138; Green V. H. H., op. cit., pp. 174–81.

242 For the relation of this to other extant copies of Pecock's abjuration and confession, see Introduction, p. 63.

page 220 note a MS. Condemptnant.

page 220 note b nota in margin.

page 220 note c nota in margin.

243 Sunday, 11 December 1457.

page 221 note a the seven articles are numbered in the margin in arabie numerals.

page 221 note b has cancelled.

page 221 note c illesus et cancelled.

page 221 note d Circa pacem cancelled.

page 221 note e Rex … tenuerunt is underlined.

page 221 note f MS. villiam.

page 221 note g Et … tradicione in is underlined.

244 This case of Lollardy is not elsewhere recorded, although these tenets had been characteristic of Essex Lollardy from the time of Bishop Alnwick's persecution twenty years previously. See Thomson J. A. F., The Later Lollards (Oxford, 1965), pp. 127–33.

245 The Brut, p. 525, places the date of the king's and queen's return to London on 17 March. The award was dated 24 March (Whetehamstede , Registram, i, pp. 298308), and the procession took place on 25 March.

page 222 note a Blank in MS.

page 222 note b MS. fedelitatem.

246 The embassy was named on 14 May 1458 (Rymer , Foedera, xi, p. 410). For the political undercurrents in the negotiations, see Scofield C. L., The Reign of Edward IV, i (London, 1923), p. 28; Thielemans M.-R., Bourgogne et Angleterre (Bruxelles, 1966), pp. 369–71,

247 Tuesday, 11 July 1458.

248 On 1 March 1458, William Brown, clerk in the King's Bench, was granted the reversion of the offices of coroner and attorney in the King's Bench held by Thomas Greswold and Alexander Kingston. He surrendered this on 10 July and on 11 July the same offices were granted to the king's Serjeant Thomas Croxton (Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1452–1461, pp. 418, 426). Mr E. W. Ives informs me that this is probably William Sandys who is referred to as an officer of the King's Bench in Year Book, 19 Henry VI, fo. 2.

249 Tuesday, 30 January 1459. A confused reference to the suspension of the courts arising from this incident occurs in an ambassadorial report from the Burgundian court printed in Stevenson , Wars of the English in France, i, pp. 367–8. On 8 February 1459 the duke was committed to Berkhampstead castle under pain of £10,000 and was later, in April, charged to appear before the council for having offended against the laws in the term before Easter last (Cal. Close Rolls, 1454–1461, pp. 318, 350). Mrs S. T. Bindoff informs me, however, that the Curia Regis rolls for both Hilary and Easter terms show no diminution in size and in the number of cases, and that a case was heard in court on 30 January (P.R.O., K.B. 27/791 rot. 38). I have not been able to identify Eyrkham of Gray's Inn and the reason for Exeter's action has yet to be explained, but if the incident in fact took place while the king was in Westminster, this clearly aggravated Exeter's violation of the peace.

page 223 note a Sic.

page 223 note b MS. Comutate.

page 223 note c Blank in MS.

page 223 note d multos cancelled.

page 223 note e Sarum cancelled.

250 This gives the most circumstantial detail of the affray in Fleet Street, which is also reported in some detail in Bale's Chronicle, in S.T.C., p. 146.

251 Thomas Scott, mayor; Ralph Josselyn and Richard Nedam, sheriffs.

252 The court had moved to Coventry by the first week in July (Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1452–1461, pp. 507–8).

253 it was from Nottingham that the king summoned Lord Stanley to come to him, presumably in September 1459. (Rot. Parl., v, 369).

254 Friday, 21 September 1459. Bale's Chronicle in S.T.C., pp. 147–8 notes this as taking place on 20 September.

page 224 note a Bellum Bloreheth in margin.

255 Cf. Gregory's Chronicle, p. 204: ‘a grete journay at the Blowre Hethe by the Erie of Saulysbury ande the Quenys galentys’.

256 Saturday, 13 October 1459.

257 Somerset's appointment was dated 9 October 1459. Rymer , Foedera, xi, p. 436.

258 20 November 1459.

259 John duke of Suffolk's degradation is not recorded on the parliament roll, nor was he summoned to this parliament, being only seventeen years of age. The confirmation of his title by Edward IV in 1463 is in Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1461–1467, p. 261. His marriage to Margaret Beaufort had been dissolved in 1453 (vide supra, p. 209, n. 180). The date of his subsequent marriage to Elizabeth, second daughter of Richard Duke of York, is not certain; the earliest reference to it occurs in October 1460 (Pastan Letters iii, p. 226; Complete Peerage, xii, p. 450).

page 225 note a Anno … Excestrie is underlined, with nota in margin.

page 225 note b Sic.

page 225 note c MS. mortus.

page 225 note d Et … Romana, marginal note le lo.

page 225 note e Blank in MS.

260 25 May 1460.

261 Davies , English Chronicle, p. 95, records that the king was holding a council at Coventry when news came of the landing of the Yorkist earls, i.e. late in June. The patent rolls show that the court was at Coventry from the latter part of May (Cat. Pat. Rolls, 1452–1461, pp. 585600).

262 16 June.

263 Convocation opened on 6 May 1460 and ended on 15 July 1461.

264 Wednesday, 2 July 1460.

265 Compare the more accurate comment in Davies , English Chronicle, p. 94. For Coppini's role, see Scofield C. L., Reign of Edward IV, i, pp. 72–3, 87.

page 226 note a MS. intentibus.

page 226 note b Et … dominus la Faucumbrege is underlined, with marginal note Bellum Northampton’.

page 226 note c At head of page in same cipher as on fo. 170r.: Robart Burdon,

page 226 note d MS. Mercurrii.

266 5 July 1460.

267 Robert Hungerford, lord Moleyns in right of his wife Eleanor, daughter of William lord Moleyns (Complete Peerage, vi, p. 618).

268 10 July 1460.

269 The flight of the earl of Wiltshire is also narrated by Davies , English Chronicle, p. 90.

270 Wednesday, 16 July 1460.

page 227 note a interioris is partially erased.

page 227 note b MS. obtinit; et … custodirei is underlined.

page 227 note c MS. navum.

page 227 note d Et vijo die die Martis die octabis in MS.

271 Sunday, 20 July 1460. According to Short English Chronicle, p. 75, the Tower surrendered on Friday, 18 July, but Davies , English Chronicle, p. 98, gives the date as 19 July.

272 Wednesday, 23 July, as in Short English Chronicle, p. 75.

273 28 July 1460.

274 29 July 1460.

275 2 August 1460. Cf. W. Worcester, Annales, p. 773; The Chronicle of John Stone, ed. W. G. Searle (Cambridge Antiquarian Soc., xxxiv, 1902), p. 80. 276 There is no such date. The Chronicle of John Stone, p. 81, records King Henry's entry into Canterbury on 2 August. He left for London on 18 August.

277 20 July.

278 3 August.

279 8 September 1460. This date is accepted by Scofield C. L., Reign of Edward IV, i, p. 101.

page 228 note a MS. France et Dominii Hiberne. Francie … concordie is underlined.

page 228 note b MS. Comittibus et dominiis.

page 228 note c Et … costodiendas has marginal note le lo.

page 228 note d MS. Hiberne.

page 228 note e MS. Hiben'.

page 228 note f Sic.

page 228 note g Bellum Wakefylde in margin.

page 228 note h multi … Eboraci is underlined.

280 29 November 1460. H.B.C., p. 532, gives the prorogation as ‘probably from 1 December 1460 to 28 January 1461’.

281 Friday, 5 December 1460. Vitellius A. xvi in Chron. Land., p. 172, gives the date as 2 December, while Bale's Chronicle in S.T.C., p. 151, and Gregory's Chronicle, p. 210, give 9 December.

282 30 December.

page 229 note a Et … pugnavit is underlined.

page 229 note b circa festum cancelled.

page 229 note c 2m bellum Sancti Albani in margin.

page 229 note d alii … Albani is underlined.

283 28 January 1461. This session of parliament, which is otherwise referred to only by Bale's Chronicle in S.T.C., p. 153, was surmised by Wedgwood J. C., History of Parliament, Register, p. 266, n. 2.

284 The dates of these peerages have hitherto been derived from the first writs of summons to parliament which were, in Lord Montague's case 23 May 1461, in Lord Cromwell's 25 July 1461 and in Lord Scales's 22 December 1462 (Complete Peerage, ix, p. 89, iii, p. 554, xi, p. 507).

285 3 February 1461. See above, note 283.

286 There is some dispute whether the battle was fought on 2 or 3 February, most sources preferring the former date. See Scofield C. L., Reign of Edward IV, i, p. 138, n. 2.

287 This date agrees with Davies , English Chronicle, p. 107, but Gregory's Chronicle, p. 211, gives 17 February.

288 Thursday, 26 February, confirmed in Gregory's Chronicle, p. 215.

page 230 note a MS. reads: Et feria iiijta sequentis die menais Marcii.

page 230 note b Edwardus iiiitus rex in margin.

page 230 note c Anno Domini Mo CCCCo LXIoin margin in different hand from text.

page 230 note d de … suus is underlined; le lo in margin.

page 230 note e MS. tirannicie

page 230 note f Sic. Head venit?

page 230 note g et … dux is underlined; Bellum de Shirbourne in margin.

page 230 note h Sic.

page 230 note i et … Scociam is underlined.

page 230 note j MS. Somersesetie.

289 Friday, 13 March, as in Vitellius A. xvi in Chron. Lond., p. 175, and Gregory's Chronicle, p. 216.

290 This may be a confusion with Thomas Grey, lord Richmont-Grey who figures in other chronicle accounts and was attainted (Rot. Parl., v, p. 477) for none of these sources mentions Henry, lord Grey of Codnor. He was, however, with the Lancastrian forces at the second battle of St Albans (W. Worcester, Annales, p. 776).

page 231 note a Idus cancelled.

page 231 note b MS. Cantariam.

291 11 June. Edward actually arrived on 12 June (Scofield C. L., Reign of Edward IV, i, p. 138).

292 26 June.

293 The reference is not to a lord of Orkney but to one of the sons of John (Macdonald) earl of Ross, lord of the Isles, with whom Edward IV made the treaty of Westminster-Ardtornish early in 1462.

294 Sunday, 28 June, 1461.

295 This incident is noted also in Vitellius A. xvi in Chron. Land., p. 176, and Great Chronicle, p. 198. Some grants to him are recorded in Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1461–1467, pp. 52, 55, 57, 59.

296 The Chronicle of John Stone, p. 84, notes Edward's arrival at Canterbury on 14 August 1461. The remainder of the king's itinerary is traced by Ramsay J. H., Lancaster and York, ii, pp. 277–8, and Scofield C. L., Reign of Edward IV, i, pp. 197202, who gives his return to London as about 6 October.

297 John duke of Norfolk died 6 November 1461 (Complete Peerage, ix, p. 608).

page 232 note a misit … insurrexisse is underlined.

page 232 note b Centum partially erased.

298 21 December.

299 8 February 1462. For John Lenche of Droitwich and Doverdale, co. Worcester, see Nash T., Collections for a History of Worcestershire, i (London, 1781), p. 292. Having been attainted in the parliament of 1461 (Rot. Parl., v, p. 477), his lands were granted to Walter Scull on 1 February 1462 (Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1461–1467, p. 91).

300 20 February 1462.

301 24 February 1462.

302 26 February 1462. The earl of Oxford was aged fifty-three (Complete Peerage, x, pp. 236–8).

303 27 February. For Edward's itinerary, see Scofield C. L., Reign of Edward IV, i, p. 245.

304 This list should be compared with those printed in A Chronicle of Tewkesbury Abbey, ed. C. L. Kingsford in E.H.L., pp. 376–8; Paston Letters, ed. J. Gairdner, v, pp. 104–5; Stow , Annales, p. 424; Warkworth 's Chronicle, ed. J. O. Halliwell (Camden Society, Original Series, London, 1839), pp. 1819.

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