Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-684899dbb8-67wsf Total loading time: 0.316 Render date: 2022-05-29T05:47:44.395Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true }

Freedom to move: Arctic caterpillar (Lepidoptera) growth rate increases with access to new willows (Salicaceae)

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  29 April 2016

Christopher J. Greyson-Gaito*
Affiliation:
Department of Zoology and the Biodiversity Research Centre, University of British Columbia, University Blvd, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4, Canada Department of Geography and the Biodiversity Research Centre, University of British Columbia, 1984 West Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z2, Canada
Matthew A. Barbour
Affiliation:
Department of Zoology and the Biodiversity Research Centre, University of British Columbia, University Blvd, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4, Canada
Mariano A. Rodriguez-Cabal
Affiliation:
Department of Zoology and the Biodiversity Research Centre, University of British Columbia, University Blvd, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4, Canada Grupo de Ecologia de Invasiones, Instituto de Investigaciones en Biodiversidad y Medioambiente - Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Universidad Nacional del Comahue-Av. De los Pioneros, Bariloche Rio Negro, CP 8400, Argentina
Gregory M. Crutsinger
Affiliation:
Department of Zoology and the Biodiversity Research Centre, University of British Columbia, University Blvd, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4, Canada
Gregory H.R. Henry
Affiliation:
Department of Geography and the Biodiversity Research Centre, University of British Columbia, 1984 West Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z2, Canada
*
1Corresponding author (e-mail: chrisgg@alumni.ubc.ca).

Abstract

Movement between host plants during the growing season is a common behaviour among insect herbivores, although the mechanisms promoting these movements are poorly understood for many systems. Two possible reasons why insect herbivores relocate include compensating for host plant quantity and/or quality changes and the avoidance of natural enemies. The Arctic caterpillar (Gynaephora groenlandica (Wocke); Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) moves several metres each day, feeds on its patchily distributed host plant, Arctic willow (Salix arctica Pallas; Salicaceae), and has two main natural enemies, the parasitoids Exorista thula Wood (Diptera: Tachinidae) and Hyposoter diechmanni (Nielsen) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). We physically moved caterpillars between Arctic willows and restricted other caterpillar individuals each to a single willow throughout the active period of Arctic caterpillars. We found that growth rate, herbivory rate, and the proportion of available leaf fascicles eaten were higher for experimentally moved caterpillars. Parasitoid abundances were low and did not differ between experimentally moved and stationary caterpillars. Taken together, our study addresses the bottom–up and top–down controls on insect herbivore movement during the short duration of the growing season in the Arctic. Our results suggest that caterpillars are likely moving to new willow shrubs to access high quality resources.

Type
Behaviour & Ecology
Copyright
© Entomological Society of Canada 2016 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

Footnotes

Subject Editor: Chris Schmidt

References

Abràmoff, M.D., Magalhães, P.J., and Ram, S.J. 2004. Image processing with ImageJ. Biophotonics International, 11: 3642.Google Scholar
Agrawal, A.A. 1999. Induced responses to herbivory in wild radish: effects on several herbivores and plant fitness. Ecology, 80: 17131723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barrio, I.C., Schmidt, B.C., Cannings, S., and Hik, D.S. 2013. First records of the Arctic moth Gynaephora groenlandica (Wocke) south of the Arctic Circle: a new alpine subspecies. Arctic, 66: 429434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berg, T.B. 2003. Catechin content and consumption ratio of the collared lemming. Oecologia, 135: 242249.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Charnov, E.L. 1976. Optimal foraging, the marginal value theorem. Theoretical Population Biology, 9: 129136.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cornelissen, J.H.C., Lavorel, S., Garnier, E., Díaz, S., Buchmann, N., Gurvich, D.E., et al. 2003. A handbook of protocols for standardised and easy measurement of plant functional traits worldwide. Australian Journal of Botany, 51: 335380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cronin, J.T. 2003. Movement and spatial population structure of a prairie planthopper. Ecology, 84: 11791188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cruz-Rivera, E. and Hay, M.E. 2001. Macroalgal traits and the feeding and fitness of an herbivorous amphipod: the roles of selectivity, mixing, and compensation. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 218: 249266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Denno, R.F., Gratton, C., Peterson, M.A., Langellotto, G.A., Finke, D.L., and Huberty, A.F. 2002. Bottom-up forces mediate natural-enemy impact in a phytophagous insect community. Ecology, 83: 14431458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dethier, V.G. 1989. Patterns of locomotion of polyphagous arctiid caterpillars in relation to foraging. Ecological Entomology, 14: 375386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ellison, G.N. and Gotelli, N.J. 2004. A primer of ecological statistics. Sinauer, Sunderland, Massachusetts, United States of America.Google Scholar
Finidori-Logli, V., Bagnères, A.-G., and Clément, J.-L. 1996. Role of plant volatiles in the search for a host by parasitoid Diglyphus isaea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Journal of Chemical Ecology, 22: 541558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flores, L., Larrañaga, A., and Elosegi, A. 2014. Compensatory feeding of a stream detritivore alleviates the effects of poor food quality when enough food is supplied. Freshwater Science, 33: 134141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greeney, H.F., Dyer, L.A., and Smilanich, A.M. 2012. Feeding by lepidopteran larvae is dangerous: a review of caterpillars’ chemical, physiological, morphological, and behavioral defenses against natural enemies. Invertebrate Survival Journal, 9: 734.Google Scholar
Greyson-Gaito, C.J., Barbour, M.A., Rodriguez-Cabal, M.A., Crutsinger, G.M., and Henry, G.H.R. 2015. Effect of movement between Salix arctica individuals on Gynaephora groenlandica caterpillar growth rates at Alexandra Fiord, Nunavut, Canada, 2013 [data file and metadata]. Available from https://www.polardata.ca/pdcsearch/PDCSearch.jsp?doi_id=12515 [accessed 19 March 2016].Google Scholar
Gruner, D.S. 2004. Attenuation of top-down and bottom-up forces in a complex terrestrial community. Ecology, 85: 30103022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gutbrodt, B., Dorn, S., Unsicker, S.B., and Mody, K. 2012. Species-specific responses of herbivores to within-plant and environmentally mediated between-plant variability in plant chemistry. Chemoecology, 22: 101111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heinrich, B. 1979. Foraging strategies of caterpillars. Oecologia, 42: 325337.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Henry, G.H.R., Freedman, B., and Svoboda, J. 1986. Vegetated areas and muskox populations in east-central Ellesmere Island. Arctic, 39: 7881.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hulten, E. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, United States of America.Google Scholar
Jackman, S. 2015. pscl: classes and methods for R developed in the Political Science Computational Laboratory, Stanford University. R package version 1.4.9. Department of Political Science, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America.Google Scholar
Johns, R., Ozaki, K., and Tobita, H. 2012. Dietary mixing within the crown of a deciduous conifer enhances the fitness of a specialist sawfly. Animal Behaviour, 84: 13931400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jones, M.H., MacDonald, S.E., and Henry, G.H.R. 1999. Sex- and habitat-specific responses of a high Arctic willow, Salix arctica, to experimental climate change. Oikos, 87: 129138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Karban, R., Karban, C., Huntzinger, M., Pearse, I., and Crutsinger, G. 2010. Diet mixing enhances the performance of a generalist caterpillar, Platyprepia virginalis . Ecological Entomology, 35: 9299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Karban, R. and Myers, J.H. 1989. Induced plant responses to herbivory. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 20: 331348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kessler, A. 2001. Defensive function of herbivore-induced plant volatile emissions in nature. Science, 291: 21412144.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kevan, P.G. and Kukal, O. 1993. Corrigendum: a balanced life table for Gynaephora groenlandica (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), a long-lived high Arctic insect, and implications for the stability of its populations. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 71: 16991701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kukal, O. 1995. Winter mortality and the function of larval hibernacula during the 14-year life cycle of an Arctic moth, Gynaephora groenlandica . Canadian Journal of Zoology, 73: 657662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kukal, O. and Kevan, P.G. 1987. The influence of parasitism on the life history of a High Arctic insect, Gynaephora groenlandica (Wöcke) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 65: 156163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lorch, P.D., Sword, G.A., Gwynne, D.T., and Anderson, G.L. 2005. Radiotelemetry reveals differences in individual movement patterns between outbreak and non-outbreak mormon cricket populations. Ecological Entomology, 30: 548555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Loxdale, H.D. and Lushai, G. 1999. Slaves of the environment: the movement of herbivorous insects in relation to their ecology and genotype. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 354: 14791495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mody, K., Unsicker, S.B., and Linsenmair, K.E. 2007. Fitness related diet-mixing by intraspecific host-plant-switching of specialist insect herbivores. Ecology, 88: 10121020.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morehead, S.A. and Feener, D.H. 2000. Visual and chemical cues used in host location and acceptance by a Dipteran parasitoid. Journal of Insect Behavior, 13: 613625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morewood, D.W. 1999. Temperature/development relationships and life history strategies of Arctic Gynaephora species (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) and their insect parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae and Diptera: Tachinidae), with reference to predicted global warming. Ph.D. dissertation University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. Available from http://www.nlc-bnc.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk2/ftp02/NQ37356.pdf [accessed 24 March 2016].Google Scholar
Morewood, D.W. and Ring, R.A. 1998. Revision of the life history of the High Arctic moth Gynaephora groenlandica (Wöcke) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 76: 13711381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Muc, M., Freedman, B., and Svoboda, J. 1989. Vascular plant communities of a polar oasis at Alexandra Fiord (79 N), Ellesmere Island, Canada. Canadian Journal of Botany, 67: 11261136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nykänen, H. and Koricheva, J. 2004. Damage-induced changes in woody plants and their effects on insect herbivore performance: a meta-analysis. Oikos, 104: 247268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Palo, R.T. 1984. Distribution of birch (Betula spp.), willow (Salix spp.), and poplar (Populus spp.) secondary metabolites and their potential role as chemical defense against herbivores. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 10: 499520.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pearse, I.S., Hughes, K., Shiojiri, K., Ishizaki, S., and Karban, R. 2013. Interplant volatile signaling in willows: revisiting the original talking trees. Oecologia, 172: 869875.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Puckett, R.T., Calixto, A., Barr, C.L., and Harris, M. 2007. Sticky traps for monitoring Pseudacteon parasitoids of Solenopsis fire ants. Environmental Entomology, 36: 584588.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
R Core Team. 2012. R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. R program version 3.2.4. Available from http://www.R-project.org [accessed 19 March 2016].Google Scholar
Rodriguez-Cabal, M.A., Barrios-Garcia, M.N., Amico, G.C., Aizen, M.A., and Sanders, N.J. 2013. Node-by-node disassembly of a mutualistic network driven by species introductions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110: 1650316507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sime, K.R. 2005. The natural history of the parasitic wasp Trogus pennator (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae): host-finding behaviour and a possible host countermeasure. Journal of Natural History, 39: 13671380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Singer, M. and Stireman, J. 2001. How foraging tactics determine host-plant use by a polyphagous caterpillar. Oecologia, 129: 98105.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Steltzer, H., Hufbauer, R.A., Welker, J.M., Casalis, M., Sullivan, P.F., and Chimner, R. 2008. Frequent sexual reproduction and high intraspecific variation in Salix arctica: implications for a terrestrial feedback to climate change in the High Arctic. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113: 111, (G3S10).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Strathdee, A.T. and Bale, J.S. 1998. Life on the edge: insect ecology in Arctic environments. Annual Review of Entomology, 43: 85106.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Van Dam, N.M, Hadwich, K., and Baldwin, I.T. 2000. Induced responses in Nicotiana attenuata affect behavior and growth of the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta . Oecologia, 122: 371379.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Várkonyi, G. and Roslin, T. 2013. Freezing cold yet diverse: dissecting a High-Arctic parasitoid community associated with Lepidoptera hosts. The Canadian Entomologist, 145: 193218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Waldbauer, G.P. 1968. The consumption & utilisation of food by insects. Advances in Insect Physiology, 5: 229288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wickham, H. 2009. ggplot2: elegant graphics for data analysis. Springer, New York, New York, United States of America. http://ggplot2.org/book [accessed 19 March 2016].Google Scholar
Wilson, J.W. 1964. Annual growth of Salix arctica in the High-Arctic. Annals of Botany, 28: 7176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
5
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Freedom to move: Arctic caterpillar (Lepidoptera) growth rate increases with access to new willows (Salicaceae)
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Freedom to move: Arctic caterpillar (Lepidoptera) growth rate increases with access to new willows (Salicaceae)
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Freedom to move: Arctic caterpillar (Lepidoptera) growth rate increases with access to new willows (Salicaceae)
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *